The periodic table of elements places all of the recognised chemical elements in a helpful group. The elements are organised from the left side to the right-side and also from top-bottom. This is all in order of increasing the atomic number. The horizontal rows are called periods, the vertical columns are called groups and the elements in the same group share similarities.
Group 1: alkali metals.
Group 2: alkaline earth metals.
Group 18: noble gases.
The most reactive elements on the periodic table are group 1 which are also known as alkali metals. This consist of sodium, potassium and lithium, which all react strongly with air and water. Whereas the least reactive elements are on group 0 also known as the noble gases they also belong.
The difference between relative atomic mass and the atomic number is that the relative atomic mass is the amount of protons in an elements nucleus whilst on the other hand the atomic number is the amount of both protons and neutron. The relative atomic mass can be found in the periodic table underneath the element, while the atomic number can be located on top of the element. For instance, the atomic number of lithium would be 3 and its relative atomic mass would be 6.941
Atomic structure of Lithium: 3 Atomic structure of Sodium: 11
Electronic structure of Lithium: He 2s1 Electronic structure of Sodium: Ne 3s1
Atomic structure of argon: 18 Atomic structure of calcium: 20
Electronic structure of argon: Ne 3s2 3p6 Electronic structure of calcium: Ar 4s2
Atomic structure of cadmium: 48 Atomic structure of zinc: 30
Electronic structure of cadmium: Kr 4d10 5s2 Electronic structure of zinc: Ar 3d10 4s2
The Bohr Model is a planetary model that consists of negatively charged electrons that orbits a small, positively charged nucleus which is similar to our solar system. For instance, the sun at the core being the nucleus whilst the planets orbiting the sun being the electrons around the nucleus.
The difference between a covalent bond and an iconic bond is that in a covalent bond, chemicals bond between two un-metallic atoms which is considered by the distribution of sets of electrons amongst atoms and other covalent bonds. Whereas on the other hand, an iconic bond is that the two opposite ions attract each other forming an ionic bond.
Another difference between a covalent bond and an iconic bond is that a covalent bond has a definite shape whereas an iconic bond has no definite shape. In addition, both the boiling and meting point for a covalent bond is low whilst for and iconic bond, its boiling and meting points are high. Lastly, a covalent bond is liquid/gaseous at state room temperature whilst an iconic bond is a solid at state room temperature.
The periodic table is used in the calculations before preparing the standard solutions and after the titration for your calculation.
Firstly, we use the periodic table to find the relative molecular mass. To find the relative molecular mass, we must first find the relative atomic mass which is located in the periodic table this is always shown to be the bigger number. Secondly, we know calculate the number of moles, given the mass of the compound. However, in order to calculate this, we need the equation: M=N x MR. However before using this equation, you must re-arrange it so that N= M/MR. Thirdly, once you have worked out what M and MR equals, you must divide it to get N. After you have worked out the moles, you then need to calculate the number of moles from the concentration and the volume.
Potassium carbonate is an ionic bond. The element consists of potassium and chlorine atoms. Potassium has 1 electron whilst chlorine has 7 electrons. To achieve Octet Rule, potassium will give one of its electrons to chlorine which wants one electron, forming an ionic bond. Sodium hydroxide is an ionic compound as it is composed with sodium ions and also hydroxide ions therefore it is an ionic compound.
In an industry, standard solution is used to control the concentrations of other substances such as, solutions in titration. It is also set by using a standard substance. For example, a primary standard. By using standards solutions in industries, it means that the machines are able to read the results from the end point extremely fast and tremendously accurate.
In an industry, titration is carried out to let food manufactures to control the amount of reactant in a sample. This is attained by use of a titrant, a cautious precise volume of solution.
While all titration needs some basic equipment, For instance volumetric flasks, pipettes, burets, and stirrers. Some titrations on the other hand, use specific equipment such as automatic titrator and a Karl fisher titrator. Most common in industries. The practical work compared to the work in industries differ, although they share a few similarities such as the basic equipment used, in industries, they tend to use machines that give precise and accurate results.