Seepage pore water pressure, and preserve the geometrical

         Seepage flow is well recognized in  engineering especially in geotechnical
engineering practice such as dams, slopes, underground spaces, etc.). Seepage passes
 through soils, rocks and very influence
on the deformation and stability of soils, rocks and geotechnical structures.
Seepage control is crucial for maintaining the stability and safety of the
engineering works

         The physical mechanisms and their
corresponding numerical modeling approaches of engineering measures for seepage
control should be understood as they are absolutely important for safety
assessment, optimization design, construction and operation of a seepage
control system.

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         We can generally classified engineering
measures that have been widely taken for seepage control in geotechnical and
geo-environmental engineering practices into four categories. The very fisrt
category is the construction of an impervious zone with low permeability and
high critical hydraulic gradient to limit the quantity of seepage flow, reduce
the pore water pressure, and preserve the geometrical integrity of the
impervious system, such as clay core, asphalt-concrete core, concrete face slab
or impervious blanket in embankments, grouting curtain in rock foundations, etc? The second
category make use of filter and drain zones in soil/rock foundations,
underground caverns and concrete/soil dams to decrease pore water pressure
mainly the uplift pressure, receive and remove seepage water, and prevent soils
from seepage failure, such as drainage holes or horizontal drainage blankets.
The third category is regarding the operation and management of the reservoir,
such as the control of the effect of water level fluctuation on groundwater
movement. The last one is to improve, by various groundwater remediation
techniques, the quality of polluted or contaminated water that may cause
hazards to environments and society.

          In fractured porous media, the
movement of groundwater is governed by the mass and the momentum conservation
laws of water, with the later commonly being represented by Darcy’s law, and
subjected to the constraints of initial conditions, boundary conditions,
material properties and computational requirements when numerical modeling is
needed. Theoretically, by changing, adding or removing the storage terms in the
governing equation, changes of the initial and boundary conditions, or changes
of the hydraulic properties ,the seepage flow process will undergo changes as
the process occurs. Thus, it is utmost important to fully clear with the
physical mechanisms of various engineering measures for seepage control by
linking the control effects with corresponding components in the mathematical
model of seepage flow.With that establishment of performance assessment and
optimization design of the seepage control structures could be achieved on a
more rigorous mathematical basis and a sounder scientific foundation.



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