Topic in the ring but also outside the

Topic : Sport

The sportman I appreciate the most is the late Muhammed Ali , born Cassuis Clay. He was born on January 1942 in Louisville Kentucky in the USA . He attended the Louisville Central Highschool.

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He experienced racial discrimination at an early age growing up in the south of the USA. At the age of 12 , his discovered his talent for boxing ,St he started his amateur career in 1954.

Ali went on to win the 1956 golden gloves tournament for novices and three years later he also won the national golden gloves championship as well as the amateur athletics union`national title for the light heavyweight division.

Very quickly Ali became an imposing personality in the ring, but he was also known for his lightning speed and fancy footwork.

After his olympic victory in 1960 he become an American hero, and turned professional.

He was a boxer, an philanthropist, certainly boxing`s most celebrated athlete heavyweight champion.

The legendary boxer´´s beliefs were very important to him, he did not only fight in the ring but also outside the ring.

He converted in the nation of Islam in 1960´s after been draft tenseinto the US military he refused to fight in the Vietnam war in 1967, calling to mind his religious beliefs prevent him from fighting and killing innocent people. The boxer was given the name Muhammed Ali according to him “ Cassuis Clay“ was a slave name which he did not want to carry no more.

He was arrested for committing a crime and immediately stripped of his boxing licence and world title.The US Department of Justice pursued a legal case against him. Hee was found guilty of violating selective service laws.

In June 1967, he was sentenced to five years in prison, but remained free while appealing his conviction.

Ali´s religious and political beliefs were the reason why he was sentenced to five years prison because he refused to fight in the Vietnam war. Unfortunately he missed more than three years of his professional career.In 1970, he finally returned to the ring and the US supreme court.
overturned the conviction in June 1971.

Lot of Ali´s Friends and family members said that charity and happiness for those who surrounded him was one of the most important things in his life.

Universally regarded as one of the greatest athlete of the 20th century, he won the world heavyweight boxing championship in 1964. He had a career record of 56 wins fives losses and 37 knockouts.

After retirement from boxing, he devoted much of his time to philanthropy, in 1996, he lit the olympic cauldron at the summer olympic games in Atlanta which was a very emotional moment in olympic sport history.

In addition to his “make a wish foundation”,` he traveled to lot of countries to help out those in need because of his commitment in developing ‘nations’ , in 1998 he was chosen to be an united nations messenger of peace.

In 2005, Ali received the presidential Medal of Freedom from President George W. Bush , https://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-9181165after president Obama` inauguration he also received another award “ the presidential award from the NAACP “ for his public service efforts

In 2005, he opened the “ Muhammed Ali center “ in his hometown of Louisville Kentucky.On this occasion he said“ I am an ordinary man who worked hard to develop the talent I was given , I wanted a place that would inspire people to be the best that they could be at whatever they choose to do , and encourage them to be respectful of one another“.

Ali’s stature as an legend continues to grow even after his deathPlagiarism. https://www.biography.com/people/muhammad-ali-9181165He is not only celebrated for his amazing athletics skills but also for his commitment to speak his mind and his courage to challenge the status quo.

In 1984, Ali announced that he had parkinson`s disease. Despite his parkinson`s disease, he remained very active in public life, and most importantly he collected funds for the Muhammed Ali parkinson center in Phoenix, Arizona. He passed away on June 3 , 2016 during hospitalization in Phoenix Arizona. He was married several times and had nine children.

The most important criteria which makes a sportman great is to work hardto develop his talent
and to do all possible to be the best at whatever you choose to do.

My personal criteria could be wheneverSt I become a successful and wealthy sportman , I would help those in need and try to encourage and inspire young people to trust themselves and work hard to achieve success.

Topic: Should we allow animal testing for medicinal research?
Medical research is one of common thing that we always hear. Certain types of animals can stand in for human with some disease. The information we gain from these studies about how we’re the same and now we’re different benefits people and animals. From the other perspective, doing animals research, they think it will affect their food chain because they are being taken from their natural environment. Besides that, it will also threatening species of animals that have a high percentage of extinction. Thus, we must consider are animal should be for medical purpose?
The primary reason for using animals in medicinal research is animal models help ensure the effectiveness and safety of new treatments. Sabin (1995) stated, “Without animal research it would still be claiming thousands of lives each year”. These statement confirm that even though we are not using animals for medical research it would still clamming thousand lives of this creature in part of their life cycle. The effectiveness of animal in medical research using animals has long been a crucial part of science and has enabled our understanding of how we function to progress in leaps and bounds. Animal studies are always used alongside other types of research such as cell cultures, computer modelling and human clinical trials. By doing this we also ensure the safety in the medical research using animals. It is to ensure that the alternative test can accurately determine whether the treatment is dangerous or vice versa. All drugs should be tested on animal for safety before they can be used in human. It would be very difficult for researches to find willing volunteers who would be able to provide informed consent to been involved in testing a new drug that had not first been tested on animals. Animal experiments are not used to show that drugs are safe and effective in human being. Instead they used to help decide whether a particular drug should be tested on human or not. As stated by the pharmacologist William Dh Carey (2002) “We have 4 possible new drugs to cure HIV. Drug A killed all the rats, mice and dogs. Drug B killed all the dogs and rats. Drug C killed all the mice and rats. Drug D was taken by all the animals up to huge doses with no ill effect. An alternative, acceptable answer would be, none of those drugs because even drug D could cause damage to humans. That is true, which is why Drug D would be given as a single, very small dose to human volunteers under tightly controlled and regulated conditions”. That why using animal models for medicine research is the best way than human to help ensure the effectiveness and safety of the new treatments.

Next, animals testing should be allowed for the medical research because there is no adequate alternative to test on a living, whole body system except for using an animal as a lab test subjects for a medical purpose. Animals such as rat and mice are always use in a medical research because of how their body systems work. As we all know, living beings such as humans and animals have an extremely complex body system. At present, there is no computer models that can rival the complexity of human’s body. As stated by Dave Anderson (2015), “Some organs and processes (particularly the brain) go far beyond the ability of even our fastest and most powerful computers to model”. That why animals are mainly use as the subjects more than computer models. Medical research on the animals like chimpanzees and mice are really important because biologically, they share almost the same set of genes to humans, as chimpanzees share 99% of their DNA with humans, and mice are 98% genetically similar to humans”,(Animal Testing,2017). So, their bodies will react the same to a human being on a disease such as flu and also the treatments. Animals is also mainly use when there is a case that prevents the use of human subjects such as when testing a new drugs or medicines, cosmetics and health care product for any potential toxicity in it, these will prevent the use of a living human as volunteers and ensure the safety to the humans. Thus, animal testing should be allowed as they are the alternative subjects for the medical purposes.
Last but not least, to advance scientific understanding. Adding to scientific knowledge through basic biological research helps us understand how living things work, and apply that understanding for the benefit of both humans and animals. The study of animals is a vital part of this research process. Many basic cell processes are the same in all animals, and the bodies of animals are like humans in the way that they perform many vital functions such as breathing, digestion, movement, sight, hearing and reproduction. To treat disease, doctors and scientists must understand how the healthy body works. This, in turn, leads to an understanding of what happens to the body when we fall ill and how this can be put right.

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A great deal of the knowledge of the body’s anatomy and functions can be traced to scientific findings from animal research. Comparing different species and studying the differences and similarities between them is one way to gain insights. Even simple animals can be used to study complex biological systems such as the nervous or immune systems, which follow the same basic organisation and function in all animals. For example, much has been learnt about the function of neurons from studying the giant squid axon. Information from this sort of work can then be applied to higher animals and humans.

We must consider the animal should be for medical purpose or not. In medical, there are always have experiment and research for cure the diseases.One of their alternative ways by using animals to exchange the human as the models for experiment and research.The researchers need the living things to ensure the effectiveness and safety of new treatments.The purpose for using animals in medical research are an animal as model that can help ensure the effectiveness and safety of new treatments and there is no adequate alternative to test on a living, whole body system. Thus, we need animal as model to achieve the purpose. Thus, achievement for treatment of the human diseases also based on the animal testing and research for medical purposes.

References
Anderson, D. (2015, January 16). Top 10 Reasons Why Animal Testing is Necessary. Retrieved from HYPERLINK "https://www.listland.com/top-10-reasons-why-animal-testing-is-necessary/" https://www.listland.com/top-10-reasons-why-animal-testing-is-necessary/
Animal Testing – ProCon.org. (n.d.). Retrieved from HYPERLINK "https://animal-testing.procon.org/" https://animal-testing.procon.org/
Animal using experiment -Bbc.co.(n.d.). Retrieved from HYPERLINK "http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtml" http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/animals/using/experiments_1.shtmlShould Animals be used in research. Retrieved from HYPERLINK "https://www.yourgenome.org/debates/should-animals-be-used-in-research" https://www.yourgenome.org/debates/should-animals-be-used-in-research
HYPERLINK "https://www.ukessays.com/essays/medical/using-animals-in-medical-research.php" https://www.ukessays.com/essays/medical/using-animals-in-medical-research.php

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