Need For A Radical Overhaul of NPM, on The Basis of A Constructive Mix Between Aspects of The Process And Traditional Administration, Leading To A New Model of New Public Administration.
New Public Management (NPM) is a management philosophy adopted by the government since 1980s to modernize the public sectors. Failure of traditional administration to meet up the need of public resulted in the emergence of New Public Management (NPM) concept. The key concept management refers to a separate and distinct activity that brings together plans, people, and technology to achieve desired results (Pollitt, 1998). In Bangladesh, NPM reform ideas have also been recommended by international donor agencies as well as numerous reform committees but yet the country has hardly made any progress in establishing effective public management.
Problems of Traditional Public Administration (Bangladesh Context)
The current trend is gradually moving away from the traditional type of public administration (Riccucci, 2001), even though many doubt claims concerning a new paradigm (Lynn, 2001).
? Heavily centralized, unaccountable, inefficient, slow, coercive, colonial minded and nontransparent.
? People experience unnecessary harassment, discourteous behavior of the civil servants, who deal with customers.
? The rigid, hierarchical form of bureaucracy.
? The members of the civil service are, by and large, unwilling to correct mistakes, and often make unabashed approaches for pecuniary benefits.
? Public service has low expertise and high level of rigidity.
? Fail to keep pace with fast changing domestic needs and global environment.
? Lack of responsiveness to the needs of the citizens as a whole.
? Not friendly to private entrepreneur.
? Political biasness.
? Failed to establish itself as public welfare and service oriented administration.
? Suffers from all sorts of institutional shortcomings capacities.
? Stereotype mentality of public servants.
? Mentally not ready to take any innovation easily.
? Seriously lacks clear vision for future.
Christopher Hood in 1991 elaborated principles of NPM by dividing it in following 7 aspects:
? Performance standards
? Output controls
? Private-sector management
? Cost reduction
New Public Administration theory deals with the following issues:
? Democratic citizenship: It refers directly involvement of citizen in decision making process. Common men can raise their voice to establish his right. In a true sense, it is also a characteristic of a welfare state which not only ensure participation of common man in service reception but also encourage their active involvement in policy formulation. It is also possible that public management reforms were driven, in some countries by a desire for greater democracy (Hughes, 2003).
? Public interest: It denotes the priority of the services in terms of need of the people. For example, basic needs get priority over luxurious needs.
? Public policy: In such means public administration is enacted. It ensures and encourages participation of common people.
? Services to citizens: Providing and upholding the moral and ethical standard in regards to meeting the needs of citizens through institutions and bureaucracies.
Main Features of new public administration
? Client Centricity:
? Structural Changes in Administration
? Multi-disciplinary Nature of Public Administration:
? Politics-Administration Dichotomy
? Case Studies
? Structure Change:
? Jack of All Trades
New Public Management (Bangladesh Context)
Bangladesh has to go a long way to materialize desired administrative reforms. Characteristics of NPM in Bangladesh are as follows
? NPM is enacted to ensure effective way of service delivery to people
? The new system of service delivery and job creation is not emerging in an easy manner.
? The limitations include insecurity of job, fragmentation, profit-service/welfare dichotomy etc.
? NPM needs radical reform combining the old and new models.
? It is not right time to make final judgments about the success/failure of NPM.
? Not the right time to make decisive comments about the emerging Public Value Management and New Public Governance.
Areas of Intervention
? Changes to focus on outputs.
? Changes in administrative inputs.
? Scope of public agencies. and
? Changing accountability relationships with political leadership and the public, as public servants become more and more responsible for results.
? Reasonable level of economic development to combat unemployment.
? ‘Shock absorbing capability’ of the economy.
? The traditional bureaucratic model should be in practice.
? Capacity of the state (institutional, technical, administrative and political levels).
Why We Need a New Model of New Public Administration
? Applicability in developing countries is in doubt because of the non-fulfilment of various pre-conditions.
? There is controversy regarding the economic basis of managerialism.
? It tends to eliminate public-private differences.
? Identity crisis has been created among public servants
? NPM is perceived as a reborn of Taylorism, that is contrary to human relations school.
? There is more possibility of political intervention.
? Conflict of new values i.e. productivity, efficiency, risk taking, independence and accountability with traditional values i.e. procedural correctness, equal treatment, welfare, risk avoidance and strict adherence to rules and regulations.
? Public servants will resist change if it means more work, lower salaries, less recognition and no more job security
? The diversity of public sector in terms of tasks, values and relationships is often ignored.
How We Lead to a New Model of New Public Administration
In order to bring change in any structural model government needs to analyze first (Kalimullah and Khan, 2011).To provide quality service it is required to reduce time, visit and cost of service. To attain this following measures are taken:
? E-filing: Every government office will run come out from traditional file management. In e-filing process every client will know the present status of his application. Government officials will have to provide the service within said period of time.
? E-payment: People can pay the fee through online.
? Digital Land Record and mutation: It reduced public harassment in land offices and made the system transparent.
? Citizen Charter: Every office must keep a citizen charter in a publicly visible place in office premise. In the citizen charter people will found name of the services, cost of services, time of services, responsible officer for service delivery with his/her name, phone and email, procedure of application to get service etc.
? Union Resource Centre: To replicate digitalization in rural area government of Bangladesh established Union Resource Center in every union.
? E-TIN: Online tax return filing system without hassle
? E-BIN: Online VAT return filing system without hassle
? ASYCUDA: Automated System of Customs Data is introduced in every custom house and station in Bangladesh to ease export-import business.
? IBAS++: Integrated Budgeting and Accounting Software is introduced in all accounts office in Bangladesh to ease drawing and disbursing of public money.
? E-registration: E-registration system of BRTA and death and birth registration in local government offices
? APA: To evaluate performance of government officials Annual Performance Agreement has been adopted between different ministries of government.
? NIS: National Integrity Strategy is adopted for government officials in service delivery.
? APR instead of ACR: To evaluate individual performance of government officials Annual Performance Report (APR) is adopted instead of Annual Confidential Report (ACR)
? Public Administration Medal: For promoting innovative ideas among public servant government introduced Public Administration Medal.
? Welfare measure for Public Servants: Various measures are taken for the welfare of public servants e.g-Lucrative Salary, House Building Loan against minimum interest and Vehicle Loan against minimum interest etc to refrain them from corruption.
Challenges before New Public Administration:
? MDG (Millennium Development Goal)
? SDG (Sustainable Development Goal) by 2030
? 7th FYP
? Vision 2020
? Vision 2021 (Building up a Digital Bangladesh)
? Vision 2041
? Promote Bangladesh as Developed Nation by 2041
? Initiative to reduce inter cadre discrimination
? Ensure equal promotion facilities for all cadres
? Ensure the post of secretary of any service is held by man of the said cadre service.
? Equal financial benefit of same ranks of all cadres
? To increase professionalism arrangement of training to home and abroad for field level officers. It is must to ensure the trained up officers in abroad have to show reflection of his learning in his performance. Otherwise training in abroad will be turned into a pleasure trip.
? Proper policy of transfer posting. It should be strictly followed and monitored to ensure equal justice to all.
? Political biasness free bureaucracy
? No nepotism and regional favor
? Public servant should be empathetic to the client.
? Zero tolerance to corruption
New public Management emerged with the aim to enable the public sector serving people in a more effective manner. But NPM has a number of limitations. Some of those include insecurity of job, fragmentation, profit-service/welfare dichotomy etc. Hence, there is a need for a radical overhaul of NPM, on the basis of a constructive mix between aspects of the process and traditional administration, leading to a new model of new Public Administration.
1. Hood, Christopher. (1991). “A Public Management for All Seasons?” Public Administration 69 (1): 3-19.
2. Hughes, O. E. (2003). “Public Management and Administration”. London:Macmillan.
3. Kalimullah, Nazmul Ahsan and Khan, S. M. Norman Hasan. (2011). “New Public Management in Developing Countries: How far is it applicable in Bangladesh?” Bangladesh Journal of Administration and Management, Vol. 14.
4. Lynn, Laurence E. (2001). “The Myth of the Bureaucratic Paradigm: What Traditional Public Administration Really Stood For,” Public Administration Review 61 (2): 144-160.
5. Pollitt, C. (1998). Managerialism Revisited in Peters, B. G. and D. J. Savoie (eds.) “Taking Stock: Assessing Public Sector Reforms.” Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
6. Riccucci, Norma M. (2001). “The ‘Old’ Public Management Versus the ‘New’ Public Management: Where Does Public Administration Fit In?” Public Administration Review 61 (2): 172-175.