Topic is the integrative approach to create, share

Topic Code: -EDUC9605
Topic: -Leading Knowledge
Management For Organisational
Learning
Assignment 1: -Explaining Concepts—–
(SECI)
Submitted to: –
Melinda Thambi
Submitted by:-Sabia Bhullar
Student Id: -2173949

Meaning of Knowledge Management
Knowledge management is the integrative
approach to create, share and managing the
information and knowledge of an
organisation to achieve the desirable
objectives by using optimum use of
knowledge.

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Types of Knowledge Management

KNOWLEDGE
MANAGEMENT
TACIT
KNOWLEDGE
EXPLICIT
KNOWLEDGE
DATA
INFORMATION
KNOWLEDGE

EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE: –
Explicit knowledge is very simple to communicate and
easy to store. It can be codified, verbalized and can be
transferred easily to others. The explicit type knowledge
can be expressed in the form of words and numbers to
be measured out in form of data. This type of
knowledge is easy to access and easy to used by anyone
in the organisation (Grant,1996; Hanson et al., 1999).

TACIT KNOWLEDGE: –
Polanyi first defined tacit knowledge in 1966. This type
of knowledge is very hard to define and store as it is
based on experience. It is invaluable source of
knowledge and ambiguous in nature, moreover, it can
sometimes lead to the overall development in an
organisation. However, it is not easy communicable as
explicit knowledge.

SECI stands for
SOCIALIZATION
EXTERNALIZATION
COMBINATION
INTERNALIZATION

NONAKA & TAKEUCHI KM MODEL(SECI)
Nonaka and Takeuchi SECI model States two-
dimensional matrix including four elements of
knowledge conversion named tacitand explicit. The
SECI model is based on illustrative theory which is
embedded in a dialectic epistemology of explicit
knowledge and explicit knowledge. The SECI model
states the transformation among tacit and explicit
knowledge : tacit knowledge can be transformed into
explicit knowledge and vice-versa. The four modes of
knowledge conversion are:-Socialization,
Externalization, Combination, Internalizationwhich
generates knowledge creation in an organisation by
dynamic process.

•SOCIALIZATION: –
The foremost process of SECI model is socialization,
which pivots the linking of tacit to tacit knowledge.
This process is known as transforming new
knowledge through experiences. In an organization,
tacit knowledge is shared among workers from the
experiences through direct communication. In other
words, it is the way of transforming tacit to tacit
knowledge from one person to another .

CONTD…….
As an illustration: -When I worked as a teacher in a
private school in Madhya Pradesh, I gained knowledge
about the culture with my co-workers who are belonged
to MP(Madhya Pradesh) and share my experience about
Punjabi culture with them. As for Punjabi?s people living
in Punjab, their culture is everything for them. But now it
is affected by westernization to some extent. Joint
families are converted into single family. This was the
new knowledge for them and me as well to get know
about another culture, traditions and values. They read
about the culture in Punjab in books but which is not
properly accurate.

•EXTERNALIZATION: –
The second process of SECI model is externalization,
which focuses on tacit to explicit linking or it is the
process for making tacit knowledge into explicit
knowledge. In externalization process, new concepts
are being formed due to knowledge creation(Nonaka,
1994). The Knowledge is devised in the format of
manuals and documents so that it could be expand in
the whole organisation and easily understood by others
as well.

CONTD…….
As an illustration: -As a teacher, I got a chance to
arrange tour of batch of students from my class from
MP to Punjab (My home state). They had no
information about Punjab. Before Gone to Punjab, I
made models, diagrams of famous places, pictures of
Punjabi people wearing traditional dresses etc. Finally,
they understood properly and knowledge was created
for students. When they visited there, they took
photographs, made videos to capture everything about
traditional and religious famous places.

•COMBINATION: –
The third step in SECI is combination which
focuses on explicit to explicit knowledge linking
and knowledge utilization. Particularly,
combination is the process of transforming the
knowledge into more usable form from explicit
knowledge. It is the process of “systematizing
concepts into a knowledge system” (Nonaka &
Takeuchi, 1995). In this Phase, explicit knowledge
is integrated by the process of collecting explicit
knowledge either inside or outside of the
organisation.

CONTD…….
As an illustration: -I knew lot about culture of MP as I
completed my graduation from one of the university of
MP. I spent 3 years there for my study. I had some
friends who belonged to MP then I got good knowledge
from them. After completing my graduation, I got a
chance to teach in one of the secondary school in MP. I
deployed my knowledge there and get more new
knowledge by experiencing some new things while
teaching.

•INTERNALIZATION:-
The final process in this model is internalization,
focuses on the linking towards explicit to tacit. It is
closely related to “the traditional notion of
learning” and “to learning by doing”(Nonaka, et.al.
1994). It is the process of understanding and
absorbing the explicit knowledge. Knowledge is
internalized and existing tacit knowledge is
modified due to use of explicit sources.

CONTD…….
As an illustration: -In my organisation, there
were some teachers from different states as
well. We used to exchange the information
about cultures, rituals, values of different states.
By doing this, we got very useful knowledge to
learn about various cultures.

In my organisation, knowledge conversion in lesson study through
SECI model
Select topic
for study
Identify preliminary
object of learning
Determine student’s
learning difficulties
Plan research
lesson
Implement and
perceive lesson
I
N
T
E
R
L
A
Z
I
T
A
T
I
O
N
Report
result
Evaluate
overall
impact of
study
Evaluate
learning
outcomes
EXTERNALIZATION
S
O
NOI
C
IA
L
I
Z
A
T
COMBINATION

STRENGTHS OF SECI MODEL
•It stimulates the modern essence
of knowledge and knowledge
creation.
•It provides a framework for the
supervision or for the managing
relevant processes.

LIMITATIONS OF SECI MODEL
•This model is established for
the study of Japanese
organisations, which primarily
depend on tacit knowledge.
•The linearity of the concept-
can the spiral jump steps? Can it
go counter-clockwise?

Knowledge management is continuous method
of new interactions between tacit and explicit
knowledge. Knowledge management approach
enables not only description of what is
happening but also provides better prescription
for meeting organisational goals (Dalkir, 2011).
. All four phases of SECI model interacts in
knowledge creation spiral and reveals how the
knowledge shared and create in an
organisation.

References
Dalkir, K. (2011). Knowledge management in theory and
practice. Cambridge, Massachusetts: the MIT press.
Grant, R.M. (1996), “Toward a knowledge based theory of the
firm” , Strategic Management journal, vol.17, special issue,
pp.109-22.
Nonaka, I. (1994). „A dynamic theory of organizational
knowledge creation?. Organization Science, 5, 1, pp 14-37.
Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating
company.NewYork, Oxford:OxfordUniversity Press.
Nonaka, I., Byosiere, P., Borucki, C.C. and Konno, N. (1994).
„Organizational Knowledge Creation Theory: a first
comprehensive test?. International
Business Review, 3, 4, pp 337-351.

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