The opportunity to see what is happening

The Internet of Things (IOT) has enabled the progress of an
era of the smart home.  According to Lin
(2012) a smart home uses modern technology to ensure a comfortable, secure and
safe energy efficient place to live.  Smart
home technology uses a network of wireless communication which controls sensors,
monitors, devices and appliances so they can be operated remotely either by
smartphone, computer or laptop using the internet (Gram-Hanssen & Darby
2017).  They are networked using standardised
communication protocols. Many different types of household appliances and
devices can be controlled remotely such as heating, lighting and security.  Smart home technology can assess home systems
including temperature, humidity light and motion automatically whether the
property is occupied or not (Jacobssen et al 2015, Wilson et al 2017).  Controlling lighting to come on at random
times or turn on a tv or radio when a property is empty has the added benefit
of security (Jacobsson et al 2015). Smart home technology that saves energy and,
therefore, money is becoming more popular (Wilson et al 2017).  In 2014, Jacobssen et al reported that
householders in Sweden were able to reduce their energy consumption by 20% when
they were given feedback using a smart home system. Governments, keen to meet
their energy reduction commitments, are introducing smart home policies to
incentivise householders to embrace the technology.  Energy suppliers and commercial enterprises
are also pushing towards smart home technology (Wilson et al 2017).  Several research studies have focussed on the
world’s requirement to save energy and how smart home technology is able to
help with this cause (Jacobssen et al 2014, Jacobssen et al 2015, Wilson et al

In a smart home environment, security  surveillance cameras take advantage of  technology developed primarily for energy
conservation.  They offer the smart home
owner the opportunity to see what is happening in their home remotely (Jacobssen
et al 2015).

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Whilst access to purchase SHT is  becoming easier, its  uptake  is not as widespread as many government bodies
would like. Despite the benefits, people are more concerned about their privacy
and security being breached (Wilson et al 2017).  This  work will focus on  ……………………………………………..




Review and

Smart Thermostat

According to the European Union, Heating and cooling of
buildings use half of all energy consumed in Europe.  Smart thermostats may be a way forward for
more efficient control of energy consumed in homes (Bustomante et al 2017). Smart
thermostats use wi-fi to control the level of heating required.  Different models have differing capabilities
and claims. For instance, some offer larger houses the ability to control
temperature in different zones.  There is
an added cost to this, as zoned areas require smart thermostatic valves on
radiators.  Some smart thermostats can sense
movement in the home and adjust the temperature according to whether anyone is
there or not.  Others allow home owners
to control their homes remotely via smartphone, tablet etc( Egan 2017) .  It is also possible to buy models that can
discover your proximity to home using GPS from a smart phone and then either
switch the heating system on or off without the owner having to instruct it (Bustomante
et al 2017).  Whilst smart thermostat
interfaces can be web based or smart phone operated, Rau et al’s (2016) study found
that users preferred the smartphone option.

There are now occupancy responsive thermostats that can control
home heating dependent on whether it is occupied or not (Bustomante 2017).  Whilst Kleimenger et al (2014) claim they can
be a successful way to save energy, Pritoni et al 2016 say that savings cannot
be assumed in a larger building as many smart thermostats report run time based
on individual rooms and this does not always correlate with run time on the
whole building.  All manufacturers claim
to save energy and the consumer money but in laboratory controlled conditions,
using 4 unnamed brands of smart thermostats. 
Bustamante et al (2017) found that they were not all perform
efficiently.  Using a thermal chamber,
they allowed each thermostat to learn the housing characteristics by running
the heating system several times.  This was
to enable the thermostat to produce an algorithm so that it could regulate the
set temperature.  None of the 4
thermostats were able to learn when the optimal time was to switch the heating
on to maintain the temperature required. 
Although some performed better than others, they all switched on too early
meaning energy was wasted. 

Smart Lighting

Lighting can now be controlled autonomously through feedback
from sensors, user data, user control and Cloud services.  Smart lighting can reduce energy consumption
and increase functional lighting suited to the user’s preferences (Chew et al
2017).  It can be instructed via smartphone
or other mobile device remotely and can be as simple to install as using smart
bulbs along with a smartphone app and a hub connected to the user’s router (Black
2017). According to Tang et al (2017) the market leaders have yet to provide a good
system for Lighting.  They raised
concerns regarding functionality, particularly in their ability to recognise
daylight. But, more worryingly, security and privacy when the system in
question is connected to the IOT.  Hackers
have been able to access smart homes so occupants lose all privacy and are able
to cause complete blackout of the home (Tang et al 2017). 



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