XDM3107M Project Proposal
Project Title: ADDICTED ADDICTION
Student Name: SUM, Pak Yin (Nicholas)
List of Content
List of content
List of figures
Section 1 – The Project
1.2 Design issue
Society’s Preception of Addiction
1.3 Content Diagrama
Section 2 – Project Background
2.1 Type and Purpose
2.3.1 What Causes Addiction
2.3.2 The Addiction Cycle
2.3.3 Type of Addiction
2.3.4 Addiction Treatment
2.3.5 The Future Addiction
2.4 Audience analysis
Addict has been treated as a heretic in our society and sever their interactions with society.. But, what causes addiction? In general public’s mind: answer was very easy, chemical hooks causes addiction. You smoke and you will get addicted. However, things didn’t go that way. Diamorphine is an anodyne medicine which used by hospital for general public, Diamorphine is as same as Heroin. But they didn’t get in addict after they leave hospital.
Dr Bruce K. Alexander has found out that addiction is more a social problem than an individual problem. When socially integrated societies are fragmented by internal or external forces, addiction of all sorts increases dramatically, becoming almost universal in extremely fragmented societies.
In this Exhibition, we are aimed to import new idea and understanding of addiction, and change their perception of addict. Publicize a different angle treatment to general public. The exhibition will provide conceptual information to our audience. The exhibition is welcome for public and mainly focusing adult with post secondary educated. Public may interested in this exhibition if they have previa experience.
1.2 Design issue
Society’s Perception of Addiction
A new study by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health shows that people’s attitudes toward drug addicts are clearly more likely than those with mental illness.
An Internet-based national survey compares attitudes towards stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and support for drug addiction and mental illness. Research data shows that most people hold more negative views on drug addicts.
The discriminatory practices of addicts are more skeptical about the impact of treatment and are more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping drug addicts. The vast majority of respondents are reluctant to let drug addicts marry or work closely with their families. In addition, they are more willing to accept drugs
Research Director Colleen L. Barry, Associate Professor of the Department of Health Policy and Management at the School of Public Health, claims:
“Although drug addiction and mental illness are both chronic and treatable health conditions, the American public is more likely to regard addiction as a moral failure rather than a medical condition. In recent years, an open debate about a person’s struggle with mental illness has occurred. Change. It is more socially acceptable. But with addiction, you will feel that the addict is a bad person or a weak person, especially because many drugs are illegal.”1
The problem with drug abuse is that it is often a symptom of mental illness. People who are addicted to drugs are twice as likely to have mood and anxiety as the general population. Past research has shown that addiction, whether drugs or alcohol, can significantly alter a person’s brain, causing compulsive behavior and weakening one’s self-control. People can and do succeed in overcoming addiction.
Expanding public education to change our negative perceptions and attitudes about addiction is the first step. It is important to understand that addiction affects people and socioeconomic groups of all ages. Aware that this growing problem may help more addicts get the support and treatment they need to get started.
1.3 CONTENT DIAGRAM
2.1 TYPE + PURPOSE:
This exhibition titled as “ADDICTED ADDICTION”, the purpose of this exhibition to impart knowledge and new understanding of addiction. Addiction problem is more a social problem than an individual problem. Holding an exhibition is a effective way to send a message to general public, audience can feel and explore the content by their interest. Thereby we can change their opinion, attitude and perception in a soft way.
The exhibition will be mainly exhibiting conceptual idea than material display. By designing different zones, interactive and display. Audience can understand addiction from different angle such as biology, psychology and sociology.
TED is a non-profit organization dedicated to the dissemination of ideas. Starting in 1984, TED is a global community, welcoming people from every discipline and culture who seek a deeper understanding of the world. We believe passionately in the power of ideas to change attitudes, lives and, ultimately, the world.
As a client of this exhibition TED would support our information and talkers. There are 62 talks from TED available to hold in this exhibition. Therefore, we can attract audience to attend our exhibition more than once. Besides the talk, audience can talk to expert face to face. Thereby, they can have a more memorable experience from this exhibition.
Our content will focus on Biology, Psychology and Sociology of Addiction. By analyzing addiction from different angel to find out a better solution of addiction treatment. Addiction is a disorder of the brain’s reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and occurs over time from chronically high levels of exposure to an addictive stimulus (eg, eating food, the use of cocaine, engagement in sexual activity, participation in high- Thrill cultural activities such as gambling, etc.).
2.3.1 What Causes Addiction
In general public, this is a easy question. ” Chemical hooks cause addiction.” But there was a problem found form medical community. If you, for example break your leg, you will be taken to a hospital and you will be given loads of diamorphine for weeks or even months. Diamorphine is Heroin. It is much stronger heroin than any addict can get on the street because it is not contaminated by all stuff drug dealers dilute it with. There are thousand of them being given loads of deluxe heroin in hospital right now. So at least some of them should become addicts? But it doesn’t happen. Why is that?
Our current theory of addiction comes in part from a series of experiments that were carried out earlier in 20th century. The experiment is simple: Take a Rat and put it in a cage with two water bottles. One is just water, the other is water mixed with heroin or cocaine. Almost every time of this experiment, the rat will become obsessed with the drugged water and keep coming back for more and more, until it kills itself. This experiment had been mostly used for chemical hooks testing before 1970. Until Bruce Alexander a professor of psychology, noticed something odd about this experiment: the rat is put in the cage all alone. It has nothing to do but take the drugs. So he built Rat Park which is basically a haven for rats. It is a lush cage where the rats would have colored balls, tunnels to scamper down, plenty of friends to play with, and they could have loads of sex, everything a rat could want. And they would have the drugged water and the normal water bottles. The fascinating thing is: in Rat Park, rat hardly ever use the drugged water, none of them ever use it compulsively and overdose.
However it is not only a rat case. In the Vietnam War, 20% of American troops in Vietnam were using a lot of heroin. People back home were really panicked, because they thought there would be hundreds or thousands of junkies on the streets of the US when the war was over. But a study followed the soldiers home and found something stirling. They didn’t go to rehal or go into withdrawal, 95% of them just stopped after they got home. And it makes perfect sense with Alexander’s theory, because if you are put into a horrific jungle in a foreign country where you don’t want to be, doing heroin is a great way to spend your time. But if you go back to your nice home with your friends and your family, it’s the equivalent of being taken out of that first cage and put into a human Rat Park.
Addiction is not the chemical, it’s our cage. If we don’t have enough happiness and excitement in our life, we will be easy addicted. Happiness and excitement come from a Brain cells called “Dopamine”. Dopamine is a molecule that our body produces naturally, and it’s the substance that’s behind our dreams and biggest secrets. Dopamine means lust, love, infidelity, motivation, attention, femininity, learning, and addiction.
When we have too little dopamine, we tend to feel bored, unmotivated, or depressed. It’s also possible to experience anhedonia, which makes it difficult to feel and enjoy pleasure. Some common problems that are characterized by low levels of dopamine are depression, social phobia, ADHD, and Parkinson’s Disease, which is why the medication generally prescribed for these problems increases the amount of dopamine in the brain. These medications help to increase dopamine in small doses, as it can become addictive. However dopamine per se cannot lead to an addiction.
For example, it would be difficult to become addicted to curiosity. Just as when we are curious about something, the brain releases a lot of dopamine. But the body can eliminate it at a constant rate, keeping a balance. It also depends a lot on the characteristics of each person and how they can control the impulses.
Dopamine serves to maintain motivation and promote learning. It also allows us to fall in love, get excited and enjoy when we see a beautiful sunset, or when we see that car that we both want. The small pleasures are controlled by dopamine and who wants to give them up? Dopamine is not bad, but as with everything, a balance is needed. We just can not stay all the way to the top of the dopamine, because that would end up generating an addiction. However, dopamine alone does not cause addiction. They are compulsive behaviors looking for that peak of dopamine which leads to an addiction.
We just can’t produce large amounts of dopamine and stay there because we would end up generating an addiction. However, dopamine alone does not cause addiction. They are compulsive behaviors looking for that peak of dopamine which leads to an addiction.
2.3.2 The Addiction Cycle
Like many chronic diseases, addiction is not a condition that develops overnight. In fact, addiction is well-known for developing slowly and perhaps even unnoticed over time. Most models that illustrate the cycle of addiction show it as being comprised of four stages: Dependence, Addiction, Withdrawal and Relapse.
Users are increasingly likely to develop so-called dependencies. This simply means that if there is no substance, the user’s body or brain will no longer function properly. However, dependence is not always considered addictive.
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), there are many signals to look at when you judging addiction. For example:
Overuse of the substance
Regular cravings for the substance
Inability to stop using the substance
Relationship problems stemming from substance use
Slacking on daily responsibilities as a result of substance use
Continued use of the substance despite its negative impact on health
Withdrawal develops as a result of the brain’s chemicals scales being tipped to accommodate the presence of a substance in the user’s system. As previously mentioned, withdrawal compromises the Dopamine comes from Specify Excitement decrease. User will experience a variety of symptoms ranging from mild discomfort to unbearable misery during any attempt at stopping the specify enjoyment.
In the case of addiction, relapse usually happens in response to one of two situations: either the user cannot handle the withdrawal symptoms during abstinence or falls back into substance use as the result of a trigger.
As psychologists have found, all gamblers also know that the occasional rewards are more effective than the fully predictable returns, and that they can strengthen a particular behavior.
In 1905s, a food behavior experiment, clearly verifying this point. The rats walked through a passage and obtained food as a reward. One group will receive a food reward each time they walk through the passage. The other group received only about 30% of the rewards. Both groups learned that there was a reward after running through the passage. Then the food prizes of both groups were cancelled, but they still ran through the passage to find food. At this time you expect the rat won’t give up immediately. In subsequent trials, although the rats were disappointed with the previous results, they continued to walk through the passage, and in fact they did the same. Now, the interesting part comes, and only 30% of the animal groups that receive the rewards continue to have longer channel behaviors, far more than the group that gets rewards each time (Figure 2 – 2). They try for a long time. Unscheduled rewards are more effective than regular rewards, and the search behavior is more determined. We seem to want more or less irregular rewards. More than certain, regular rewards.
This has a very important meaning for our daily life. When we want to shape the behavior of a pet, like a dog pleading for food on the table, try to restrain yourself, but occasionally give in. Although you tell yourself, don’t do this, you think you are doing very well, but in fact you make it harder for the dog to stop begging. It is easy to think of similar plots about children, students, etc. This should allow us to gain insight into our behavior. This is why that some people will be so difficult to quit gambling.
2.3.3 Type of Addiction
2.3.4 Addiction Treatment
Over 40 years ago, US President Richard Nixon declared drug abuse is a public enemy, and starting an unprecedented global campaign, “The War on Drugs”. It is a huge failure, with devastating unintended consequences. It negatively affected the lives of millions of people. Strategy of the War on Drugs is “No Drugs, No Problems”. So almost all of the efforts in the last few decades have been focused on eradicating the supply of drugs and incarcerating drug traffickers. But this ignores the most fundamental of market forces, “Supply and demand”.
The drugs market in not price sensitive.Drugs will be consumed no matter what they cost. So the effect is to encourage production of more drugs and recruitment of more traffickers, which increases availability. As the result, people start making drugs in their home. After this huge failure, people learn from mistake. In 1980, Switzerland opened free heroin maintenance centers, where addicts would be treated and stabilized there. People would be given free heroin and have access to safe injection rooms showers beds and medical subversion. The results were a sharp drop drug related crime and two-third of the people in the centers got a regular jobs because now they could focus on getting better instead of financing their addiction.
Stress can lead us to addiction. Dr. Mary Jeanne Kreek of Rockefeller University in New York City is investigating the stress and recurrence of New York addicts. She said: “In the period of about six months, they (addicts) can safely walk pass the streets where they used to buy drugs, and do not give in to the impulse of medication. Suddenly, they relapsed when we asked them why, they always tell us the answer like “Work is very bad” or “Lover left me”. Many studies have shown that stress can contribute to the recurrence of drug use, even after long-term bans. It may also exacerbate the use of drugs by active drug addicts and trigger or aggravate other mental disorders such as anxiety and depression, which may then lead to increased drug use. Addicts are more susceptible to stress and often suffer from a lot of stress. For example, abstinence or avoidance of drugs can be considered a stressful behavior. If pressure is added, it may lead to excessive stress, which may lead to recurrence of drug use. The act of using drugs alone may also bring pressure.
In conclusion, to treat with addiction in not about how hard you push the policy and bring them pressure. Is about how you community with the addict. To let them feel confidence and connected to the society is the best way to stay away from addiction.
2.3.5 The Future Addiction
Interested in social issue
Often use social media
Sensitive to deep content
Willing to do action for society
Have social experience
Enjoy discussing sensitive topics
We often hear people say, “This society is sick!” However, this society has not only ill, but also beyond our understanding. This exhibition is mainly talking about sensitive content. Audiences are supposed to be post secondary educated, because it is hard to understand the content if you have not enough sense in social issue. Audience will need to think though the exhibition, a critical logic will help audience to go deeper to the exhibition content. Related experience will resonance to audience, therefore our target audience are mainly social experienced.
This exhibition will be facing to mainly local audience as every city has their own city addiction problem, as same as ours. By focusing on local audience, we can make the exhibition localization and more understandable for Hong Kong people. Hong Kong is an international city, so the addiction case of Hong Kong is similar to modren city like London, New York, Tokyo. Therefore tourists are also welcomed.