There are different researches in the world including Ethiopia that shows mainly the general situations, concepts and definitions of solid waste management. Most of these studies examined issues regarding practices, challenges, opportunities, sustainability and public participation in solid waste management in other town. Practices and challenges in solid waste management were not studied independently in the study area from other challenges in detail. Moreover, there was no study related to practices and challenges in solid waste management in the town. Recognizing this research gap, the study will aim on of practices and challenges of in SWM in the case of Mekane Selam town. The study will also point out the real practice and challenges of residents, leaders, stakeholders faced while working in SWM. Thus the researcher tries taking lesson from what is done before and to fill the gaps by assessing the practices and challenges of SWM in the town.