# Wave words) Wave phenomenon B The photo

Wave phenomenon A

Huygens’ Principle says that a wavefront is formed of
many individual wave sources that each interfere to produce a combined wave
line. As a wavefront approaches a single slit, the size of the slit relative to
the wavelength will determine the diffraction of the wave as it passes through
the slit. Maximum diffraction will occur if the slit closely matches the
wavelength as this will minimise the interference from overlapping waves and
allow the wave to spread out. If the slit doesn’t match the wavelength,
interference will mean that waves cancel each other out and reduce diffraction.

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(100 words)

The double slit experiment demonstrates constructive and
destructive interference when waves diffract through two slits. If a wavefront
approaches and wave sources pass through the slits, the wave sources will
diffract depending on the wavelength/slit ratio and spread out, though as the
wave-fronts from the two slits meet and interfere they will produce areas of
increased or decreased energy. Where the phase difference between the two waves
leads to constructive interference, the wave will amplify, while if the overlap
leads to destructive interference, the wave will cancel out. In between will be
areas of moderate interference. (96 words)

Wave phenomenon B

The photo on the left shows a filter polarising sunlight
by blocking or absorbing light waves that do not align with the filter, and
allowing other waves that do to pass through. To improve the image quality, a
filter is used to reduce excessive brightness or glare by polarising some waves
in the transverse direction, where it can pass through the filter without such
intensity. The photo on the right without a filter shows the glare caused by
light waves reflecting from the water into the camera lens, amplifying the
ambient brightness. (92 words)

Wave phenomenon C

Sound waves transport energy through a medium, so when a
speaker plays a sound at the resonant frequency of the wine glass, the glass will
oscillate at that frequency, with the sound waves pushing against the molecules
in the glass. As the frequency increases, the glass will vibrate more and more
until the oscillation causes the glass molecules to break down, and the glass
will shatter. The volume of the sound will also break down the glass as the
amplitude of the wave increases. The other glasses remain intact as they have
different resonant frequencies. (95 words)

Wave phenomenon D

The dark lines in the spectrum of sunlight represent the
materials that absorbed photons from the sunlight and therefore the energy of
that wavelength was absorbed by electrons in such material in order to move up
energy levels. The absorption spectrum represents electrons moving down energy
levels and releasing photons, the colour of which depends on the material
itself and its temperature. Comparing the absorption spectrum with colours of
elements in the lab can be used to determine the materials that the photons
travelled from. Likewise, studying the absorption spectrum of a distant star
can reveal information about the elements present in the star and the velocity
of the star from blue-shift and red-shift wavelength patterns. (116 words)

Wave phenomenon E

The diagram shows data collected from a Geiger counter
and the distances between different readings from the gamma source. The
relationship between the data represents the inverse square law; intensity is
inversely proportional to the distance squared.

(The difference can be attributed to the background

This relationship can be used to determine unknown
intensities of radiation or distances when other information is available, and
for gamma rays this is useful to understand how the wave energy is distributed
over wide areas, since wave energy is proportional to amplitude squared. (98
words)

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