Siwalik series are known as the freshwater sedimentary rocks of potwar plateaus and sub-Hamalian hills. Vertebrate fossils of Himalayas, Sindh, and perim, Island, Baluchistan and Burma are present in Siwaliks rocks by Colbert (1935).Miocene and Pilgrims are not more advanced than the fossils. And these fossils are divided the siwaliks rocks into three sub-divisions i.e. Upper siwaliks(boulder conglomerate zone,pinjor and Tatrot zone) middle siwaliks(Dhokpathan and Nagri Zone) and lower siwaliks (Chinji Zone and Kamlial Zone).
The comprehensive scientific description about Siwaliks was given by Falconer and Cutely (1847) in the book “Fauna Antique Sivalensis” the early fossils of Bovids were known 200 million years ago (Savage and long, 1986).The Boselaphines first appear in Pakistan, china, Africa and Europe in early Miocene. From Boselaphines the Bovine appears in the late Miocene (Vrba et al 2000)
Lydekker (1876) fellow Falconer and Caulty (1847) work and publication series of comprehensive monograph in “Paleontological India” and many other shorter contributions were also made in the “Geological survey of India”
Iqbal and Shah (1980) suggested that the Siwaliks series are the world famous rock containing vertebrates ‘fossils. Different Paleontologist studied different Siwaliks Colbert Fossils. An exclusive study of Siwaliks Proboscides has been made by Osborn (1936), Perissodactyla by Foresting (1968), Artiodactyl by Sarwar (19870.
Siwalik fauna would be under worked in in earliest 20thcentury by pilgrims and wrote different articles on various vertebrate groups. Pilgrims which was already reported by various Paleontologists criticized many genera and species.
Pilgrim investigated biostratigraphy of Siwalik Hills in (1913).Mathew (1929) reviewed Pilgrim work. Methew (1929) placed series high in the geological time on the basis of fossils of Hipparion in the Siwalik North America as others do before. Bovids of Siwaliks studied in detail by Falconer (1845) and pilgrims (1907, 1937, and 1939). These are also discussed by Nanda (1979, 982) and Sawar (1991).
The fossils of Bovids having large sized teeth which are having deep crowns and bend into folds and enamel surface which indicates that they feed on more fibers and more granules diet probably grass. The Bovinae of late Miocene was inhabited in the drier environment. (Jarmon 1947).
During early twentieth century the knowledge of siwalik vertebrates has greatly extended by
Dr. Guy E. Pilgrim (1913) .The diverse siwalik fauna development results from the progressive change in Siwalik climate is from a relatively dry plains environment to a moist and forest environment (Colburt,1935).
Pilgrim (1913) opened the field in the diversity and study of the Siwalik series. During the Miocene through Pliocene and, the Pleistocene, sedimentation deposits the uplift of the Himalayas from north to the east, which is the main source of the siwalik beds.
The Siwalik area of Pakistan have been explored accurately by Akhtar (1992) as reaction of this many new species has been originated Miotragocerus dhokpthanensis, Pachyportax giganteus, Selenopotax dhokpathanensis, Proamphibos dhokawanensis, Bubalus bathygnathus, Bubalus jarikasensis,Boskashmerikus, Indoredunca gaalensis, Antelope intermidius, Gazelle padriensis.
In the American menagerie number of specimens were unearthed from Nagri villages and neighborhood near Nagri convalescent homes (Colbert, 1935).
Bovids in Siwaliks were methodically investigated in the American menagerie by the pioneer (1913)
In the assortment below study there square measure seven species happiness to 6 genera, three sub families, 2 families and 2 orders i.e. order Perissodactyla and order Artiodactyla. The specimens below study were collected from “Bun Amir Khatoon” that is enclosed in middle Siwaliks formations. The collections include isolated teeth of jowl so.
Hipparion antelopium is characterized by generally medium sized premolars and molars. The enamel lining of the fosette is relatively complicated as compare to H. Theobald. The protocone is oval in form and linguistically compressed. The Hipparion 1st appeared in North America, migrated to Asia and become extinct in Pliocene epoch.
The cheek teeth in Hipparion Theobald square measure massive in size hypsodont and square normally contour. The enamel border is straightforward within the central cavities. The protocone is isolated pillar like structure, laterally compressed.
The term Siwalik Hills as understood by huntsman (1868) comprise the sub-mountainous region on the Southern flakes of the mountain range, extending from the Indus River on the North to Brahmaputra on the South.
Matthew (1929), sauce (1935) outline this term i.e. Siwalik Hills to the North-Western sides of Sub-Himalayas which incorporates the realm between Attock (Pakistan) and Shimla hills (India) still as Potwar tableland.
Pasco (1920) and Pilgrim (1919) have tried to clarify the history of deposition of the Siwalik deposit. Per these employees a good stream “Siwalik river” flowed northward into the remnants of the Tethys Ocean.
Pilgrim (1913) was the primary to analyze the Siwalik biostratigraphy. He divided the Siwalik into lower, middle, higher Siwalik. Lower Siwalik contains of Kamlial and Chinji, middle Siwalik comprises Dhokpathan and Nagri formation. Whereas higher Siwalik contains Pinjor, Tatrot and Boulder conglomerates.
This study is predicated on the specimens collected from roll emir Khatoon, district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan. It’s enclosed within the middle Siwalik i.e. Nagri and Dhokpathan formation. Roll emir Khatoon is thirty three metric linear unit from Chakwal.
The Nagri outcrops exhibit cyclic alternation of sand stone with subordinate clay and conglomerates. The sand stone area unit grey, medium to course grained in some places dark-blue grey, dull red, chalky and is poorly cemented. Subordinate clay is sandy, silty, brown reddish grey or pale orange whereas conglomerates encompass pebbles of igneous rocks and Eocene sedimentary rock.
Dhokpathan formation is created by monotonous cyclic alternation of sand stone and clay, and stone white, dark-brown grey, light gray, sometimes dark-brown grey, Venetian red, brown or buff, light-green inexperienced, gray, thick bedded, chalky moderately cemented, soft; cross bedded; clay orange brown, dull red, sometimes rusty brown, yellow grey or chocolate, yellow. Minor intercalations of raw sienna silt stone. It’s Associate in Nursing extravagantly remains space. In line with pilgrim (1910) Dhokpathan is epoch in age.
MATERIALS AND strategies
The study relies upon the gathering of fossils comprising of 13 specimens. These are collected from “Bun emeer Khatoon” district Chakwal, Punjab, Pakistan. These specimens describe here contains of mandibles utterly isolated higher and lower teeth. The crowns of just about all teeth were part or utterly coated with sediments and cement. The embedded further sediments were removed and punctiliously procured with the assistance of chisels, choose head hammers and varied styles of needles. The onerous substance material was removed by victimisation acid, acid and vitriol. Varied styles of adhesive materials like epoxy steel, araldite and Elfy were wont to fix the broken piece of specimens. Boiling in fuel oil additionally applied.
Images were infatuated the assistance of “Cannon” camera victimisation accent lenses for smaller specimens. Distinctionicongraph and chemicals were used for film developing and photo printing. Vernier micrometer was used for the measurements of the specimens so as to formulate the tables. Every specimen shows each the gathering year likewise because the serial variety of that year e.g. 05/11.