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Nowadays

Nowadays, there is a strong concern about environmental activities and how they are affecting the planet. The approach of different methods to fight against pollution is a current conversation in daily life to make the planet a better and healthier place to live. Solar and wind energy are becoming popular in some countries to try to alleviate the impact of the human footprint on the earth. However, people have to see what kind of system is better in their location because solar and wind energy work differently. Solar energy and wind energy are two eco-friendly systems to generate electricity that allow people to have more than one option when choosing their preferred system, and both alternative energy sources have advantages and disadvantages that fit better with the people’s necessities depending on their liking.
Solar and wind energy have a couple of interesting advantages that could be attractive to customers and less harmful to the earth. Solar energy is a source that while the sun maintains its existence it will generate all the energy that people need. It is a cyclic process where not just people are benefitting, but the earth as well. While oil and fossil fuels have been used as conventional methods of electricity causing a problem for the environment, solar energy does not affect nature because its systems do not need those toxic liquids (Various advantages, 2018). The way that this system works is by solar panels. The solar panels convert sunlight into the electric charge direct current (DC) to alternative current (AC) which electrifies homes (Alternating Current, 2018). Due to the powerful sunlight, the system can generate more energy than people need, so people can reduce their electricity bills because the system saves the energy and acts like a reserve that can be useful when necessary. Wind energy creates energy by the air when it flows through the earth. With a generator called turbines, it creates electricity. When the air passes a turbine, it rotates converting the wind into energy. The turbines will begin to create electricity when air speeds achieve approximately 6-9 miles per hour (Wind 101, 2018). Wind turbines do not pollute the air in comparison to power plants. It is a clean source and does not produce gasses emissions (Wind 101,2018).
The disadvantages of these sources are things that experts in this field could work on to improve their use and make them more desirable. Solar energy demands too much space, and people are questioning the cosmetics because some of them do not like the way that the solar panels are designed, and they are worried about the impact that the design could have on their houses. Wind energy could be a threat to wildlife because of the space that this source requires to be able to work efficiently. Some species that could be affected by this system of energy are the birds and eagles. Their nature is flying in the sky, and they could collide against the turbines causing their immediate death because of the speed.
Another important detail that people must look at is the way they will maintain these systems to make them work aptly. The cost of maintenance of solar panels is an average of $10.00-$20.00 per panel, and the annual examination is approximately $150.00 (Blanch, 2018). With the results that means that as long as their houses are big, the cost of maintenance will also be high because more panels are required. The cost of maintenance of wind energy is around 20-25 percent of the cost per kWh(Blanch,2018). Corporations are trying to lower these costs to gain customers attention and develop a technology that does not require too much inspection. The reliability of solar energy depends on the weather. If the days are sunny, people could have electricity even at night because the sunlight could produce more energy than necessary, and it acts as a backup source of energy. What people need to know is that solar panels do not work during the night and could not be so effective during the winter. They might need other sources in combination to cover the demand of energy that they need. The same occurs with the wind system. The wind could be infrequent, and people have to think about second options when these things occur.
The advantages, disadvantages and the maintenance of wind and solar energy are concerning topics that people have when they are going to choose an alternative method of energy. The given points make clear the definition and provide a better picture of these sources. The purpose of these systems is using the potential of natural resources conveniently for people and also for the environment without causing too much damage and pollution in nature.

Nowadays

Nowadays, Injection drugs becomes vulnerable gateway to the infectious disease such as Human Immunodeficiency virus(HIV) and Hepatitis Virus HCV and many more blood-borne disorders (Gerberding JL,1994). Preventing hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in people who inject drugs (PWID) is a tremendous public health challenge, such as cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as its high prevalence, long latent period and high probability of long-term carriage and infectiousness. People who shared the injection equipment’s one by one that becomes the reason of blood-borne disease. There are 16 million people all around the world who inject drugs(PWID) and in some areas 90% have probability of HCV infection (Hagan H, Pouget ER, Des Jarlais DC, Lelutiu-Weinberger C,2008). Some people who inject illicit drugs once in their life that comes in the part of PWID. In this group both part of population involves who inject drug in the past and now stopped, and that people who are currently injectors. Among these both types of people, some part getting opioid substitution therapy (OST) for opioid dependence also exists, some of whom may continue to inject drugs (Larney, J Grebely, 2015). To control this situation, globally in the rural and urban areas, Needle Syringe Programs have been executed to control the infection of HCV. In these programs they tried to reduce the risk of infection of influenced virus transmission (Palmateer N, Rhodes T,2010). They try to provide sterile needle and syringes through pharmacies for the drug users at low level of cost or no cost in terms of people do not use same needles to inject illicit drugs (Anderson E, Gans J,1999). In many countries, the government have been started to distribute the needles and syringes on the pharmacies for decades with optimistic results among PWID. In New Zealand, through the 170 public pharmacies, needles and syringes have been distributed and prevent the people from the spread of blood-borne disease (Sheridan J, Henderson,2005). In Switzerland, the NSP started by 1990 and after that people gesture this law and some studies showed that in that era, the people who started to inject drugs, the strength possibility of the population of transmission blood borne disease going down (Valleroy LA, Weinstein,1995). The result showed by the surveys also supports NSP’s that these programs helped as structural-level involvement to decrease the infection and operational of NSP for control and dealing with HCV infection.

Nowadays

Nowadays, crimes are increasing day by day in Malaysia especially in major cities like Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya and Johor Bahru. Many Malaysians are concerned about the rising crime in the country. “Crime is an illegal action or the omission of a duty that is violated by a public law and that cause the offender responsible to punishment by that law” (Walter J., Moshe Z., 1999). The crime index of Numbeo by country 2018 for Malaysia is 63.05 which is ranked 15th in world and 1st in South-Eastern Asia. That is an unimaginable number considering they collected data from over 115 countries in the world. Although the crime index goes down from 64.75 (2017) to 63.05 (2018), but it remains as the top one in the list of South-Eastern Asia (Numbeo, 2018). This shows the perception of safety in Malaysia remains low. Crime can be divided into many types such as robbery, rape, drug trafficking, money laundering, corruption and others. These are caused by many factors such as poverty, family background, and peer influences.
Poverty is one of the factors of the crimes. Generally, poverty is divided into two types which are absolute poverty and relative poverty. “Absolute poverty occurs when people cannot obtain enough resources to support a minimum level of physical health while relative poverty occurs when people do not enjoy a minimum level of living standards as determined by a government” (César C., 2016). “The incidence of poverty in Malaysia reduced essentially from 3.8% in 2009 to 1.7% in 2012. The number of poor households has decreased by 52.7%, from 228, 400 to 108,000 in 2012. However, the unemployment rate remains at 3.4% while the poverty rate is decreased” (Official portal of Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2018). This means that many Malaysian are facing the problem of unemployment. Poverty can led people to perpetrate crime because they are desperate for basic needs. The jobless person cannot get money to purchase primary needs such as food, water, shelter, and clothing. Their poverty forces them to choose the easiest way, committing crimes like robberies and thieves. This problem might be a motivation to perpetrate a crime to feed oneself or look after family through tough times.
Besides, family background is classified as a principal cause of crimes. A faulty family background will give negative influences for their children and provoke them to become offenders in the future. “The adults need to take care children in the family during the important critical period that occurs early in children’ lives in order to help them learn the social skill and prevent any aggressive behaviour” (Rolf, L., David, P. F., and David, P., 2003). The home violence gives the negative impacts for children because their children will be hurt emotionally by the conflict between parents and some of the children have been exposed to violence in home. They will live in an emotional world and have been given no help in understanding their circumstances. The recent rising trend in single-parent households becomes a crucial role in the propagation of crime because young children desire belonging to a complete family. The absence of a father will force the children to imagine and form the characteristics of men in their future by themselves. Many youths, especially young men, have been deluded into undoubting that joining a gang and involving in crimes, is the way to show themselves as man. There are numerous youths growing up with erroneous ideas of manhood which are ideas that turn around crime, aggression, and viciousness. This has generated many crime cases among the youths. The collapse of parents to guide, monitor, and control their children’s habits also leads their children to involve in the crime. The failure of parents to guide their children within the right ways will let children be attracted effortlessly into indecencies such as crime, aggression, and prostitution although the children have a complete family. In Malaysia, the offenders usually had a faulty family background when they were young. The parents should have responsible to provide good family background for their children to prevent them from becoming offenders of crimes.
Furthermore, peer influences are one of the strongest and sturdy correlates to crime. Aggressive crimes committed by young people have enhanced concern about youth violence in Malaysia. Peer influences remain a significant cause of youth violence. Youth who has low-quality of self-discipline will have a high chance to take part in aggression action because they are influenced by their peers easily and will not reject the invitation of their friends to involve in crime. The involvement in violent activities can be a tool for picking up amassing participation, getting the regard and interest of peers, or as a way to installation autonomy from the grown-up world. The involvement in gang members is the most serious level of peer influence. “Gangs have been determined as a group of people that advocate violent actions by their peers. Youth who have a poor family connection, have friends or siblings who are in gangs or be looking for excitement and fun will be more vulnerable to the lure of gangs” (Jennifer S., 2015). These youths ordinarily join gangs to feel acknowledged, achieve status, and increment their self-esteem. Once as a member of a gang, youth are more likely to be included in criminal activities, be dropped out of school, be suspended, and gotten to be casualties of savagery. Thus, it’s distinct that peer influences play a significant role too in the propagation of crimes in Malaysia.
In a nutshell, crime is a critical issue with some causes and negative effect on society. There are a lot of factors can be caused crimes such as poverty, family background and peer influence. These will lead to some crime events like robbery, rape, drug trafficking, money laundering, corruption and others. The rate of crime can be decreased by controlling the entry of illegal foreigner to reduce the unemployment rate of Malaysia and organizing campaign and counselling in preventing crimes especially for the youth because they will be influenced easily by their peers and involved in crimes. Thus, some solutions and precautions are needed to take for reducing the index of crime and increasing safety index in Malaysia.
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