NAME: with the national, local, private and



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DED 1301
1. Outline and explain 5 methods/strategies of mobilizing financial resources for public development projects.
a) Donor agency
Donor is an organization or a person who willingly or voluntarily donates resources in form of money, information, materials and energy.
We can get financial resources from donor agencies to support any public project. It is a matter of writing a good proposal requesting for cash, material and energy resources from maximum number of donor agencies so that incase one refuses to give the donation, the other agencies are in a position to continue with their support. It is also advisable to expand the relations with the national, local, private and public sectors for a stable income generation.
The donation can also be in form of boxes where you request donations from the public by placing boxes in a stationary point. It can be a hospital, school, airports, or any other public places.
b) Fundraisings
This is a way of getting voluntary contributions of money or other resources. This can be done by organizing fundraising events whereby mobilizing of people can be done by distributing contribution papers, synthesizing the public through media, newspapers, audio visual materials, billboards, stickers or contacting them directly. This fundraising can also be by grants from the government or charitable organizations which are willing to contribute finance for public projects. The fundraising is done by inviting guest of honors in a place booked by an organization which can include churches, schools, stadiums, conference halls. This fundraising can be successful by having good communication skills and consulting the existing donors and the local communities.
c) Income generation
Income is money earned after work done. The work can either be self, public or private employed. Business oriented projects organizations can come together and contribute their incomes and other resources to start a public project in a different location of their choice. This type of resources mobilizing is done by the Indians and Somalis who mostly run family businesses. Although this is how they operate their businesses but most of them are generous and can contribute to start a public project which will help the surrounding and create employment opportunities to the public. Civil servants can decide to contribute some of their incomes to establish a public project. Most churches in the countryside are built using the contributions from incomes of their congregation.
d) Government policy
Tax is money payable to the government. This money is used to build schools, infrastructure, hospitals, stadiums and social amenities. It is also used to pay salaries of public servants. A public project can get its financial resources through the government by the proprietors writing proposals or during finance allocation to different places. Yearly during the budget reading the government allocates a certain amount of money to different firms for public projects. It can be for construction of bridges, infrastructure, schools or hospitals and this money is allocated to the government officials like governors, senators, members of parliament and head of different departments. The government can also borrow funds from developed countries or any good established film; get loans so that the money is distributed for the establishment of public projects.
e) By raising fees
This can be done when different organizations whether public, private or international decide to collect funds through increasing partnership by raising a certain fee to either goods or services rendered so as to acquire financial resources for a public project. The other way of raising fees would be for the NGOS to carry out the construction of public resting places, canals, schools, monastery, worshipping areas and hospitals; and the local body to pay back to the NGO. The county government on the other hand can collect some cash by raising the parking fees for vehicles, in the market stalls and the street vendors. This can be seen like harassing the less fortunate but with proper communication and negotiation skills, people will be able to understand what is happening. Also an organization can raise fees by selling its technical skills, becoming trainees or raising fees from visitors from individuals or organizations doing research in another organization

2. State and describe 5 skills required for effective resource mobilizing
a) Communication skills
Communication is a way of transmitting knowledge or information to someone else. To have an effective resource mobilizing, one has to have best communication skills to be able to convince people to mobilize resources. Mobilizing of resources to take place people have to be communicated to by either verbal or nonverbal; through media.
People have to be told the reasons for resource mobilization so as they can extend their contributions in form of cash, materials, information, energy or skills.
One needs also to communicate clearly both verbally or written to be able to give advice and inspire trust to develop a strong rapport otherwise getting the resources required will be hard because of the mistrust.
Leaders in a given organization needs to have good communication skills to be able to explain the specific goals and tasks. He should be able to master all forms of communication, including conversations, one-on-one and be computer literate to be able to communicate with people through media, phones and emails

b) Management and leadership skills
These skills are essential in resource mobilization because both involve decision-making, planning, communication and problem solving. For resources to be brought on board, it needs proper planning and communication to achieve the goal. People mobilizing the resources need to keep a record of all the events for future reference and be a role model.
In order to be an effective leader and manager, one needs more than a good attitude and intentions of uniting people. Unity is the key to strong bondage which is unbreakable thus making people to do great things and fight back in case of problem. If the leaders have good vision the team members will not feel confused but organized and have an initiate to prioritize thus leading to effective resource mobilization

c) Writing skills/financial reporting skills
Financial resources are one of the key resource mobilizations, for it to be effective the knowledge and skills of writing is needed especially in proposal writing to the donor agencies and other financing institutions. Good and appropriate proposal convinces people to contribute more resources unlike if a person writing the proposal or requisition does not have good writing and reporting skills.
On the other hand financial reporting skills are more effective in an organization because most of decisions of private or public organizations depends or relay on a good detailed and accurate financial reports. Inaccurate resource reports can damage the image of an organization thus discouraging investors and donors in investing in such places.
d) Interpersonal skills
In resource mobilization one needs to have a clue and be in a position to tackle complex problems as they arise. In any given organization misunderstandings are inevitable but how to deal with it needs more personal skills.
During resource mobilization, for it to be effective patience and courage is a guarantee because it is not easy to convince people to contribute their resources especially in grants and donations. Also in energy resource people will tend to be rigid but with patience and a convincing words one can harvest more than he thought off.
When mobilizing resources many obstacles may arise, when such problems arises one needs to be strong, these can be cases of theft, natural hazards and death many resources are destroyed and lost. The resources destroyed have to be replaced and this needs extra personal skills to mobilize them again.
Personal skills like trust and integrity are essential and lead to an effective resource mobilization. People need to trust someone with their resources. Trust leads to a strong bond in that one is convinced of gaining or getting good resources.
e) Innovation skills
Innovation means introducing and creating new important ideas and issues related to life. This can help in mobilizing resources when people with such skills are able to think critical and solve difficult problems experienced by human beings. Innovation skills help one to build new things to create and develop new ideas with others. Collaboration is very essential because different organizations brings their thoughts together and end up with something meaningful which will help others and the community in general. The reason these skills of creativity, communication and critical thinking is becoming important is because of the changing nature of the work and the rapid pace at which change is spreading. For example the technology of computers has spread like bush fire and everyone is enjoying the resources. Incase more new innovations can come up then life will be easier as compared to the olden days.
Finance and accounting may be associated with normal routines systems but that does not mean that innovation in new resources has changed much.

Name: Shanaaz Hajaree
Student No: 62891278
Unique No: 733684
Module: AFL1502 Assignment No: 01
Question 1
Ubuntu may be interpreted as a system of values that affects all facets of life. Do you
agree? Give examples from 5 different facets of “everyday” life to support your answer.
Yes. Ubuntu is a Nguni Bantu word meaning “humanity”. It is often translated as “I am because
we are,” and “humanity towards others”, but is often used in a more philosophical sense to
mean “the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity” (Wikipedia)
Former president Nelson Mandela and former Archbishop Desmond Tutu are most commonly
associated with the philosophy of Ubuntu.
Examples of five (5) different facets of ‘everyday’ life.
? Respect and dignity – Respect for others, their values, different religions and the
various cultures.
? Charity – To give generously to the needy. To share what we have with those less
fortunate than ourselves for example, a feeding scheme to feed the needy.
? Forgiveness – To not bear any grudges and to live in peace, love and harmony with
one another.
? A simple act of kindness. Be it a smile or a humble greeting in a person’s mother
? No matter what colour, race, standard or background you come from Ubuntu stresses
that we live together in harmony, peace and be trustworthy and faithful to each other.
Question 2
a) Write down 2 characteristics of vowels and 2 characteristics of consonants in your
African language and explain how these two types of sounds differ.
1) Always voiced, pronounced relatively unhindered or unimpeded through the mouth
2) They move out over the middle of the tongue (medially)

1) They maybe voiced or voiceless and the airstream used to form or articulate
them is either totally cut off by means of speech organs.
2) Consonants may be formed through the mouth, that is orally or through the nose,
and they may be released over the middle of the tongue, that is medially.
The sound difference between the vowels and consonants are vowels are always voiced.
Whereas with consonants some are voiced, and some are voiceless.
b) Choose the sentence from the African language of your choice and then answer the
IsiZulu: Umama upheke uphuthu izolo ntambama.
i) The subject concord is Umama. A subject concord is used to make sure that the
subject agrees with the rest of the sentence. All subject concords are derived from
the class prefix of the noun.
ii) The Zulu noun consists of 2 essential parts, the prefix and the stem. Nouns are
grouped in different noun classes. The 2 nouns in the sentence above is:
Umama – noun. Falls into class 1a – 2a (u-/o-) Mainly proper names and
relationship terms. In the case of Umama (Mother) is singular hence, it
will fall in class 1a (U-).
Uphuthu – noun. Falls in class 11 and 10 (ulu-/izin-) Variety of objects.
iii) The verb is Upheke (Cooked). The suffix is a perfect suffix (-ile). Two concepts are
expressed by this suffix:
1) An action in time indicating a completed or terminated action and
2) A timeless action indicating that a person or object is in a specific state,
condition or position.
‘u’ – subject concord + phek (verb) + ‘e’ as perfect suffix.
Question 3
a) Look at the sentence above in your chosen African language in Question 2 (a) above.
Identify the subject, predicate, and object in the sentence and then explain how a
sentence is constructed in your African language.
Subject – Umama (mother)
Predicate – Upheke uphuthu izolo ntambama (cooked porridge yesterday evening)
Object – Uphuthu (porridge)

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Syntax is the arrangement of words and phrases to create well-formed sentences in a
language. A sentence in Isizulu must always include a subject, predicate and object.
b) Select the word from your chosen African language below and then explain the
construction of deverbatives by referring to this word:
Isizulu – Umfundisi
Umfundisi (Teacher) – Personal deverbative. The class prefix is placed in front of the
verb root and a personal deverbative suffix at the back. Umfundisi is constructed the
following way: Um(Prefix) + funda(Verb) + isi (suffix).
c) Nouns in the African languages may be described by means of a variety of other word
categories. Show how this may take place by supplying 4 examples of your own and
discussing each of them.
1) The Pronoun
The pronoun may be used to represent a noun or to describe it in terms of position.
There are 3 different types of pronouns:
The absolute pronoun
Eg: Ubiza wena na? (Does he call you?)
The Demonstrative pronoun
Eg: Umkhonto uwele laphaya (The spear fell there yonder)
The possessive pronoun
E.g.: Umfundo yethu (Our education)
2) The Adjective
The adjective qualifies the noun by adding an additional quality, characteristic, feature
or attribute to the meaning of a noun.
E.g.: Amehlo amabili (Two eyes)
3) The Possessive
The possessive construction consists of a possession + a possessive concord + a
E.g.: Ihashi nokudla kwalo (The horse and its food)
4) The Locative
When an idea of place or locality is expressed regarding proper names, nouns
indicating persons, pronouns etc.
E.g.: Kubaba (by father)

African Languages and Culture in Practice – Tutorial letter 102/2/2018
Ubuntu Philosophy – Wikipedia
Accessed from –

Name: Mitch Armstrong
Text type: Film Review
Title: Restrepo

The death of a best friend. Countless sleepless nights. Starvation. Is that what you imagine when you think of war? War is often portrayed to be all ‘fun and games’ but when you watch Restrepo the harsh reality of war really hits home. People die, people get emotionally damaged. Men cry. If you’re interested in seeing the most visceral film documentary ever done before then watch Restrepo, a war documentary directed by Sebastian Junger and Tim Hetherington.

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Restrepo follows a platoon of soldiers in the Korengal Valley. The directors themselves followed the platoon and took fire sometimes. They did this in five lots of one month deployments. Their purpose was to make the most realistic war film ever made and show a real insight to what war is really like. It features a top secret mission called Rock Avalanche. This is the first time the US army have let anyone have unprecedented access to everything.

The interviews in Restrepo were stimulating. Directors Tim and Sebastian wanted to show the effect that war took on soldiers and show the other side of it, not just the fun side. The interviews showed a personal insight into how the soldiers felt and how it affected them, which is unseen in other war documentaries. Personally this affected me as it made me feel attached the the character because we weren’t just seeing them as a tough soldier, we were seeing them opening up their raw feelings. Through the interviews we were seeing deeply into their lives and they were opening up and this moved me. For example, a close up shot of the soldiers shows their face in detail. The pain in their face is evident and it shows how hard it is for them to talk about their experiences, even after they have returned and many months have passed. I was really moved by the way the directors showed an interview and the effect it had on the soldiers before showing us a scene. A particularly good example of this was before a top secret mission called ‘Operation Rock Avalanche’. The directors showed interviews of the soldiers talking about the mission and how much it affected and messed them up after the war. These types of interviews helped the directors make their point of making the ‘most visceral war film ever’ because it makes it feel more realistic and gruesome.

The camerawork in Restrepo is incredible. The way that the directors unobtrusively filmed the movie gave it a very personal twist. Real life footage shot with personal angles were able to filmed. This portrayed that it was real which captivated the audience because it was raw footage. A humvee takes a hit from a RPG on a routine patrol during the beginning scene of the movie and ‘shit hit the fan’. For example, in the top secret mission ‘Operation Rock Avalanche’ we see footage showing them being ambushed. In no other war documentaries are these real life scenes showed. The directors themselves were in the actual gunfight and they are seen running to cover. I was engaged because it is so real and we see soldiers in their natural state crying and showing raw emotion. Without camera work like this, Tim Hetherington and Sebastian Junger would have struggled to portray their original goal of creating the ‘most visceral war film ever’. This shows action of the gunfight and switches to interviews. These interviews show the soldiers talking about how terrible war really is and it gives the viewer a really personal insight into their lives. I felt that this connected me to the character more because it felt like they were speaking to me directly.

The film Restrepo is a thrilling action packed war documentary that will not disappoint. I thoroughly enjoyed the movie and it changed my perspective on war because I had not realised how much the soldiers are actually affected in war. Soldiers experience multiple losses and they just have to try and forget and move on because they are not allowed any time to grieve. The interviews are real and give a spine chilling perspective to war when combined with the camerawork. Through realistic camerawork a real side of war and never seen before footage inside the ‘deadliest place on Earth’ is shown to the viewers. I would recommend Restrepo to anyone who is interested to know more about war and the lengths soldiers go to protect us.


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