“Primary education has been known as the important level in attaining the literacy rate. It increases the literacy rate as well economic growth of the country. Throughout the world the role of primary education in contributing towards the socio-economic development has captured the attention of researchers” (Niazi and Khan, 2016, pg. 373). Therefore, it is safe to say that primary education is the foundation that allows students to succeed academically. Without the necessary instruction and support at the primary level, there could be a gap in the educational achievement of 2nd graders entering the testing grade. The reason of this assignment is to synthesize articles, discussing how they collectively inform the gap for this current research. It would be very significant to locate the similarities and differences within previous research articles. Reviewing the literature enlightens the researcher and give direction for the necessary steps that can be taken to bridge the gap. This synthesis essay will exploit the ideas of preexisting research to give a foundation and steer the current research.
Researchers have discovered elements that have impeded the academic success of primary students. These seem to be identifiable factors that researchers have discussed in previous research. These factors have been investigated and insinuated to be a stumbling block for the educational achievement of primary students. The preceding will highlight the common factors that were discovered in literature. It is important to note the factors that can deter or develop a successful primary student. The articles yielded common themes which helps to support the investigation of the research gap. The past research assumed that those factors were the cause of the low academic achievement. It is believed that synthesizing the different research articles helps to illuminate the gap of research. This article will convey important studies with common themes highlighting academic achievement, the factors which impedes academic success and the responsibility of parents and teachers to ensure that the students are receiving quality education. Grouped together, these themes give support of the gap in literacy of primary students entering the testing grades.
Mutual Findings from the Literature
In order for primary students to excel in literacy, there must be provisions. This paragraph is dedicated to the common themes in support of the reason for the gap in primary students entering the testing grades. In reference to academic achievement, researchers believed that reading is a good indicator for academic success.
The perspective of (Dorsey, 2015, Nicolau and Navas (2015), indicated that academic success requires reading ability. Renth, Buckley and Puchner (2015) indicates that for students to excel in there needs to be capable teaching. Wasserberg (2017) took a different approach with the research focusing on the effects of stereotypes that causes a certain group of students to experience identity salience. In a study on students in Brazil, it was discovered that the type of schooling the students received affected the achievement of its students. Regardless of the quality of education the students received, the students excel in reading and writing (Nicolau and Navas 2015). Youn, (2015) too another approach by pointed out that a teacher with positive attitude will aid in the achievement of its students. There is also the factor of the gender gap which tend to add to the achievement gap (Schwabe, McElvany and Trendtel, 2015). Eventually, academic success which includes the importance, focus and clarification of the achievement gap should be explored (Ratcliff, Carroll, Jones, Costner, Sheehan and Hunt, 2017). Consequently, Lubis (2018) “study has clearly shown that reading does not start with words. In this case, a child who is termed as nonreader has managed to comprehend stories without decoding texts” (page 51).
The responsibility for academic achievement was also leveled at educators. They are held accountable to ensure that their students are successful. They are encouraged to make the necessary changes with instruction as well as enhancing their method of teaching through professional development (Dorsey, 2015, Nicolau and Navas, 2015, Parkinson, Meakin, Salinger, 2015, Picher and Ebner, 2015, Ratcliff, Carroll, Jones, Costner, Sheehan and Hunt, 2017, Wasserberg, 2017 and Youn, 2016).
Lastly, the idea that low socioeconomic status has an adverse effect on a student’s academic achievement. Researchers believe that the lack of education and poverty has a negative effect on a students’ academic achievement. The lack they experience causes them to be classified as low achieving students. (Renth, Buckley and Puchner, 2015). Being able to separate the connecting factors that adds to the achievement has not been an easy task. However, identifying the factors that cause the academic gap helps (Parkinson, Meakin, Salinger, 2015, Ratcliff, Carroll, Jones, Costner, Sheehan and Hunt, 2017). This examination discovered that there are significant factors which causes the academic gap of primary students.
Inferences Resulting from Articles
When analyzed using the common themes, the researcher can conclude that there are specific factors that were brought to light from the ten articles. The factors imply that the common discoveries, when combined, can impede the primary literacy achievement. When grouped together there is visible indications of how literacy, the ability to read, coupled with poverty and teacher responsibilities has led to low academic success of primary students. The result from the investigation proved significant.
The focus of each research centered around educational achievement and the factors that affect academic success. Through the investigation of each problem, the researcher discovered that there were limitations. Suggestions were made for future research to be done. Those gaps help to inform the foundation of this current research. Views from each article indicates that proficiency in academics need support. Either by the use of programs or developing the teacher’s instruction through professional development or through financial support. In essence, without the solutions to those factors, the academic success of primary/elementary students will not be fruitful.
The articles shared some of the same ideas as stated. The themes that were identified created an overall message. For that purpose, the achievement gap can be closed when the teachers support their students. Focusing on restructuring the curriculum can also be a positive effect on the educational achievement of primary students.
Informing the Research Gap
The discussion of these studies has informed the current research. When taken together, these discussions have informed the research gap of this current research. First of all, the inquiry from most of the researcher focused on a particular age range which is identical to the current study. The literature review highlighted various factors that is in direct connection with the reasons for the lack of success with primary educational achievement. The limitations and suggestions from each research prove to be the basis of this research. Authors such as Dorsey, (2015), Nicolau and Navas, (2015), suggested that future research should be completed using a larger study group to give generalizability of the outcomes. Wasserberg (2017) took a different approach and dealt with the the effect of dealing with stereotype. Poverty was a major concern. Each researcher who focused on the meaning behind low socioeconomic status discovered the negative effect that that it causes.
The role of this essay is to discover important themes that can be identified from ten scholarly research. When identified and synthesized, it is discovered that different researchers have the same idea in their research. It is important to use the collective of themes and connect them to the present investigation. All the findings, limitations and suggestions for future research is the path for discovering the research gap of this current research.