TYPES OF RESEARCH
1. SURVEY RESEARCH:
In survey research, the researcher selects a sample of respondents from a
population and administers a standardized questionnaire to them. The
questionnaire, or survey, can be a written document that is completed by the
person being surveyed, an online questionnaire, a face-to-face interview, or a
telephone interview. Using surveys, it is possible to collect data from large or
QUESTION: How satisfied are you with our service?
? Extremely Unsatisfied
? Extremely satisfied
2. COORELATION RESEARCH:
This is kind of a silly example, but it’s an example of how you naturally
correlate one event with another. A correlation is simply defined as a relationship
between two variables. The whole purpose of using correlations in research is to
figure out which variables are connected. This simple definition is the basis of
several statistical tests that result in a correlation coefficient, defined as a
numerical representation of the strength and direction of a relationship.
QUESTION: What is the relationship between study time and exam scores
amongst university students?
o Dependent variable: Exam scores
o Independent variable: Study time
o Group: University students
3. COMPARATIVE RESEARCH:
Comparative research questions aim to examine the differences between two
or more groups on one or more dependent variables (although often just a single
dependent variable). Such questions typically start by asking “What is the
difference in?” a particular dependent between two or more groups.
QUESTION: What is the difference in the weekly photo uploads on Facebook
between British male
and female university students?
Dependent variable: Weekly photo uploads on Facebook
Groups: 1. Male, British university students
2. Female, British university students
4. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH:
The word experimental research has a range of definitions. In the strict sense,
experimental research is what we call a true experiment. This is an experiment
where the researcher manipulates one variable, and control/randomizes the rest
of the variables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly
assigned between the groups, and the researcher only tests one effect at a time.
It is also important to know what variable(s) you want to test and measure. A very
wide definition of experimental research, or a quasi-experiment, is research
where the scientist actively influences something to observe the consequences.
Most experiments tend to fall in between the strict and the wide definition.
QUESTION: How does the amount of sunlight affect how tall a plant grows?
5. NARRATIVE RESEARCH:
Narrative research is a term that subsumes a group of approaches that in turn
rely on the written or spoken words or visual representation of individuals. These
approaches typically focus on the lives of individuals as told through their own
stories. The emphasis in such approaches is on the story, typically both what and
how is narrated. Narrative research can be considered both a research method in
itself but also the phenomenon under study. Narrative methods can be
considered “real world measures” that are appropriate when “real life
problems” are investigated.
QUESTION: A study of the experiences of a high school track star who has
been moved on to a championship-winning university track team.
6. ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH:
Ethnography is a qualitative research study looking at the social interaction of
users in each environment. This research provides an in-depth insight into the
user’s views and actions along with the sights and sounds they encounter during
their day. It provides the researcher with an understanding of how those users
see the world and how they interact with everything around them. Ethnography
methods include direct observation, diary studies, video recordings,
photography and artefact analysis such as devices that a person uses throughout
the day. Observations can be made anywhere from the user’s workplace, their
home or while they are out with family and friends. The length of the studies can
vary depending on the research that is being conducted. They can range from a
couple of hours of observation, to studies that last several months.
QUESTION: What is working culture of manager in multinational company?
TYPES OF RESEARCH