Home Research PapersReview of Related Literature This chapter presents information and

Review of Related Literature This chapter presents information and

Review
of Related Literature

This
chapter presents information and studies conducted related to the project. The
following reviews are obtained from different sources such as books, journals,
reports and other related works:

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

Paper
is defined by Noah Webster as “a substance made in the form of thin sheets or
leaves from rags, straw, bark, wood, or other fibrous materials for various
uses.” With the abundance of paper used today throughout the world in books,
magazines, and newspapers and for writing, it is difficult to conceive that
there was a period of thousands of years when true paper did not exist. At the
present time it would be impossible for civilization to endure, even for a day,
the total lack of paper – a material that is as little understood by the
average consumer at it is indispensable. (Hunter et.al, 1974)

The
word paper itself originates from the name of the papyrus plant, which in
ancient times was common along the Nile River in Egypt. Papyruses, produced
using slender cuts of this plant, are squeezed, dried, and after that utilized
as a substrate for the written word, in a procedure that jam the first
appropriation of cellulose fibres, and which came to associate with over two
centuries before the revelation of paper. The creation of paper is without a
doubt the most vital innovation of humanity amid the principal thousand years.
Since paper generation spread everywhere throughout the world, the commitment
to oddity has crossed all fringes. Just from the mid-nineteenth century on was
wood considered as a crude material for papermaking. Pulping, the detachment of
cellulose from wood, has a short, however incredible history: endless new
innovations were created in a brief timeframe. The utilization of paper has
touched diverse regions of regular day to day existence. To address the
assorted variety of uses, paper needs more fixings alongside cellulose fibres.
(Hagiopol, 2012)

Used
in a wide variety of forms, paper and paperboard are characterized by a wide
range of properties. In the thousands of paper varieties available, some
properties differ only slightly and others grossly. The identification and
expression of these differences depend upon the application of standard test
methods, generally specified by industry and engineering associations in the
papermaking countries of the world.

According
to Ghosh, no manufactured product plays a more critical part in every of human
activity than paper and paper items. It’s essential in regular daily existence
is clear from its utilization in recording, stockpiling, and scattering of
data. Basically, all written work and printing is done on paper. It is the most
broadly utilized wrapping and bundling material, and is essential for auxiliary
applications. The utilizations and applications for pulp and paper items are
essentially boundless. (2011)

The
first sheet of paper was not proposed for mass utilization but rather offered
ascension to a procedure that would deliver billions of huge amounts of paper
utilizing billions of huge amounts of wood which touches another worldwide
issue: wood is a standout amongst the most imperative materials of our
opportunity. It is a crude material for some different ventures and an
adjusting variable of climate. (Hagiopol et. al., 2012)

Papermaking,
formation of a matted or felted sheet, usually of cellulose fibres, from water
suspension on a wire screen. Paper is the basic material used for written
communication and the dissemination of information. In addition, paper and
paperboard provide materials for hundreds of other uses, such as wrapping,
packaging, toweling, insulating, and photography.

 

In
this study, the strength and durability of the paper that will be produced
shall be taken into account. The strength of paper is determined by the
following factors in combination: (1) the strength of the individual fibres of
the stock, (2) the average length of the fibre, (3) the interfibre bonding
ability of the fibre, which is enhanced by the beating and refining action, and
(4) the structure and formation of the sheet. Resistance to rupture when
subjected to various stresses is an important property in practically all
grades of paper. Most papers require a certain minimum strength to withstand
the treatment received by the product in use; but even where use requirements
are not severe, the paper must be strong enough to permit efficient handling in
manufacture. Tensile strength is the greatest longitudinal stress a piece of
paper can bear without tearing apart. The stress is expressed as the force per
unit width of a test specimen. Since the weight of the paper and the width of
the test specimen affect the force of rupture, a conventional method of
comparing inherent paper strength is the breaking length—that is, the length of
a paper strip in metres that would be just self-supporting. (Britt, 1999)

Optimal
properties of the paper that will be produced shall also be considered. Optical
properties pertain to brightness, color, opacity, and gloss. The term
brightness has come to mean the degree to which white or near-white papers and
paperboard reflect the light of the blue end of the spectrum (i.e., their
reflectance). This reflectance is measured by an instrument that illuminates
paper at an average angle of incidence of 45° and a wavelength of 457?
(microns). Brightness measured in this way is found to correlate closely with
subjective estimates of the relative whiteness of paper. Opacity is one of the
most desired properties of printing and writing papers. Satisfactory
performance of such papers requires that there be little or no “show-through”
of images from one side of the sheet to the other. Satisfactory opacity in
printing papers requires that white mineral pigments be incorporated with the
paper stock or applied as a coating. The terms gloss, glare, finish, and
smoothness are used in describing the surface characteristics of paper. The
broad term finish refers to the general surface characteristics of the sheet.
Smoothness refers to the absence of surface irregularities under either visual
or use conditions. Gloss refers to surface lustre and connotes a generally
pleasing aspect. (Britt, 1999)

Brightening
is first of all a by-product of cleaning, of the removal of dirt and
impurities. Of all man-made products, most likely fabrics were the first ones
to be bleached with purpose. Laundering and the treatment with soap remove fat,
waxes, and stains. The removal of stains is an essential prerequisite of
drying. Only uniform products react with dyestuff into a homogenously colored
product. (Suess, 1947)

Bleaching
leads to brighter (whiter) paper, this gives better contrast between the print
and the paper. Other reasons for bleaching is cleanliness, as bleaching removes
impurities that otherwise turn up in the paper as dots, and age-preservation,
as bleaching can remove chemical structures in the pulp material that otherwise
would in time make the paper yellow. Some paper products require a white paper.
One reason is the print quality. A whiter paper gives a better contrast between
the paper and the print, the cleanliness of the paper is another reason for
bleaching. Impurities in the pulp may otherwise turn up on the paper as dots,
deteriorating the printing. A third reason for bleaching is the ability of
paper resist ageing. Substances in the pulp can turn the paper yellow and
brittle as time goes by, mainly substances connected to lignin. (Ek et.al,
2009)

Hydrogen
peroxide is a rather widely used bleaching agent for high yield pulps. It has
been also demonstrated that it can partially or totally replace chlorine or
chlorine dioxide in the bleaching of chemical pulps. (Hendry et.al, 1985)

Kraft
pulping is a full chemical pulping method using sodium hydroxide and sodium
sulfide at pH above 12, at 160 to 180oC, corresponding to about 800
kPa steam pressure, for 0.5 to 3 hours to dissolve much of the lignin wood
fibers. It is useful for any wood species, gives a high strength pulp, is
tolerant to bark, and has an efficient energy and chemical recovery cycle.
(Bierman, 1996)

According
to Ek, Kraft cooking is the dominant chemical pulping method globally. The
cooking chemicals used are sodium hydroxide, and sodium sulphide. By leaving
out the sodium sulphide and only used sodium hydroxide as the cooking chemical,
the process is called soda cooking. (2009)

In
the United States and Canada, about portion of the wood delivered is utilized
as timber, fundamentally for development; the sawdust and other waste shaped in
preparing the sheets is changed over to molecule board and pulp. The following
most broad utilization of wood is for pulp, which in addition to other things
is changed over by different procedures to paper, manufactured ?bers, plastics,
and tile. (Bidlack, 2003)

A
significant number of us are aware of ways we can utilize assets economically,
make things ourselves, and esteem the articles in our lives by making them with
our own particular hands. In any case, we don’t really think about the paper we
use consistently and the immense measures of vitality and water devoured by paper
factory mills.

Grasses
involve a more prominent territory of the world’s land surface than some other
plant family, happening in relatively every earthbound condition and giving a
crucial source of nourishment for people and animals. (Cheplick, 1998)

 

Paper
has been made from grasses and other non-wood materials for over 1900 years.
Wood is relatively new papermaking fibre, only 100 years old. Today, the
commercial non-wood pulp production accounts for 6% of the global pulp
production. (Pahkala, 1994)

The
earliest information about usage of grass as a writing material dates back to
3000 BC in Egypt where the pressed pith tissue of papyrus sedge was the most
widely used writing material. In the 20th century, wood became the
main raw material for paper. (Atchison et. al, 1987)

In
many countries, the wood supplies are not large enough for the rising demand of
pulp and paper, but on the other hand, the availability of agroresiduals is
high. (Paavilainen, 1996)

According
to Hagiopol, the structure of chemicals for paper must accommodate not only the
diversity of demands for paper quality but also the papermaking process. Paper
chemicals must not react unintentionally with water and must be adsorbed on the
cellulose fiber in the presence of water. The interactions between chemicals
and cellulose (solubilization, adsorption, chemical reactions) must take place
in the temperature ranges from 20oC to about 105oC and
moisture from 99.5% to 5%. Thus, it is obvious that there are no two
papermaking systems alike and there is no paper chemical that serves all
functions and performs under every set of conditions. Paper chemistry is
developed by keeping in mind not only the paper performances and costs, but
also the wood preservation and the environment protection. Thus, paper
additives have recently become more significant. The organic chemistry of paper
chemicals must be seen as parts of the papermaking process where chemical
engineering, colloid, and surface science, and materials science must also be
considered. The manipulation of the paper chemical composition, within the
paper making process, using organic chemistry is the background of Hagiopol’s
book. (2012)

Cellulose
fibers are recovered from wood through a process called pulping. During wood
extraction with water, only

x

Hi!
I'm Alfred!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out