part A- A detailed
explanation of the structure and function of each of the different pathogens
and parasites; including their routes of transmission, how they grow and
reproduce, and the impact of different environmental conditions on their growth
and reproduction, and their effects on the health of animals.
Reproduction: They only produce two at a time
and they are generally identical to the first one. The reproduction occurs at a
rapid pace, reproducing once every 20-40 minutes approx. It only goes quick if
the conditions are perfect for them to reproduce.
Growth (Conditions): The conditions are usually
environmental factors. Those factors are: temperature, pH, water activity,
Atmosphere, and chemicals. Temperature helps salmonella grow because typically,
they can grow in the temperature range of 7-48oc, but below 10oc
it grows at a slower rate.
Structure: Salmonella is a group of
rod-shaped capsule, with little pilus and prokaryotic flagellum to help them
is usually transmitted from person to person or animal to person. How it is
transmitted is contact with contaminated food or water that has been exposed to
infected faecal material.
Reproduction: The Bordetella pertussis is
reproduced by binary fission.
Growth (Conditions): Bordetella pertussis is a
bacterium that initially grows on the mucous membranes of the respiratory
Structure: Bordetella’s structure is a rod-shaped
capsule with fimbriae around it to help it move from one location to the other.
Bordetella is transmitted by either direct contact or airborne droplets from
the host of the bacteria.
Reproduction: The reproduction of aspergillus
can be vegetative reproduction, asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction,
but sexual reproduction happens on rare occasion. For vegetative reproduction,
there is one method of two, fragmentation. It happens when the mycelium breaks up into small pieces
and each piece grows independently to adjust to their new environment. For
asexual reproduction, it has the same genes and characteristics when they
separate. For sexual reproduction, as it’s very rare it is done with a male and
Growth (Conditions): Some species of Aspergillus grow
as a toxin in the laboratory as they’re present in the air and some species of
Aspergillus is found in the soil. For example, aspergillus can be easily grown
just by keeping a piece of cheese in a humid environment. It can also grow on
other organic foods, such as fruits and vegetables, jams, cheese etc.
Structure: The body of aspergillus is
mycelial, it consists a slender, tube-shaped, and pale coloured, branched, and
Aetiology: For aspergillus to transmit, it
needs to be inhaled as it lives in the environment.
Reproduction: The reproduction is by inbreeding
and outbreeding, the diagram below will show you how it works. It typically
reproduce by asexual budding but it is done in either the yeast or the
Growth (Conditions): As C. gattii lives in the
environment, it’s usually near trees and in the soils around the tress. They
mostly live in tropical and sub-tropical areas in the world.
Structure: The structure of C. gattii is a
sort of circular shape and it is capable of changing the size and the shape of
itself so it can avoid the immune response from its host.
Aetiology: As C.
gattii is not contagious, the only way you can get this infection is by
inhaling airborne, dried yeast cells or spores that comes from the environment.
When it’s breathed in, the body’s temperature allows it to transform it into
yeast and the cells grow thicker to protect themselves. After infecting the
lungs, it goes into the bloodstream and infects other parts of the body.
Reproduction: The reproduction of the parvovirus
is asexual reproduction but in order to be a virus, they need help of the rapid
dividing of the cells and it begins by attacking the tonsils of the puppies or
Growth (Conditions): Parvovirus can be resistant to
different weather conditions. The weather conditions that parvovirus is
resistant to is the cold, different humidity, and heat. This helps the
parvovirus to survive in the environment of that specific place.
picture below will show the structure of the parvovirus with it annotated to
allow us to know what is what.
Aetiology: Parvovirus is transmitted by oral
or nasal and it has to be direct contact with the infected area. Parvovirus is
usually found in the faeces but it can be in the soil that dogs dig up. I can
be transmitted through contaminated formites. This is done indirectly because
it is passed on by the environment as it is environmentally found.
Growth (Conditions): Feline influenza can survive up to
a week in the environment
Aetiology: Feline influenza can be transmitted
by direct contact with others that
Aetiology- It can be the causation or the transmission.
Mycelial- In the mycelial, it is the vegetative part from
either a fungus or a fungus like bacterial colony.