Secondly, relate is a crucial element in learners’

Secondly, Shakespeare texts’ themes and tropes are widely considered to be universal in terms of human experience (Nig, ek is seker jy kan jou eie voorbeelde hier insluit). This argument is often used to support the relevancy of Shakespeare in any educational context. However, one must consider the question of accessibility in terms of social and cultural aspects, such as the milieu of the texts, regarding the extent to which learners in a given context can relate to the world of the characters. Other aspects to consider in this regard are ‘minority’ experiences such as gender dominance and alternative sexual orientations. The ability to relate is a crucial element in learners’ motivation to master the texts. Motivation, in turn, influences the level of mastery of the knowledge and skills already mentioned above.

This leads us to the drawbacks of a Shakespeare-dominated drama curriculum in the South African Senior and FET phase context. When one considers the paradigms developing from the so-called ‘decolonising the curriculum’ movements of recent years, one has to ask the question; can prescribed literary texts, including Shakespearean plays, assist our learners to come to a better self-understanding within the current and historical South African environment? My opinion at this stage, considering the lack of available research on this topic, is that the Shakespearean world might be too distant for many South African learners to relate to in terms of the aspects mentioned in the previous paragraph. This relative inability to relate might lead to a lack of motivation, and subsequent lower levels of mastery. I therefore think that more topical texts should also be included in the drama/play curriculum, texts that a wider variety of learners can potentially relate to. Examples of such texts can be found among the works of African and South African playwrights such as Zakes Mda, Athol Fugard, Gcina Mhlophe, and Nadine Gordimer, and perhaps even playwrights from abroad, such as Maya Angelou, Arthur Miller and Thornton Wilder.

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To conclude, it is, firstly, my opinion that some Shakespearean works should be retained in the curriculum because of their usefulness for developing fluency in English, and their thematic engagement with important human experiences, as argued in the first section of this document. In order for this aim to be met effectively, however, educators have to incorporate active, verbal involvement on the part of the learners, and also remain mindful of the extent to which Shakespearean works present potentially insurmountable linguistic, social, and cultural barriers to learners. Secondly, I think that potentially more ‘relatable’ plays have to be included in the curriculum in order to sustain interest and motivation over the course of the Senior and FET phases.

Secondly, Golding portrays Ralph as an embodiment of ego that makes sure to satisfy all the needs and wants of the id in a way that seems proper in today’s world, which means that ego not only interacts with conscious but also unconscious mind. Ralph is the chief and one of the most influential boys in this little society. He constantly acts as a democratic leader that balances between the id and superego. For instance, realizing Jack’s desire of being the chief, “Ralph looks at him, eager to offer something”, and then Ralph decides to give Jack control of the hunting team, and says to Jack: “The choir belongs to you, of course..”, and consequently, “the suffusion drained away from Jack’s face” (Golding 19). Ralph cares about others’ feelings, and does something realistic that is allowed by the society. At the same time, he fulfills Jack’s desire to be a leader to a certain extent. This reasonable action, which is controlled by the ego, also satisfies the urges of id in a socially accepted way. Moreover, Ralph has a strong sense of responsibility. While he is complaining to Piggy that the other boys do not care about the importance of the fire going, he makes a confession, “‘supposing I got like the others—not caring. What ‘ud become of us’ ” (Golding 153). He is more conscious about the society rather than himself. As a leader, Ralph has to identify the savagery of id and the morality of superego in order to come up with the best solution for the public. In his case, the concept of the ego is clearly demonstrated, which represents the rational aspect of the mind, and maintains peace and stability.


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