When mice after the injection SWNTPTX, Taxol, or PEG-PTX.

When it comes to fighting
cancer, the goal is to deliver high doses of drug molecules to

the tumor for maximum
efficiency while the organs themselves do not receive any

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byproduct. To achieve
this, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are injected and

they can effectively
shuttle certain biomolecules into cells directly. They are able to

shuttle drugs, peptides,
proteins, plasmid DNA, and RNA using endocytosis. The

intrinsic near-IR (NIR)
light absorption property has been used to destroy cancer cells in

vitro and NIR
photoluminescence has been used for imaging and probing.

 

Methods and Materials

The experiment began with
the functionalization of SWNTs with phospholipid-branched

polyethylene glycol. Next
is the paclitaxel (PTX) conjugation. PTX was modified by

succinic anhydride and
carboxyl acid was added on the molecule. After the SWNT-PTX

was purified it was
filtrated through MWCO filters and extensive washing the remove

unconjugated PTX. Cell
toxicity assay followed. Breast cell cancer was cultured in

standard medium. It was
treated in PEGylated PTX (PEG-PTX) concentrations, SWNTPTX

concentrations, and Taxol
for 3 days. Cell viability was measure afterwards. Next

was animal model and
treatment. Mice were used for treatment for tumor volume. Tumor

slice staining and imaging
was next. Tumor slices were cut after frozen in OCT medium

and stained with
fluorescent terminal. The Raman mapping image of tumor slices was

injected with SWNT-PTX
into mice. To obtain a Raman image, the SWNT G-band

Raman intensity was
plotted on X and Y positions across the liver slice. Next were

Pharmacokinetics and
biodistribution studies. Blood circulation was measured by

drawing 10 micro liters
from the vein of the tumor-free mice after the injection SWNTPTX,

Taxol, or PEG-PTX. The
samples of blood were dissolved in lysis buffer with brief

sonication. The Raman
method was used to measure the concentration of SWNTs in the

blood. Necropsy, blood
chemistry, and histology study followed. Then a statistical

analysis was done.

Results and Discussion

The results showed that
there were significant differences of the blood biodistribution of

the three formulation of
PTX. SWNT-PTX showed noticeable PTX activity in the blood

within 2 hours of
injection. Whereas PTX levels in the blood was much lower in the Taxol

and PEG-PTX concentration.
Most importantly, SWNT-PTX afforded a much higher PTX

uptake than Taxol and
PEG-PTX. This allows for higher drug delivery efficiency to the

tumor. This means that a
lower injected dose of the SWNT-PTX can be used for tumor

suppression. This will
lower toxic side effects to the healthy organs and tissues. After

investigating the
biodistribution and dissecting the mouse and investigating the tissue,

results come out the same
in regards to the SWNT-PTX.

 

Comments and Critics

 Strength and advantages:

Single-walled carbon
nanotubes (SWNT) delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) lowers tumor growth while
preventing high amounts of toxicity to the healthy organs. The key to the
success of the SWNT is the higher tumor suppression efficiency due to the
10-fold higher tumor uptake of PTX afforded by SWNT carriers. Both the PTX and
SWNT filter out of the body with no toxicity present in the body when evaluated
by biodistribution.

Weakness and
disadvantages:

Single-walled carbon
nanotubes (SWNT) have short lives. In addition, the high uptake of SWNT-PTX in
the Reticuloendothelial System (RES) affects certain organs such as the liver
and spleen. These affects could be harmful over a long period of time. While
PTX filters out of the body quite quickly, as found in the feces and urine of
the rats tested,

Single-walled carbon
nanotubes (SWNT) seem to have limited weaknesses. I furthered my research
beyond this article (as cited) and could find nearly no down side to this
method of drug delivery. The SWNT have short lives within the body, which would
be a major negative if they did not deliver enough of the drug in time.
However, they deliver the paclitaxel (PTX) drug within 2 hours. This seemed too
good to be true so I looked beyond the main article cited and found similar
research done with similar results (2 hours and 30 minutes). The main concern
when dealing with cancer and tumors is to deliver enough of the given drug
while causing little to no harm to the healthy organs, especially to the organs
that’s role is filtration, and needless to say that this method of drug
delivery does just that. SWNT-PTX that was taken up by the RES organs and was
dissociated via ester cleavage. There were large amounts of PTX that were found
in the feces and urine of the mice tested. Yet the SWNT remained for weeks and
even months. Perhaps while the SWNT “waits” to be filtered out of the body,
they could be of more use than just delivering the PTX, such as imaging. With
Raman and photoluminescence, valuable means of tracking and detecting to
further understand in vivo behavior and drug delivery efficacy is possible.

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