“The society: economic, political, cultural Old wars


 greatest victory is that which requires
no battle” ( The Art of War; Sun Tzu )  the  

concept of a war implies an armed conflict among political entities to gain  peace.

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This is the shape taken by the two greatest wars
in history, opposing two political blocks and

mobilizing over 700 million soldiers/troops
together. However, in recent decades new types  of  combat
have appeared . The cold war, for example has applied unprecedented forms of
battle while conflicts of decolonization expand their horizons to new shapes
and actors. More recently, wars have further evolved, adopting new shapes and
aspects which fascinate the media. This transforms terrorism into today’s most
notorious  form of war. “New Wars” is an
expression that represents warfare in the Post-Cold war era.

New Wars is an expression that Mary Kaldor
developed. Mary Kaldor is a professor at the London school of economics. She is
an author’s who’s books study the different aspects of war. Throughout the
1980’s and the 1990’s, notably in Africa and Eastern Europe, new forms of
violence began to prevail. Terrorism was described under the term “low
intensity” conflict by U.S military during the cold war. What differentiates
the cold war from the previous ones? First of all, cold wars distinguish
themselves by their nature as they are based on indirect conflict rather than
physical combat such as shooting and bombing. Whereas during World war 1 and
World war 2, there has been direct armed conflict between 2 political entities,
the Cold War opposed 2 nations, the Americans and the Soviets with no set
battle-ground. While the United States functioned on the basis of a democratic
government and its economy on free enterprise, the Soviet Union was a communist
State where property and production are controlled by a single party. The
opposition of the democratic system and the communist system engaged the
respective nations in a conflict involving several spheres of society:
economic, political, cultural Old wars were fought by armed forces of states. New
Wars are fought by a mix of non- state and state actors. Kaldor states that new
wars need to be known in terms of today’s process of globalization ( Mary
Kaldor New and Old War). Mary Kaldor defines old war as a traditional warfare,
where conflicts are usually between interstates, these states play an important
role in running and funding the war.

According to Mary Kaldor, “new wars” were not in
fact “new”. What’s different from ‘old wars’ and ‘new wars’ are that
globalization and technology are growing. Kaldor states that that the war in
Iraq is indeed a ‘ new kind of war’ and uses new technologies like satellite system.New
Wars are the wars of the era of globalization, usually, they happen in places
that were significantly weakened. New wars are the wars of the era of
globalization, usually they happen in places that were significantly weakened,
In addition  new and old wars  were not fought for the same reasons. Kaldor stated
the differences between the old wars and new wars by stating for what reasons the
conflict happened ( Methods, goals, finance , actors).Old wars were fought by
regular armies from different states,new wars are  a combination of non-state and state actors.

Old wars were fought for geo political matter ( socialism or democracy),
whereas , new wars were fought for ethnic , religious or tribal reasons. In old
wars, the method of pursuing war was taking over territory across military
means. Violence was used towards the people to control territory rather than
enemy forces.  Kaldor stated that the
forms of finance were different in old wars and new wars. Old wars were mainly
financed by states (tax). New wars , especially weaker states tax revenue is falling
which created new forms of finance that include kidnapping, smuggling diamonds,
drugs etc… (Kaldor 2013)  The most
common criticism of ‘new wars’ discusses that new wars are not new. It can be
said that the Cold war made it hard to analyze ‘small wars’, many of the
features of new wars related with weak states are found in early modern period
and that occurrences like mass rape, banditry forced the population to move. Many
of the same feature of new wars are found in previous wars. It can be argued
that there are some new elements. The main elements are of course globalization
and technology, which has made it a symmetrical war (war between opponents that
have the same armory) An example r is the first Gulf war between Iran and Iraq.


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