The impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty: depending on product involvement in South Korea and Ireland: Study to identify the relationship between social media marketing and brand loyalty and find out the different influence of it depending on four types of product involvement in order to make an efficient digital marketing strategy.
Social media marketing, Brand marketing, Product involvement, South Korea, Ireland
1. Introduction & Motivation
This dissertation proposal is to study the impact of social media marketing on brand loyalty and different influence on it depending on product involvement. The influence of social media marketing on brand loyalty has been studied since the social media became a valuable tool for marketing in the world. (Kudeshia and Kumar, 2017) In these days, most of the companies are promoting advertisement, making a fan page, and trying to increase their likes and followers on social media. (Hu et al., 2014) However, there was a few studies about the impact of social media marketing depending on product involvement. It has been proved that the type of product involvement has an influence on the communication way of advertising in traditional marketing. (Vaughn, 1980) Personally, I am very interested in both social media marketing and brand marketing, and it was my primary interest during the master’s course of digital marketing strategy. I brought an academic curiosity about if there is a different influence on social media marketing depending on product involvement in a digital environment to make efficient brand marketing strategy.
2. Position Research Within Existing Literature
3.1 Social Media Marketing
Before discussion of social media marketing, the definition of social media should be reviewed to understand it. The definition of social media is “activities, practices, and behaviours among communities of people who gather online to share information, knowledge, and opinions using conversational media”, according to Safko and Brake. They said conversational media means applications for creating and transmitting the content of words, photos, and videos based on Web. (Safko and Brake, 2009) Similarly, the Universal McCann report refers to it as “online applications, platforms, and media which aim to facilitate interaction, collaboration, and the sharing of content.” (Universal McCann, 2009) With a definition of social media, the social media marketing can be fined as “using social media channels to promote your company and its products”. (Barefoot and Szabo, 2010) More broadly, it is defined as the process that empowers individuals to promote their products or services through online social channels and enter to a huge community which has not been available in a traditional method according to Weinberg. (Weinberg, 2009)
From the emergence of social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Instagram, people can connect with friends, family and even with companies. People search information or reviews from other users on social media to receive trustful opinions. (Thalaes and Leora, 2016) Also, social media can be used in a way of informing product, services, brands, and companies (Chauhan and Pillai, 2013) and it can even change people’s perception of a product or a brand, influencing the customer’s purchase intention. (Fotis, 2015) Based on this digital trend, marketers are trying to make an effective social media marketing, focusing on the relationship or interactions with consumers in multi-way communication. (Li and Bernoff, 2009) Even more, the communication through social media can build the brand loyalty through networking, conversation, and community beyond traditional methods. (Universal McCann, 2009)
3.2 Product Involvement
The FCB grid model is introduced for the first time in the literature by Vaughn in 1980. It explains that consumer’s purchase intention can be classified into two dimensions including the think or feel dimension, and high or low involvement. (Vaughn, 1980) Also, he suggested that communication response would certainly be different for high involvement products which required predominantly thinking of left brain, or low involvement product which required a feeling of the right brain during the processing information. (Vaughn, 1986) The FCB model has two dimensions including the think dimension and the feel dimension and they are related to the utilitarian and value-expressive function of a product. (Vaughn, 1980)
The FCB Grid model describes four primary advertising planning strategies, which are “informative”, “affective”, “habitual”, and “satisfaction”. Firstly, the informative strategy is for high involvement and thinking products or services with economic considerations. “Learn-Feel-Do” is the hierarchy-of-effects sequence for this category, such as cars, appliances, and insurance. Secondly, the affective strategy is for highly involving products or services which is more related to feeling. “Feel-Learn-Do” is the process for this category’s products, for example, cosmetics, jewellery, and fashion clothing. It has impulses which are more psychological and subconscious and requires more emotional communication. Thirdly, the habitual strategy is for those low involvement and thinking products or services. The purchase of this item is more routinized, and learning is followed exploring and buying it. “Learning-by-doing” is the process for this category, such as paper products, household cleaners or gasoline. Lastly, the satisfaction strategy is for those products and services with low involvement and feeling. It is related to the personal taste and experience is so necessary for this category, including beer, cigarettes, and candy. “Do-Feel-Learn” is placed in the hierarchy-of-effects sequence. (Vaughn, 1986)