This paper illustrates the vital knowledge of traumatic brain injury, as it composes affects a great part of the population permanently and changes the way they function in society. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) , also known as intracranial injury is any external effect on the brain that can distort the function of the brain and can range from mild side effects to severe cognitive and motor disabilities.
Causes of traumatic brain injury
The causes of TBI can be explained as follows: the prominent cause of TBI are falls (35.2%) , followed by vehicle crashes(17.3%), in which have been increasing drastically, struck- by events(16.5%), and assault(10%). In cases of children aged between 2-4 years old, however, the most common cause of TBI would be falling (El-Matbouly et al., 2013).
Traumatic brain injury in Qatar. Previous reports indicated that head injuries incidence rate had increased significantly. According to a study done in Qatar, in which 1665 patients were admitted to the study;the most common cause of TBI was MVC ( motor vehicle crash) with 51% followed by falls from heights 35%(El-Matbouly et al., 2013).
Traumatic brain injury among the two genders. According to a research conducted by Munivenkatappa, Agrawal, Shukla, Kumaraswamy, and Devi; Despite the lower incidence of TBI in females (18%), they presumably have a surpassing percentage in the severity, and mortality(3.4%) compared to the male population(1.6%) (Munivenkatappa, et al. 2016).
Inflicted TBI. inflicted traumatic brain injury and its characteristics was investigated in an attempt to differentiate between afflicted and non-inflicted TBI. A study titled ” Neuroimaging,Physical, and Developmental Findings After Inflicted and Non-Inflicted Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Children” done in 1998 argues that preexisting brain injury prior to TBI such as cerebral atrophy, subdural hygroma and ex vacuo ventriculomegaly, were found in 45% of children with inflicted TBI and in none of the children with non inflicted TBI. Moreover, seizures and subdural hematoma were more common in inflicted TBI rather than none. Although both groups suffered from Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, edema, skull fractures, and cephalohematomas, Inflicted TBI patients were found to have retinal hemorrhage. This study concluded that identifying characters of inflicted TBI were findings of preexisting brain injury, extra-axial hemorrhages, seizures, retinal hemorrhages, and significantly impaired cognitive function without prolonged impairment of consciousness. (Ewing-Cobbs et al,.1998)
Another study done in 2003, investigated the incidence of inflicted TBI in young children ( first two years of age) in the USA. 152 cases of TBI were assessed (serious or fatal ) .The incidence of inflicted TBI for all children aged 2 years or younger was 17.0 (95% CI, 13.3-20.7) per 100 000 person-years, even higher in infants (29.7 95% CI, 22.9-36.7 per 100 000 person-years) than children in the second 12 months of life (3.8 95% CI, 1.3-6.4 per 100 000 person-years). It was also found that boys were more likely to be subjected to inflicted TBI than girls. ( Keenan,Runyan & Marshall,2003)
Complications of traumatic brain injury
Neuropsychiatric complications .TBI patients faced depression after injury ranging from 14% to 42% in a span of 1 year. And can range from 11% to 61% after 5 decades of TBI. Other disorders include: post-traumatic psychosis( in which a clear percentage was difficult to make,as it is difficult to pinpoint and claim that symptoms were definitely of psychosis), this can also be said about post-traumatic mania( however, citing Jorge et al.,a 9.1% was noted in his study), post-traumatic stress disorder with prevalence ranging from 3% to 27%) (Dikmen, Sureyya S. et al. 2004)
Social complications.Traumatic brain injury causes distinguishable changes in family relationship that can affect the patient’s recovery. And so family assessment and rehabilitation must take place in the recovery process as well. (Cavallo 2005) Mental fatigability, motor slowing, lack of mental flexibility, conceptual disorganization, poor planning,attention difficulties, memory impairments, and decreased initiative and motivation were associated with most social disabilities and poor return to work. (Mazaux, Jean-Michel et al., 1997)
Hypopituitarism. A study done showed that a decrease in endocrine function was common in traumatic brain injury patients. To illustrate, the results asserted that generally anterior pituitary deficiency was present in 34% of the study sample, while multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies in 10% of TBI patients. 9% TBI patients were hypogonadal (showing diminished functional activity of the gondas). Followed by Hypoprolactinemia (deficiency in the hormone prolactin)was found in 7% in contrast to hyperprolactinemia present in 4.5% .Also, 7% TBI patients had hypocortisolism ( also known as Addison’s disease). Subsequently, diabetes insipidus (characterized by imbalance of water in the body)was present in 4.5% , and Finally, hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid gland) was found in 4% of the sample (Popovic.et,al. 2018).
In summary, traumatic brain injury, universally has a winning cause of falls (35.2%) and of MVC (51%) in Qatar specifically. TBI has effects that can permanently impact people mentally such as post-traumatic psychosis, mania and stress disorder. Moreover, it impacts a patient’s social life such as his or her return to his or her workforce.In addition to the the distinguishable impact on endocrine functionality , and finally, it has been stressed that inflicted TBI had very distinguishable features such as preexisting brain injury, extra-axial hemorrhages, seizures, retinal hemorrhages, and significantly impaired cognitive function , and it was more common in boys than girls in the first two years of their growth.