Recently, in the rainforests. There are other possible

Recently, the deforestation issue has been widely debated
all over the world of science and humanity. It can be defined as a process of
destroying the forests so that the lands are available for other reasons.

Research suggests that “rainforests that once grew over 14 percent of the land
of Earth now cover only about 6 percent, and if current deforestation rates
continue, these critical habitats could disappear from the planet completely
within the next hundred years” (National Geographic, 2015). It is undeniable that
there are many causes and effects of deforestation, therefore this essay will
consider the causes which are agricultural and economic and social. It will
then put forward a number of effects regarding this view in terms of
biodiversity loss and land degradation.

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The deforestation of rainforest is started for a number of
reasons. The causes of deforestation include agriculture that has been
the main occupation sector of people all over the world. Nowadays, traditional
farming systems and processes have been manipulated into primitive farming methods
due to modern technology without acknowledging the consequences that may
develop. For example, farmers that have been carrying out the slash and burn
technique that involves clearing the forest by cutting the trees to grow
more crops. The remaining vegetation was burned to convert it to agricultural
land, mainly for their own profits. Meanwhile, many countries make  the point that cattle ranching is
reasonably profitable since it only requires a small amount of labor and has a
broad market, which results in more profits earned. For instance, ranchers
in Central and South America will buy up land and turned it into grazing
land to make ways for cows to feed the global population. Apart from that, commercial
farming addresses the ability of agriculture to support growing demand for
food. That is to say, subsistence agriculture is farming for food while
commercial agriculture is farming to provide a farmer with food and money. For
example, due to the growing international demand for soya beans, an unfavorable
action has been taken in order to attain the soya beans market. As a result, improved
agricultural process threatened many species that live in the rainforests.




There are other possible causes of this widely known
deforestation issues. It must be cleared that as human population keeps on
enlarging, natural resources such as land and fossil fuels are high
demanded due to economic survival. According to Golden and Miller (1994),
mining and road building projects that keep increasing have been removed
another 10,000 square kilometers of land which mainly to feed the international
population. Furthermore, the financial issue has become another cause of
deforestation. In fact, most poor countries are forced to take the critical
move like destroying their own ecosystem which actually their primary source of
food. As an example, most poor and developing countries are in need of money
since they have many debts to be settled. McLeish (2007) states that
people believe that by exploiting the forest for timber, which is high-cost in
the longer term, is the only way to clear their large amount of money owed. Another
essential cause is there is no national consensus in almost all of the
country in the world. It is defined by National Coalition ( n.d.), national
consensus regarding the deforestation issue is an initiative designed to
improve the protection of the rainforests in the world. This can be proven when
there is no national consensus in the Philippines, which the number of
people carried out illegal logging increased and some overworked and underpaid
forest rangers are usually distracted by logging interests which will be more
beneficial for them.



As a result of the agricultural activities and economic and
social problems, there are many consequences that can be examined.



Deforestation of rainforests also raised many effects not
only to the animals and plants but also to the land as well. Biodiversity
loss is one of the main effects of deforestation since it entails cutting
down a massive amount of trees and herbs such as latex and natural oil for
their own profits. Pakenham’s 2005 study found that natural habitat such as
herbivore is forced to move when their food supply getting cuts. Some animals
are unable to find different food sources and in some cases, they might become
extinct. To illustrate, when there are one species faced the element of extinction,
the food sources start running low which may be the reason of other natural
habitat destroyed. As in industry, the world really needs rainforest
product to ensure the life cycle of humans. It is true that everyday people harvest
a large portion of raw materials such as rare plants and medicinal plants
that could be used in medicinal either traditional or modern ways. For example,
Pakenham (2005) found that Catharanthus roseus, which produce
vinblastine and vincristine, could be used to cure two forms of cancer. In
addition, deforestation could also lead to the loss of genetic support. This
happens when humans clear the rainforests without realizing that it might have an
impact on other plants. For example, the domesticated African oil palm relies
on the wild American oil palm, which plays a major role in becoming natural
resistance to spear rot. In other words, African oil palm could also become
susceptible to pests or disease through genetic diversity from the American oil
palm, which helps the oil palm to stay fresh longer (Pakenham, 2005). Hence, it
is proven that biodiversity loss is the main effect of deforestation of



Another effects of deforestation is land
degradation. Along the Atlantic coast of Honduras, 200 people were killed due to the catastrophic
floods and mudslides that were formed when water washed away with dirt, mud
and rocks (Golden and Miller, 1994). Some claim that the flood and mudslides
will be even worse in rainy season since there are no more trees that could
hold the soil. Another point is that deforestation could lead the soil to
become less fertile. This is because farmers took the initiative of using pesticides
that have been spoil the soil in order to grow cash crops such as coffee and
citrus fruits. The problem is that some farmers took a large area to be used
and these affects the nearer area. Pesticides are a chemical agent used to
control pests but will also have negative effects if the usage is not
controlled. As the consequences, the soil is free to wash away which can lead
to vegetation growth problems.



In conclusion, from the point of agriculture, it is clear that
it is the single main causes of deforestation. Economic and social problems are
also the reasons why deforestation is prohibited in most of the countries. On
balance, the increasing rates of deforestation have affected the biodiversity
and land degradation. It is evident that rainforests play important roles in
our life, therefore deforestation should be avoided.



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