Quynh Nhu Ba Tran
Instructor Hosuk Lee
Introduction to Human Geography 1101
21 May, 2018
The Relationships Between the Elements That Make Up the World
From ancient times, human beings constantly conquered and struggled with nature. No one can deny the relationship between man and nature. Without nature, human beings can not exist. But without human beings, nature still can create ecosystems. Therefore, it is understandable that people must rely on nature. Not only that, nature has to go through many periods of history and geographical change to develop as it is today. “Guns, Germs and Steel” is an excellent work by Jared Diamond, an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist, about the relationships between the elements that make up the world.
Nature becomes a part of human life and vice versa. Humans represent the highest stage in the development of nature. The physical and mental life of a person is closely connected with nature. That is why humans always follow the laws of nature and integrate into it. Food, housing, clothing, water, air, … are all provided by nature. Humans also receive from the environment, natural resources such as metals, mines, coal, … to put into production for processing human life and social development. The more you produce your own product, the more you need the help of nature, the more you recognize the benefits of nature. But not all natural conditions are the same. Why is there such a difference between continents? At the beginning of “Guns, Germs, and Steel,” Jared posed a lot of questions about it, and he firmly asserts that societies have developed on every continent, one by one because of their natural habitat.
By 11,000 BC, humanity was on every continent in the Stone Age. The years that followed, because of the uneven rate of development in other continents, led to inequality. While Australian and Native Americans remained hunter-gatherers in the Stone Age, most of the Eurasian and other groups in other continents gradually developed agriculture and livestock. One of the key points in the development of civilization is the production of food. Areas with stronger food production will grow faster. Significant forms of cultivation and husbandry in the process of social evolution. It produces food to feed people and animals. The timing of the formation of food production in each continent depends on geographic features and environmental characteristics. They produce and offer more than just meat (muscle power, leather, manure, milk, and wool). Although thousands of food items can be seen, the reality is that food production is based only on some types of crops and livestock. The fertile regions mentioned here are Eurasian. The favorable natural environment for agriculture has given them food, a large population, and a strong state-society. According to Jared Diamond, it is easier for plants and animals to adapt to other continents than to continents because of natural conditions. Eurasian has the same latitude, day length, and similar climate, so plants and animals are perfectly adapted to their new home without having problems in terms of environment. In contrast to regions like Africa and America due to tropical conditions and climate change has prevented the adaptation between species. Although Eurasian is a more developed continent of industry, it was only when the industry began to spread to European countries that the industry really changed.
The development of the continent has caused many territorial disputes and conflicts over technology and ideas. From there, people have more ideas to benefit themselves and their country. If the Inca know how to develop the product, the Spanish know how to make full use of it. For example, the Inca people use their power in everything, even if the camel is only considered a pet, the Spaniard knows how to use a horse to ride. The Spaniards used horses for the Incas, which is like the first time they saw white people. Horses also help create a military base for wealthy kingdoms. From prehistoric times to the First World War, speed, intensity in attack and high range of combat on horseback made the infantry almost useless in empty terrain. To run the arms race, continents have always tried to create the most advanced weapons for their country. To run the arms race, continents have always tried to create the most advanced weapons for their country. At that time, China headed the list of innovations, most notably gunpowder. After the idea had been transmitted to Europeans, they invented a gun with the same utility but smaller and more compact. However, at that time the gun took many times to use and it is still considered a rudimentary weapon. At that time, steel swords were created and became the favorite weapons of the soldiers. They are thin, hard, long, and sharp. Swords can stab and kill many people in a brief time. They became the first choice for warriors and gentlemen. As Europe became more modern with sharp objects, the Incas could only produce lightweight, rudimentary weapons, and made of wood.
The development of nature and continents has led to many other problems, one of which is the disease. If guns and steel are the results of technology, germs are the work of the livestock industry. Of the three factors, germs are surprising to the reader (viewers) by its enormous and cruel effect on the survival of a culture. In the boat from Spain to Mexico, a slave showed signs of smallpox and spread it throughout the continent. No one has constantly imagined such a terrible epidemic before. The number of deaths due to the disease is more than the number of deaths due to the war. However, this disease does not cause any impediment to the Spaniards. Why? They interact and use products from livestock (pigs, cows, sheep, and goats), They live and adapt to germs, they use germs to defeat germs. The Incas have llamas, but they are not like cows and sheep. Humans do not have the significant exchange of germs with llamas. So, compared to bad germs in the human environment, the number of beneficial bacteria in their bodies is not capable of fighting back. The spread of the disease rapidly spread across the continent, causing a significant decline in the population.
The more crowded and developed the society, the more it facilitates the invention of many things. The more societies split up, the more competition. The acquisition of inventions will be more rapid under the pressure of sustaining innovation if it does not want to be destroyed. Guns, germs, and steel are the three main elements that help a nation win over many others in terms of culture and politics. Therefore, owning all three of these elements is extremely important for the continent.
In summary, “Guns Germs and Steel” is a complete work based on elaborate research and effort. Geographic and environmental factors are the main factors that Jared Diamond used to explain differences in various parts of the world. Understanding history gives us a closer look at the world today. Humans start at the same point, but over time, the migration of human beings to different geographical regions has led to different development. There is no place like any place, all because of the ecological environment and geographical conditions in each place. Diversity from culture, politics, and people has been clearly demonstrated in the past. That change has made our world today.