Over the course of the past century, organisations have
learnt to adapt to set models of how a typical business can run effectively. Many
businesses have learnt adapted and added to the set models so that the business
can run more efficiently due to the specific changes. An information system is
the way organisations are set up to keep the flow of different types of
information moving through different departments and through external entities
that collect or send information through the organisation.
Sony Corporation is made up of different divisions and
departments that all work independently and rely on one another to complete
certain tasks to achieve the essence of the organisation. The department of my
choice is manufacturing which is handled by Sony Precision Technology Inc.
Sony Precision Technology is a separate entity that handles
the manufacturing of products with Sony Corporation. In 1969 it was founded by
the Sony corporation. Orders are put through with specific design details based
on the product that is being ordered, the data comes through electronically and
is assigned every morning to the staff during a meeting prior to the actual labour
being done. Around 500 different products are being produced internationally by
around 600 employees.
The manufacturing sites are in Isehara, Japan and Sony Precision
Technology have another two in Germany and The United States. Each site is
always stocked up on resources, a computer system records how much of each
resource is being used and at what pace, once the resource becomes limited to a
certain amount, an automated purchase is put through and delivered the next
morning. Resources such as metal, Aluminium and Rubber are all types of items
purchased on a day to day bases. The site craft their own electronic chips for
different products such as TV’s, Consoles, Earphones, Speakers and Phones.
The systems theory is looking at the way of which an organisation
is set up. The systems theory will be applied to Sony to show the processes
that are underdone within the organisation. The concept is simple, the theory
states that there are two types of systems, one being a closed system and the
other being an open system. A closed system is not affected by its environment
and just produces either services or goods. However, many organisations use the
latter system mentioned, so the concept of an open system will be applied to
There is an Input in to the Sony Precision Technology, which
then has a process which is created a product or service which is delivered
back out to customers. The open system
has permeable boundaries meaning information and resources flow in and out, the
system usually needs a to be open and in contact with its environment, so it
can run more efficiently. Holism is a concept when looking at systems. The
perspective is that the system is a whole, and is not divided into different
departments or categories.
Another concept is Interdependence, this is when the
organisation is set up to have a connection with their environment. The
sub-departments are also connected and not on their own. The interdependence
approach is set up on the idea of a system being made up of many interconnected
subsystems. One subsystem can also influence other subsystems based on
decisions they make. This is where the theory that each system has subsystems
had come from. Ludwig Von Bertalanffy was a biologist brought the general
system theory forward, where he applied it to different types of fields.
Within Sony Precision Technology, Isehara, Japan. There are
four sub-divisions that all have different tasks that accomplish the same
essence of the organisation. The subsystem departments consist of Design, Production,
Quality control and packaging.
The process flows together within the sub departments. Products
are designed externally and internally. After the design blueprints are ready,
based on the demand of the product, there is mass production. Once the product
is produced, different tests, diagnostics and durability checks are done to
ensure that the product is up to the given guideline standard. After the
product passes all the tests, it is packaged accordingly based on what product
it is, and then shipped out to customers directly or retailer’s worldwide.
At the manufacturing factory, there is the production sub-department.
Resources are gathered and shipped in every morning into the factory via cargo
and lorry deliveries. The resources are categorised and stored where they
belong in the storage units. If the assembly line is running low on resources,
workers add the missing resources through forklift trucks whilst the actual
manufacturers continue to do craft products. After producing each piece of a
product, it assembled at the end of the assembly.
Once the product is complete it is tested, the manufacturer
creates headphones which is tested on different devices. After the headphones
pass the test that they are functional, the quality is tested. Different types
of people wear the headphones to see if it fits it purpose, the headphones are
checked for its durability too.
Once all tests are passed, each product is certified to be
packaged up and sold. The headphones are then taken to another assembly line
where they are sealed up with a small manual in a plastic package. Once
packaged and sealed, the product is sent in thousands to delivery lorries,
which is then distributed to retailers to sell on.
Through the following diagram, I will be explaining how
departments interlink with manufacturing. Sony have five departments that
interlink one another; Research and development, Purchasing, Marketing,
Accounting and finance and Human resources.
Sony has a team of specialist who research into potentially
sellable products, an entire team research and develop ideas into actual
blueprints for the Sony Precision Technology (Manufacturing department) to producing.
The manufacturing department rely on the research team to make sure there are
no mistakes in the blueprints provided, because any mistake made will lead to thousands
of faulty products that will result in a loss of resources which cost money.
Sony Precision Technology rely on the purchasing department
to gather the right amount and the correct resources to make products correctly
and the right amount without having to waste money on materials. Manufacturing
will always alert purchasing on any materials that they are low on. From what
the research and development team say about what resources are needed, the
manufacturers will send the purchasing department a list of what they need.
However, there’s also an automated system that detects what materials are
needed, the system automatically sends information to the purchasing department
on what is needed.
Sony has marketing experts to advertise products on
different platforms. The marketing department are important because without
them the manufacturers wouldn’t get any demands on popular products. The
manufacturers rely on the marketing team to advertise products that are
simultaneously being produced. The marketing team provide data on which
products are going to be demanded.
The Accounting and finance team within Sony work with
manufacturers more than they work with other department, this is because the
department give budgets on how much Sony Precision Technology can spend on
materials and equipment. The manufacturers need to be aware of how much they
are spending and how much they have left to spend, if the accounting team don’t
inform the manufacturers on their limit, it could result in underestimating how
much goods are being produced compared to the demand of the product.
The Human resources department are important, they search
for the right skilled workers and seek to hire, train, pay them and educate
them on new products and equipment within the manufacturing sites. The
manufacturing side may also go to the human resources department regarding
anything they are unsure on, for example they are unsure on how to produce a
certain product with new equipment or tools.
In the past 25 years, the usage
of mobile/portable devices has increased within work places and is still on the
up rise. A lot of organisations use devices to access the internet quickly and
to work more efficiently. At Sony Precision Technology, Isehara, Japan
manufacturing site, there isn’t much uses of devices, the Operating system
isn’t as up to date and efficient as it could be.
Within the manufacturing
department of Sony, the organisation uses PC’s to communicate and transfer data
with one another. A remit that could stop the manufacturing site from falling
behind on logging in how much resources has been used and how much is left,
every night the manufacturers must calculate how much resources they have used
and will be needing. The problem with this is that a lot of materials go to
waste and isn’t always accounted for which can cause issues when trying to
estimate how much material is in stock to use the next morning,
However, Sony Precision Technology
can avoid the problem and become efficient by using a mobile device that logs
in and out every time material/resources are taken out from the stock storage. Manufacturers
can have the device close to them, every time material is wasted, the workers
can log this on to the system. This can benefit the manufacturers when it comes
to purchasing resources the next morning, it makes it easier to know what and
how much is needed, also it saves a lot of time and minimises the risk of
The MC2100 is a mobile hand-held
computer device which made specifically to monitor and manage stock. It is
compatible with Microsoft and works via WIFI making it easy to use due to the
familiarity and simplicity of Microsoft. The device is shockproof and
waterproof, so its durable and will last long. A 1D linear scanner scans
barcodes and for stocks which is beneficial for when logging data in and out
straight away. The MC2100 also includes a feature where an automated purchase
can be made, this can save time and make it more efficient or manufacturers.
Another device which can be used
to benefit manufacturers at Sony Precision Technology, is Samsung’s 7inch
galaxy tab with 8GB of memory, Built in WIFI, NFC and Bluetooth compatibility.
The android tablet can be used at the Isehara Manufacturing site. If each
resources and items are tagged with a NFC code, so when stock is checked in or
checked out, the NFC will transfer data onto a logging system (which is also
backed up physically in two unknown locations and in cloud storage),
Information of the resource or product that has been scanned will come up,
through the NFC system, manufacturers can precook items and resources, and
check for availability.
Within manufacturing, Sony Precision
Technology can benefit from the MC2100 compared to an android tablet. The
MC2100 is specifically designed for manufacturing purposes, it has a hand-held design
allowing manufacturers to keep one hand free whilst holding the device. Also,
the device has an internal software that logs data in every time a
resource/item is scanned, on the other hand an android tablet is way too big
and requires both hands to use, it can be easily damaged if it falls which is
highly likely when working in a fast-paced practical environment at Isehara,
General systems theory thinking, and systems theories were
both mentioned and applied to the chosen organisation and department, in this
instance I chose Sony’s manufacturing department which is an incorporate
company named Sony Precision Technology in Isehara, Japan. I applied the
systems thinking theories to the organisation by creating diagrams to show the
input and output process within the departments and sub-departments of
manufacturing. I have explained how the general system theory fits in alongside
Based on the research from task one, I found out the
assembly line proceedings at the Isehara manufacturing site. From what was discovered,
it was found that Sony Precision Technology could improve their operating
system and become more efficient when manufacturing products by using specific mobile
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