Task 1

Task 1:
The periodic table of elements places all of the recognised chemical elements in a helpful group. The elements are organised from the left side to the right-side and also from top-bottom. This is all in order of increasing the atomic number. The horizontal rows are called periods, the vertical columns are called groups and the elements in the same group share similarities.

Group 1: alkali metals.

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Group 2: alkaline earth metals.

Group 18: noble gases.

The most reactive elements on the periodic table are group 1 which are also known as alkali metals. This consist of sodium, potassium and lithium, which all react strongly with air and water. Whereas the least reactive elements are on group 0 also known as the noble gases they also belong.
The difference between relative atomic mass and the atomic number is that the relative atomic mass is the amount of protons in an elements nucleus whilst on the other hand the atomic number is the amount of both protons and neutron. The relative atomic mass can be found in the periodic table underneath the element, while the atomic number can be located on top of the element. For instance, the atomic number of lithium would be 3 and its relative atomic mass would be 6.941
Atomic structure of Lithium: 3 Atomic structure of Sodium: 11
Electronic structure of Lithium: He 2s1 Electronic structure of Sodium: Ne 3s1
Atomic structure of argon: 18 Atomic structure of calcium: 20
Electronic structure of argon: Ne 3s2 3p6 Electronic structure of calcium: Ar 4s2
Atomic structure of cadmium: 48 Atomic structure of zinc: 30
Electronic structure of cadmium: Kr 4d10 5s2 Electronic structure of zinc: Ar 3d10 4s2
The Bohr Model is a planetary model that consists of negatively charged electrons that orbits a small, positively charged nucleus which is similar to our solar system. For instance, the sun at the core being the nucleus whilst the planets orbiting the sun being the electrons around the nucleus.
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The difference between a covalent bond and an iconic bond is that in a covalent bond, chemicals bond between two un-metallic atoms which is considered by the distribution of sets of electrons amongst atoms and other covalent bonds. Whereas on the other hand, an iconic bond is that the two opposite ions attract each other forming an ionic bond.

Another difference between a covalent bond and an iconic bond is that a covalent bond has a definite shape whereas an iconic bond has no definite shape. In addition, both the boiling and meting point for a covalent bond is low whilst for and iconic bond, its boiling and meting points are high. Lastly, a covalent bond is liquid/gaseous at state room temperature whilst an iconic bond is a solid at state room temperature.
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Task 3:
The periodic table is used in the calculations before preparing the standard solutions and after the titration for your calculation.

Firstly, we use the periodic table to find the relative molecular mass. To find the relative molecular mass, we must first find the relative atomic mass which is located in the periodic table this is always shown to be the bigger number. Secondly, we know calculate the number of moles, given the mass of the compound. However, in order to calculate this, we need the equation: M=N x MR. However before using this equation, you must re-arrange it so that N= M/MR. Thirdly, once you have worked out what M and MR equals, you must divide it to get N. After you have worked out the moles, you then need to calculate the number of moles from the concentration and the volume.

Potassium carbonate is an ionic bond. The element consists of potassium and chlorine atoms. Potassium has 1 electron whilst chlorine has 7 electrons. To achieve Octet Rule, potassium will give one of its electrons to chlorine which wants one electron, forming an ionic bond. Sodium hydroxide is an ionic compound as it is composed with sodium ions and also hydroxide ions therefore it is an ionic compound.

Task 4:
In an industry, standard solution is used to control the concentrations of other substances such as, solutions in titration. It is also set by using a standard substance. For example, a primary standard. By using standards solutions in industries, it means that the machines are able to read the results from the end point extremely fast and tremendously accurate.

In an industry, titration is carried out to let food manufactures to control the amount of reactant in a sample. This is attained by use of a titrant, a cautious precise volume of solution.

While all titration needs some basic equipment, For instance volumetric flasks, pipettes, burets, and stirrers. Some titrations on the other hand, use specific equipment such as automatic titrator and a Karl fisher titrator. Most common in industries. The practical work compared to the work in industries differ, although they share a few similarities such as the basic equipment used, in industries, they tend to use machines that give precise and accurate results.

Bibliography:
https://www.bbc.com/bitesize/guides/zg923k7/revision/2https://www.thoughtco.com/bohr-model-of-the-atom-603815https://chem.libretexts.org/Textbook_Maps/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Chemical_Bonding/Fundamentals_of_Chemical_Bonding/Covalent_Bonds_vs_Ionic_Bondshttps://www.newfoodmagazine.com/article/1485/titration-techniques-in-the-food-industry/

Task 1

Task 1: Questioning/Discussion

1.1 Explain why different communication methods are used in the business environment?

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Some of the different methods of communication that are used in a business environment are:

Verbal Communication

Non-verbal Communication

Written Communication

First of all, verbal communication is used in the business environment to help pass information from one person to another. This is probably the most commonly used method of communication in a business environment. As well as that I feel like it’s one of the easiest forms of communication because most people are able to verbally communicate and find that getting a message across to someone verbally is more efficient and informative. However, if an individual is deaf then it wouldn’t be right or efficient to communicate with them verbally.

For example, in my working environment verbal communication is very important as it is the main form of communication. Whether its speaking to my fellow colleagues or to the patients, I use verbal communication to get my message across and vice versa. I find it more convenient to verbally communicate as I am face to face with the patient or colleague. Also, in my working environment I have to speak to patients and colleagues face to face and also over the phone. When speaking on the phone it is important that when you communicate verbally, you are very clear so that the person on the other side of the line is able to understand you.

Another form of communication is nonverbal, where people who are unable to verbally communicate so in order for them to do so they may use sign language to help communicate. Non-verbal communication can also be expressed through your physical features such as posture, whether you’re making eye contact, the manner of movement and even down to physiological responses. Non-verbal communication is used by everyone and you probably don’t realising that you’re doing it. Something like making eye contact when someone’s speaking to you shows the other person that you are interested in what they are saying and that you are listening to them, whereas if you didn’t make eye contact it gives off a bad vibe and that you’re not paying attention to the speaker. As well as that, eye contact can send subtle messages without even saying a word. Another thing is your posture is a form of non-verbal communication because if you have a good posture, it portrays you in a professional manner.

For example, at my place of work I’ve used nonverbal communication such as making eye contact with the patients and my colleagues when they’re speaking to me and same when I’m speaking back to them. This is important because it shows that you are listening to listen and not listening to speak. Furthermore, my body language at work matters because if my posture is not right and I am slumped on my chair, it will make the patients think that I don’t care and I’m not interested.

In addition, written communication is used in business as a method of communication. When a business is using any form of written communication, they need to make sure that the information is of a professional level and they use proper English with correct spelling and grammar. Not meeting these will make readers not take the business seriously as they are unable to produce documentation to a professional standard. Examples of written communication can be letters, reports etc.

An example of written communication that is used at my work place is the ‘Outcome Form’, which is a form filled in by clinician which states the next stage of the process for the patient. This could mean that the patient needs to come back for a follow-up appointment or they have been discharged. Another form of written communication that I use in my work place is the ‘Patient List’ which has all patient names and details about their appointment. We use this to see if we have all the patient notes for that day and if not, we have to track them and get them so it’s ready for them on the day of their appointment.

1.2 Describe the communication requirements of different audiences?

Knowing your audience before you have to communicate with them is important because you will tailor the way you communicate depending on the type of audience. For example, if you were communicating to your colleagues will differ to, if you were communicating with a customers or patients because you may use certain words with your colleagues which customers/patients won’t understand and therefore communicating like that with customers/patients won’t be effective as they may not understand.

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