TRAINING NEED ASSESSMENT OF NEWLY INDUCTED SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AT SECONDRY LEVEL
Roll No: 118
The Frontier College of Commerce
Department of Education
Abbottabad University of Science & Technology
An ass assessment process that serves as a diagnostic tool for determining what training needs to take place. This survey gathers data to determine what training needs to be developed to help individuals and the organization accomplish their goals and objectives. This is an assessment that looks at employee and organizational knowledge, skills, and abilities, to identify any gaps or areas of need. Once the training needs are identified, then you need to determine/develop objectives to be accomplished by the training. These objectives will form criteria for measures of success and utility. This analysis can be performed by managers who are able to observe their staff and make recommendations for training based on performance issues or gaps between performance and objectives. This analysis can also be performed on an organization-wide level by Training and Development managers who survey the organization to identify needs.
Teachers, regardless of certification method, have a continuing desire and need for in-service training to ensure that their skills are current and their subject content knowledge is up to date. Historically, education authorities have as part of their mission, function to identify and deliver relevant in-service workshops to teachers. However, the authorities often have had difficulties in identifying appropriate topics to include. Due to lack of credible demographic data and academic and professional qualification of the teachers. This problem may be compounded by the influx of uncertified teachers who often possess more different backgrounds and experiences than traditionally certified teachers. Therefore, accurate data should be gathered and used in planning a successful in-service program. A needs assessment is one means of determining areas in which teachers desire help. Identification of these perceived needs could have implications for in-service programs provided for teachers. This can best be achieved through needs assessment of the participating teachers. According to Camuzcu and Duruhan (2011), detailing these training needs of teachers using scientific tools and methods leads to objective results. This is because the outcome of the needs analysis will lead to effective planning of in-service activities that address the expressed needs of the teachers.
Induction of newly appointed teachers is an important administrative and supervisory function of the school administrators; how a new teacher is introduced to his/her assignment can greatly influence the contributions that the teacher will eventually make to the school system. Globally, induction programs to assist new teachers in adjusting to the rigors of teaching have been considered important and have been developed in a number of countries and schools. These programs recognize the special developmental needs of first-year teachers by providing both specialized training and emotional support (Duke, 1990). The induction programs are developed to bring first-year teachers, veteran teachers, school administrators and university resource people. The focus of these programs is the issues that most concern new teachers such as: beginning the school year, classroom management, organizing instruction methods, grading, and evaluating students. The induction is considered very important for new teachers and all professionals do take active roles in new teacher acclimatization. They do this through mentoring, modeling good teacher practice, orientations, and in-service training. In USA, Best Practice Research, do sponsor several mentoring conferences and trainings. The purpose of the conference is to promote the development of mentoring and induction programs, which have a high impact on the performance of both experienced and novice teachers and students. This equally shows how induction is valued in USA. In Scotland, England and Wales, teachers serve a two-year probationary period, during which period, help is offered to novice teachers through an induction program (Cape et al., 1995).
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The enhancement of teacher training is recognized as a strategic priority for national social and economic development. Different strategic documents emphasize the need for ”continuous improvement of the competences of teaching staff” and rank ”continuing professional training of teachers” as one of the four key development priorities for the education sector. There is a critical need for a review and the development of a new strategy, new plans and programmes through which all teachers may gain the skills and knowledge they need. The purpose of the study is to find out the training assessment of needs of newly inducted secondary school teachers in district Abbottabad.
1.2 Objective of the Study
The study is based on the following specific objectives.
1. To establish the relationship between training of teachers and school performance in secondary schools in district Abbottabad.
2. To assess the profile of teachers’ training in terms of gender, age, kinds of training received, frequency of training and experience.
3. To assess the profile of secondary school performance in terms of teacher management, instructional leadership, school discipline and academic performance
1.3 Research Questions
1. What is the profile of teachers’ training in terms of gender, age, types of training received, frequency of training and experience?
2. What is the profile of secondary school performance in terms of teacher management, instructional leadership, school discipline?
3. Is there any relationship between the profile of teachers’ training and secondary school performance?
There is significant relationship between training of secondary school teachers and their performance in secondary schools.
Delimitation of the study
The present study is confined to the secondary school teachers only in district abbottabad city.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study may be of importance to the government, school leaders, teachers, parents and students who will read this book. Teacher induction programs play a pivotal role in the period of transition from student to teacher. Besides other possible effects, such as contributing to the professional development of mentors and an open school culture, good induction programs are, above all, assumed to contribute to beginning teachers’ well-being and their professional development. Contributing to beginning teachers’ well-being is not only important for beginning teachers personally, but it may also help in decreasing the attrition rate amongst beginning teachers, which is an important issue for schools. A lower attrition rate amongst beginning teachers means more stability in the staff, fewer costs for seeking new personnel, and less investment in introducing new personnel. Contributing to beginning teachers’ professional development means investing in the quality of (beginning) teachers and thus in the quality of education. Good induction programs, therefore, are of value not only for beginning teachers, but also for schools and students. Up till now little knowledge has been available on what characteristics of induction programs are effective in the sense of promoting beginning teachers’ well-being and professional development. The current research might contribute to our knowledge of the importance of various elements of induction programs and how beginning teachers are nowadays supported by induction programs. The acquired insights into how beginning teachers are currently supported by induction programs and the importance of the various characteristics of induction programs also have practical relevance. The results of this study might provide useful information to policy-makers and schools for developing good induction programs or improving existing induction programs.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The teacher induction period refers to the transitional period between pre-service preparation and continuing professional development, encompassing the first few years of teaching (Huling-Austin, Odell, Ishler, Kay, ; Edelfelt, 1989). It is an intense phase in which teachers learn many things and have to deal with the typical difficulties of beginning teachers (Huberman, 1989; Veenman, 1984). Induction is a process of initiating new teachers into their new roles, both as teachers and as members of the school organization. As new members of the school organization, they often have to compete for a place amongst the more experienced teachers, adjust to the predominant school culture, and earn the appreciation of colleagues (Kelchtermans ; Ballet, 2002; Zeichner ; Gore, 1990). Beginning teachers’ induction period is very important in view of their further careers. Teachers form their professional identity, construct a professional practice and often decide to stay in the profession or to leave it (Feiman-Nemser, 2001). A still increasing number of schools supports beginning teachers with an induction program: a more or less formalized program that is aimed to support beginning teachers in their first years of teaching after their pre-service education (Beijaard, Buitink, & Kessels, 2010). Due to cultural differences and local policies, to some extent goals and content of induction programs in various countries differ. Nevertheless, it is increasingly acknowledged that induction programs are essential, for even a very comprehensive teacher education program cannot prepare teachers for their job completely (Britton, Paine, Pimm, & Raizen, 2003). Goals of induction programs In teacher education nowadays more opportunities are created for student teachers to practice and work like teachers in schools. It is supposed that this helps to reduce the so-called ‘practice shock’ (Gold, 1996), already described by, for example, Müller-Fohrbrodt (1978). After graduation, however, many new teachers still find themselves in a situation in which their knowledge and skills are tested in different types of classrooms, pertaining to other subjects, et cetera, than the ones they had become confident with during their teacher education period. They take on the responsibility of teaching on their own, and they have to balance contradictory views regarding their practice, which derive from the culture of their specific school, their personal expectations, and the professional norms in general (Beijaard & Papanaoum, 2002; Kelchtermans & Ballet, 2002; Tickle, 2000). The difficulties that beginning teachers have to cope with often lead to feelings of low self-efficacy, stress, and sometimes burnout (Gold, 1996). As a consequence of negative well-being, many beginning teachers choose to leave the profession (Harris & Farrell, 2007; Ingersoll, 2001; Advies van de Commissie Leraren, 2007; Smithers & Robinson, 2003). Against this background, many schools use induction programs with the aim of contributing to beginning teachers’ state of well-being and professional development. An important policy argument is to prevent attrition amongst beginning teachers. Overall, induction should be seen as an investment in retaining teachers who – with assistance – can become effective in shorter time frames, and as an alternative to spending great amounts of money in replacing teachers. Scholars plead for induction programs that enable new teachers not just to survive but to prosper during their first year(s) of teaching, and motivate them to strive for continuous improvement (Cole, 1994; Feiman-Nemser, 2003). Induction programs should contain a 11 Introduction balance in supporting beginning teachers in the following three areas (Beijaard ; Papanaoum, 2002; Gold, 1996; McNally, 2002; Tickle, 2000): The socialization of the teacher in the school culture. This includes many aspects of the school on which beginning teachers have to be informed, varying from school rules for teachers and students to agreements on the curriculum, goals, and mission of the school.Further developments of knowledge and skills which are necessary for good teaching. This means, on the one hand, extension of the action repertoire, and, on the other hand, adjustment of this repertoire to the specific situation in the school. Central is the development of a style of teaching which is personal and fits with the goals and mission of the school. The care of personal development. This means psychological help aimed at the development of self-confidence, a positive self-image, learning how to deal with stress, et cetera. However, in practice induction programs are often criticized for having limited content, a lack of theoretical basis, and insufficient resources. Induction mandates in many countries ‘do not rest on an understanding of teacher learning, a vision of good teaching or a broad view of the role formal induction can play in new teacher development. Often they lack the necessary resources to support effective programs’ (Feiman-Nemser, 2001, p. 1031). Wang and Odell (2002) concluded in their review study that the content of the support from an induction program is often limited to technical and emotional support. Mentors often help beginning teachers feel comfortable, but they offer little professional support that fosters a principled understanding of teaching (Little, 1990). 1.1.3 Research perspectives on teacher induction. Though teacher induction has been described and discussed since the 1950s (e.g., Amar, 1952), it is only since the 1980s – 1990s that teacher induction has received serious attention in research and the literature. Many researchers began to describe the sudden and sometimes dramatic and traumatic experiences of the transition from being a student to becoming a teacher (e.g., Corcoran, 1981; Rosenholtz, 1989; Veenman, 1984). In relation to these studies, several scholars emphasized the importance of induction programs to support beginning teachers (e.g., Feiman-Nemser ; Parker, 1992; Huling-Austin, 1992). Since teacher induction is a frequently discussed topic in the literature, from a research perspective two shifts in attention can be distinguished. In the beginning, induction programs were seen as a means to help beginning teachers overcome their difficulties and problems, mainly with classroom management and instruction (Gold, 1996). Beginning teachers were typically seen from a deficit model: though they may formally be qualified to teach, in general, beginning teachers have deficits they have yet to overcome. From the mid-1990s this way of viewing beginning teachers and induction programs changed: teacher induction was seen as a phase in the continuum of teachers’ professional development. Teacher induction was not so much about overcoming deficits as about pursuing high standards in teacher quality. We currently see another change in perspective. Teacher induction is considered part of the wider school policy with regard to teachers’ professional development and beginning teachers’ own initiatives receive more emphasis. Beginning teachers are viewed as fully capable teachers who are co-responsible for their professional development. Instead of being seen as teachers with deficits, they are considered valuable for the school; beginning teachers bring new knowledge and visions into the school and can actively contribute to the development of the school (Tickle, 2000). In sum, in a period of about three decades the research perspective on teacher induction shifted from seeing beginning teachers as rather passive consumers of knowledge and experiences provided by others (deficit model) to a view of these as active contributors to their own and others’ professional development (growth model). This has undoubtedly been influenced by a more general shift in our thinking about the role of teachers and teaching in contemporary society. New developments in society continually affect the mission and goals of schools and, thus, the work of the teachers in these schools. As with professionals in other fields, teachers’ lifelong learning and management of their own learning process are increasingly found to be important, and are often explicit aspects of school policy.
The Study will be based upon primary as well as secondary sources. The Published material, journal, articles published in newspapers and magazines will also be used to substantiate the arguments.
All the private and public schools were selected for this purpose in District Abbottabad.
To comply with the objectives of the study, 20 secondary school teachers were selected from schools of District Abbottabad. The stratified random sampling technique was employed in selecting the sample. Teachers were stratified based on gender such equal number of participants represents each of the two genders.
3.3 Research instrument
The tools used for the present study will be checklist, observation and unstructured interview method.
3.4 Validity and Reliability
Validity and reliability will be assured by the expert committee of the university.
3.5 Data Collection
Data regarding the given topic will be collected by using survey method.
3.6 Analysis and interpretation
The present study is confined to 20 secondary school teachers in District Abbottabad.
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