Name: assignment, or any part of it,

Name: Ajay Nair
Student ID:17211015
E-mail: [email protected]
Programme: Msc in computing
Module code: MCM
Date of submission: 10-08-2018
Project Title: Smart City Services and Sentiment Analysis
Supervisor: D.Sc. Antti Knutas

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Name(s): Ajay Nair
Date: 10-08-2018

Smart City Services and Sentiment Analysis

Ajay S Nair
School of Computing
Dublin City University

Dublin, Ireland
[email protected]

Abstract -: A major part of the population in this world resides in urban areas. Each city with its facilities and services is highly important in every aspect. With everyday progress, all major cities are lagging in one area or another in terms of services, policy making, facilities, and planning. The main objective of this research is to analyze what services people think and expect from city services and using sentiment analysis, in order to find the most satisfactory level of each service. This research accessed the forum discussion dataset which is populating in one of the major discussion forums in Ireland called “Boards.ie” and runs sentiment analysis on the resulting topic models. The major question which leads to this paper is “what do people expect from a city and how can this be achieved through a study on current scenarios?”. The expected findings should showcase areas where improvements are needed and that helps towards better planning and policy-making of city authorities.
Keywords— HTML Data scrapping, LDA Topic Model, Sentimental analysis, City services, text mining

I. INTRODUCTION
Urban areas called smart cities are cities that use operational and feedback data from a variety of sources like power consumption statics, buying power and trend statistic, employment indexes, traffic congestions, public safety events, social media discussions etc. to optimize city services 1 and life quality of people residing there. Over the last decade, the smart city idea is prominent and as per the 2014studies, 2 there are 26 smart cities around the world and more are expected to be coming up noticeably in North America and Europe by 20252. This should be facilitated by detailed analysis, planning, developing and adopting digital systems and technologies, which help to improve the efficiency and quality of life of urban citizens.

The research goal of this study is to identify and filter out sentiments of people living in Dublin regarding all area of city services and filtering out areas that require more focus and improvement with the help of topic modeling and sentiment analysis.

A. Background and Motivation
Ireland has a fast-growing market with a high-velocity growth in both infrastructure and technology sector. This growth is clearly visible in all parts of Dublin and the city needs more planning and service schemes to cop up with this positive growth.

This study deals with city services and sentiment of all topics regarding Dublin and aims to filter out all major service sectors that are co-related to Dublin city. There are various studies themed on Smart city services and sentiment analysis, which include various topics like Sentiment Analysis, Gensim-LDA Topic Modeling, Core Smart City and Its Benchmarks etc.

Topic modeling is basically used to identify and cluster out major topics from a set of documents or data. In this study, LDA topic modeling is followed by with the help of Gensim3, which is basically a python library meant to deal with large data performance operations like LDA Topic Modeling, LSI Topic Modeling, TF-IDF Calculations, Tokenization’s etc. in an easy manner.

Sentiment analysis has a number of applications in the modern world like behavior analysis, hate speech detection, crime rate prediction and prevention, satisfactory analysis, social media analysis, e-commerce, digital marketing etc. But in this study, it is limited to smart city services where it deals with what people discuss, debate and expects from a smart city. The most used versions of sentiment analysis have three results or emotions: positive, negative and neutral, however new research papers were introduced in past few years to overcome the limitations of this basic analysis4. In most of the sentiment analysis cases, major content of the sentiment is identified first, while categorization of the sentiment is a more difficult task.

II. RELATED WORKS
‘The evolution of sentiment analysis'(V.Mäntylä, D. Graziotin and M. Kuutila, 2016 5 paper is highly recommended to learn how and when sentiment analysis started and in which era its growth got boosted. This paper gives a whole idea about what sentiment analysis is, the research area where this is dealt with, and its history. It discusses all possible results of the analysis, trending areas on it, applications of sentiment analysis and human behavior-based goal classification and top citation sites to find research paper’s limitations of the current sentiment analysis. This paper can be a good aid for a beginner in sentiment analysis since this covers all areas of sentiment analysis.
V.Mäntylä, D. Graziotin and M. Kuutila conducted the study on’The evolution of sentiment analysis’ 5 using word sentiment analysis in Google Scholar and corpus database in 2016. They filtered out and made a cluster of articles using LDA topic modeling and did the manual quantitative analysis. They found that since 2005 there is a visible increase in the number of papers published related to sentiment analysis and most of them are related to opinion mining. This paper also shows that there is a simultaneous increase in citation count with a number of papers and it surpasses the count of the much mature and large research area of software engineering. V.Mäntylä, D. Graziotin and M. Kuutila classified wide analysis methods into three categories called machine learning, natural language processing, and sentiment analysis specific method. The notable change found in recent papers is that they are mainly concentrating on social media, such as Twitter, Facebook etc. and indicates the current trend in the market and the technology target.

‘Social data sentiment analysis in smart environment'(Vakali et al., 2013) 6study describes the implementations of sentiment analysis in smart platforms. One can observe from the report that the success of sentiment analysis is purely based on two points: the first one being how to design the processes which should be closely related to human behavior and the second one being how to implement an idea in a computational way.

The authors Vakali, Despoina Chatzakou, Vassiliki Koutsonikol, Georgios Andreadis 6 addresses the challenge to go beyond normal polarities of human behavior and to accommodate more wide and complicated emotional processes in social media opinions. The authors made use of seminal ones in psychology in sentiment analysis and it helped him to categorize human emotions into six types, which help to create a wider spectrum compared to the basic dual polarity. He proposed a spectrum of six emotions: anger, disgust, fear, joy, sadness and, surprise.

The authors used two main parameters for the computational procedure: intensity and valence; which help in semantic with the emotional scaling. They help in discovering the emotional relevance of the tweets and qualifying merits of the emotions. After finding relations between tweets and the six primary emotions, the next step is data analysis through data summary (Example- K mean can be used for grouping tweets with similar emotions). The main advantage of this paper is that it is theoretically and technically sounder and more descriptive compared to most other papers.

In the study of ‘Multi-Aspect Sentiment Analysis with Topic Models’ (Lu et al., 2011 7, the authors concentrate on how to classify and mine out best user ratings and contents using different topic modeling. This paper explains all about different LDA models and the differences between them, including types of labeling, the performance, and efficiency. It describes the way documents are represented as mixtures over latent topics. It also describes multi-grain LDA and segmented topic modeling. In this paper, the author compares a few unsupervised, weakly supervised topic modeling examples and discusses two major multi-aspect sentiment analysis called Multi Aspect Sentence Labeling and Multi Rating Prediction. For both multi-aspect sentiment analysis, the authors used four different kinds of topic modeling called LDA, Local LDA, Multi-Grain LDA and Segment Topic modeling.

Multi-aspect sentence labeling is used here to label and gather out different reviews of restaurants from different regions and further summarization. Multi-aspect rating prediction is to predict implicit aspect specific star ratings for every review. The authors found that weakly supervised topic modeling did well over Multi-aspect sentence labeling and only works well for Multi-aspect prediction with indirect supervision. However, it was found that unsupervised topic modeling gave a high rate of performance only in weak prediction models.

In ‘Large scale data analytics for smart cities and related use cases'(Barnaghi, 20148paper, the author emphasizes on data mining by technical solutions to handle large data and tries to find patterns, co-occurrences, and trends from a large volume of data in the project presentation. The author used examples, 101 smart cities use cases, a lot of visualization etc. to depict the findings. The author also worked on visualizing how data analysis works for smart city development. Six stages were suggested in data analysis for smart city projects: The first stage deals with the collection of data; then data is filtered and preprocessed in the second stage; metadata integration and post-process pattern recognition are considered as third and fourth steps. These patterns should be analyzed semantically and thus results can give a better visualization in the last step. This article covers only basic ideas of data analysis in smart cities. However, better visualization and pictorial representations are the reader’s assets to understand the correlation between different areas.

Liangjie Hong and Brian D. Davison conducted a study on topic Empirical Study of Topic Modeling(Hong and D. Davison, 20109 and in this paper, the authors convey that by training a topic model on aggregated messages, it is possible to increase the quality of learned model which boosts performance significantly in real-world classification problems. The authors used several schemes to train a standard topic model and to find the quality and effectiveness through some experiments. This paper progresses through three stages: The first stage explains some existing LDA topic models. It also points out different extensions of LDA and how this is different from standard text mining tools. In the second phase of the paper, working of LDA and Author Topic modeling is described.LDA has a set of common processes which are applicable to all document collections. For each document, LDA picks a topic from its distribution over topics. It then samples a word from the distribution of words and this process is repeated for all words in the document. Author topic modeling is just an extension of LDA. In this, we need to consider two latent variables an author x, and topic z for each word. The main difference from LDA is that each individual document has an extra observed variable part called ‘Author’. So a combination of authors and words in the document gives the observed variable count for an individual document.

The core part of ‘Empirical Study of Topic Modeling’ 9 describes different training models and training steps. AT, MSG and TERM are the training models used here. Twitter data is used here to perform two main tasks which are predicting popular messages and grouping users on the basis of topical categories. Through experiments it was found that the document length is directly related to the effectiveness of topic model and aggregated short messages; this can produce a better training model. Also, it was observed that extension to AT model does not act as an effective modeling for messages or users and normal LDA is acting better on user aggregated profiles.

III. RESEARCH PLAN
The main objective of this research is to achieve a result which is more relevant and accurate about city data which helps future planning and insight driven approaches to develop a smart city project. The research plan is briefly mentioned in the chart below.
CHART 1 – HIGH-LEVEL RESEARCH WORKFLOW

A. Data collection and creating a database
In this stage, the main aim is to collect raw data, clean it and store it in a form that it is easily available for analysis. In this project, the data set is expected to be in the form of metadata or web-based data, so web data scrapping and parsing are essential in this stage(Refer to Table 1).

TABLE 1- INFORMATION ABOUT DATA SOURCE AND TYPE OF DATA

Source Data format Data Size
Boards.ie

http://data.sioc-project.org/download
16 Meta Data
XML-RDF-Format Size on Disk -:14.5MB
Sentences Count-3554
Word Count-
129,644

B. Feature extraction and LDA Topic Modeling
Parsing of data is done by using lxml10, 11python library. The row data is arranged in a tree-shaped structure (Refer to Fig. 1.) and the parsing is made use of ‘etree’11module of ‘lxml’ library. The output of scrapped data is stored in .txt format in a text file(Refer Fig 2).
At this stage, the filtered data from the discussion forum is clustered (Topic Modeling) out using Gensim 3 topic modeling algorithms. A bag of words called Key-list was also used to filter out data which is only related to Dublin. Gensim uses ‘Numpy’and ‘Scipy’ 12 for performance. It is specifically designed to handle large text collections, using data streaming and efficient incremental algorithms, which differentiate it from most other scientific software packages. LDA13,14,15 is used internally because LDA is a part of Gensim and it will help to discover a semantic structure (Meaningful insides which help in better decision making) of the documents by analyzing the SIOC corpus16

Fig. 1 Example of data-Meta Data format

Fig. 2 Output of html parsed data
C. LDA Visualization
py-LDA-vis 17is a python library which is known as the best library for visualization of topic modeling. This study aims to make utilize py-LDA-vis 18 for visualization assuming it helps to improve the understandability of topic modeling relevant to this study(Refer to fig 3).

D. Sentiment Analysis
The most interesting area of this research is sentiment analysis, and this is done with the help of ‘Thematic coding’ (Topic Clustering which is done on the previous step). Thematic coding helps to group data on the basis of the themes, which then undergoes sentiment analysis to find out which emotion suits the data better. Sentiment analysis methods chosen here are VADER Sentiment, AFINN and TextBlob Sentiment analysis.

VADER 19 (Valence Aware Dictionary and sEntiment Reasoner) is a fully open sourced lexicon and rule-based sentiment analysis tool specially designed for social media expressions.

AFINN 21 is a wordlist-based approach for sentiment analysis. AFINN is a list of English words rated for valence between -5 and +5 which is manually labeled by Finn Årup Nielsen in 2009-2011.

TextBlob 20 is a python library used to process textual data and delivers common natural language processing (NLP) tasks like sentiment analysis, noun phrase extraction, classification etc.

Different types of sentiment analysis 22help to improve the accuracy and precision of the findings. Cross-validation is planned to make use of positive, negative and overall accuracy score of VADER and TextBlob sentiments. However, all the LDA topic modeling output may not consider the final analysis. It is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria which are used to identify topics which only contain words similar to each other. If a topic is negative (The majority of sentiments among 3 methods) and contains 50% or more words, where words are not related to the similar area, then that topic must be excluded from the study and it is planned to do manually.

E. Evaluation
The major challenge in this study is the evaluation of results. Plans to do cross-check operation with a manually labeled dataset and expecting accuracy range between 70-80% considering high volume of data. Positive, negative and overall accuracy score of VADER and TextBlob sentiments also deliver a secondary validation 23 on this research.

IV. RESULTS
LDA Topic modeling results reveal the most relevant and important topics which appear in discussion forums. There is an option to finalize the number of topics to get as LDA 15 output. Initially, four topics were considered which were more relevant to Dublin and appeared in the discussion forum.

The output of the LDA topic modeling is shown in below example
(0, ‘0.027*”one” + 0.009*”great” + 0.009*”many” + 0.009*”going” + 0.008*”last” + 0.008*”still” + 0.008*”ie” + 0.007*”thing” + 0.007*”bit” + 0.007*”two”‘)

The output contains the topic number, the most prominent words and its probability distribution in that particular topic. In the example above, the first 0 indicates the topic number and 0.027 indicates the probability (27 %) of the word ‘one’ in topic 0.

Py-LDA-vis 18 is a python library which is mainly used for visualization of LDA topic modeling results in an easier and user interacting manner. The main four topics of the above example are listed out by LDA visualization and shown in Fig 3. The same process is repeated for 8 topics and 12 topics and the results are visualized using the same method shown above.

In the next stage, run an algorithm to find the topic number of each word in the corpus. Refer Table 2, where corpus word (1, 1) has topic id 0 and the probability of that word is in topic 0 is 62.47%. This experiment is repeated for a different number of topics, i.e. it is repeated for 4 (Output – shown in below Table 2), 8 and 12 topic LDA models

TABLE 2- CORPUS ; CORRESPONDING TOPIC NUMBER TABLE

Corpus Probability
(*100 = %) Topic No
(1, 1) 0.6247 1
(2, 1) 0.6247 0
(3, 1) 0.6245
1
(4, 1)
0.6247
0

(5, 1)
0.6244
1
(6, 1)
0.6244
0

(7, 1)
0.6249
2

In the next step, sentiment results are stored
in a csv file. Three different observations are listed out
for each sentence of input, i.e. sentiment scores of
VADER 20 Sentiment analysis, AFINN 21 sentiment
analysis, and TextBlob 20 Sentiment analysis outputs
are stored in an output csv file. This experiment is also
repeated for a different number of topics, i.e. it is
repeated for 4 (Output – shown in below Table 3), 8
and 12 topic LDA models. The output file contains each
sentence, sentence number, topic number indicating the
corresponding topic of each sentence and sentiments
scores, and this output is considered as the input for the
next stage of the result. (Refer Table 3)

TABLE 3- SENTENCE -CORRESPONDING TOPIC AND SENTIMENT OF THE SENTENCE
Topic Number VADER Sentiment AFINN-Sen TB- Sentiment TB- Subjectivity
Topic0
{‘neg’: 0.0, ‘neu’: 1.0, ‘pos’: 0.0, ‘compound’: 0.0}
0
0 0
neutral
{‘neg’: 0.0, ‘neu’: 0.0, ‘pos’: 0.0, ‘compound’: 0.0}
0 0 0
Topic7
{‘neg’: 0.293, ‘neu’: 0.707, ‘pos’: 0.0, ‘compound’: -0.6597}
-5
0.1
0.2

neutral
{‘neg’: 0.0, ‘neu’: 0.0, ‘pos’: 0.0, ‘compound’: 0.0}
0 0 0

In next stage of research, an algorithm was run to cluster out sentiments of each topic (Refer Fig. 4.) and to find the overall sentiment scores of each topic as per the three different methods chosen earlier.

The output of each topic is mentioned in the tables below.

A. LDA with 4 topics
TABLE 4- 4 TOPICS AND VADER,TEXTBLOB AND AFINN SENTIMENTS

Topic VADER Sentiment Result AFINN Sentiment Results TextBlob Sentiment Result

Topic1 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 2 Pos Neg Pos
Topic 3 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 4 Neg Neg Neg
B. LDA with 8 Topics
TABLE 5- 8 TOPICS AND VADER, TEXTBLOB AND AFINN SENTIMENTS
Topic VADER Sentiment Result AFINN Sentiment Results TextBlob Sentiment Result

Topic 1 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 2 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 3 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 4 Neg Neg Neg
Topic 5 Pos Neg Pos
Topic 6 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 7 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 8 Pos Pos Pos

C. LDA with 12 Topics

TABLE 6 – 12 TOPICS AND VADER, TEXTBLOB AND AFINN SENTIMENTS

Topic VADER Sentiment Result AFINN Sentiment Results TextBlob Sentiment Result

Topic 1 Neg Neg Neg
Topic 2 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 3 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 4 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 5 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 6 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 7 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 8 Neg Neg Pos
Topic 9 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 10 Pos Neg Pos
Topic 11 Pos Pos Pos
Topic 12 Pos Pos Pos

D. Validation results
Validation is done by two streams: one is through accuracy comparison on the sentiment prediction of VADER and TextBlob methods. It can refer as a validation on non-labeled data set.(Table 7 and Table 8)

D.1 Accuracy score of VADER Sentiment analysis
TABLE 7: ACCURACY SCORE TABLE OF A DIFFERENT NUMBER OF LDA TOPIC MODEL OUTPUTS USING VADER SENTIMENT.
LDA Topic Model Accuracy Score
4-Topic model 76.27
8-Topic model 51.38
12-Topic model 51.41

D.2 Accuracy score of TextBlob Sentiment analysis
TABLE 8: ACCURACY SCORE TABLE OF A DIFFERENT NUMBER OF LDA TOPIC MODEL OUTPUTS USING TEXTBLOB SENTIMENT
LDA Topic Model Overall Accuracy Score
4-Topic model 24.55
8-Topic model 24.08
12-Topic model 24.35

In the second stream of validation, sentiment prediction accuracy was observed from a manually labeled data set. Every sentence in the data set was manually tagged as positive, negative or neutral as per the nature of the sentence. The accuracy scores of each method are shown in the table below (Table 9).

TABLE 9: ACCURACY SCORE, PRECISION, F-SCORE, RECALL TABLE ON MANUALLY LABELED DATA.
Method Accuracy Precision Recall F-Score
VADER Sentiment 82.81 NA NA NA
TextBlob Sentiment 50.75 NA NA NA
Logistic
Regression 22 53.13 55.63 55.16 52.71
SVM model 22
46.88 47.98 48.02 46.82
NAIVE BAYES MODEL
22
50.00 48.33 48.41 48.18
RANDOM FOREST MODEL 22

62.50 70.83 65.87 61.13
DECISION TREE CLASSIFICATION MODEL 22

53.13 59.71 56.76 50.77
ENSEMBLE APPROACH
22

53.13 55.63 55.16 52.71
V. DISCUSSION
This study was based on unsupervised learning and therefore the possibility of external validation was very limited. The main aim of studies like this is to find the insight of the topics and encourage new studies which are a continuous part of this existing study. Most of the reputed case study papers were primarily based on internal validity and construct validity, but not on external validity 23.

By comparing the sentiment predictions of different methods, VADER Sentiment prediction and TextBlob predict the output almost in the same pattern (both are lexicon-based analysis) (Refer Table 4 ; Table 5). A change in prediction pattern is observed only when a number of topics is greater (Refer Table 6). However, AFINN method is a wordlist-based sentiment classification, which frequently shows different outputs compared to the other two methods (Refer Table 4, Table 5 ;Table 6)

Accuracy comparison is another area which distinguishes the better method for sentiment prediction between TextBlob and VADER methods. VADER shows much higher accuracy in predicting the sentiment on normal input (non-labeled) compared to TextBlob. VADER, which shows around 76 % accuracy compared to 24 % accuracy of TextBlob Sentient prediction (Refer Table 7 and Table 8)

However, interestingly the accuracy of the VADER sentiment analysis is decreasing when there is an increase in the number of topics in LDA modeling. In the case of TextBlob, it shows a steady accuracy in prediction of sentiment even though the accuracy rate is much lower than the VADER method.

Another interesting fact is that the accuracy rate of VADER is even higher in the labeled dataset (Table 9) compared to other renowned methods like Logistic Regression, SVM model, Naive Bayes model, Random Forest model, Decision Tree Classification model, and Ensemble Approach Using Voting Classifier 22. All these methods are well known for supervised learning. Other than VADER and TextBlob analysis, Random Forest gives a much higher accuracy rate compared to all the other methods (Refer Table 9).
VADER shows high accuracy rate in both labeled and unlabeled data sentiment analysis. However TextBlob accuracy indicates TextBlob results are undependable for this study. Other methods are used here for cross-validation and comparison purposes only and do not involve deep in this particular research.

This study result gives an insight into new policymaking on different topics which are related to city services and helps to review an overall impulse of people’s reaction on topics related to Dublin. Here, internal validation happens by comparing the results of one method of study with another. For example, results of VADER analysis are compared with results of AFINN or TextBlob and vice versa.

As a contradiction to the above validation explanations, an attempt was made to use external validation using manual tagging and supervised learning, which helps to cross-validate the results and give double authentication to this piece of research.
VI. CONCLUSION & FUTURE WORK
Data preprocessing and cleaning is a vital part of most of the Machine Learning projects and it is also clearly mentioned in CRISP-DM lifecycle. The data set is in metadata format and the major challenge in this study involved in data scrapping and arranging the data in further usable format. In this study, Gensim library had a vital role in processing this large amount of data and LDA topic modeling helped to get the most sophisticated topic modeling with less chance of topic irregularities in modeling. The prime advantage of this study is that it points out the topic which is important for the public and how the public reacts to each of the topics.

The objective of this study was to get the sentiment of people regarding city services. Results obtained indicate that people are mostly happy about current services and the same trend is followed even if the number of topics is increased or decreased. Only a few areas need improvement and more care. However, it is not 100 % true that all topics extracted after LDA modeling are considered for final analysis. Using inclusion and exclusion it is found that topic number 4 in 4-LDA topic modeling is ignored in the final analysis. Only a few areas like schooling, gaming and old buildings are showing some needs for improvement and people are expressing the negative sentiment in these areas.

This study indicates that there are some improvements are needed in a few areas, it helps practitioners to understand the lagging areas and help them to put some effort to resolve those. However, the practitioners need further insight into the depth and reason behind the problems and how to improve the lagging areas.

In this research, papers from different research areas like sentiment analysis and topic modeling were combined and discussed. Also, a sample project presentation paper was taken for a better understanding of the smart city project(Refer Related-Works above).It is clearly visible that the importance of sentiment analysis is increasing day by day and the scope of it is vast and wide 2. It is understood that topic modeling is an integral part of sentiment analysis and most of the researchers prefer the LDA method for it (Refer to24, 25 for detailed topic model reviews and comparison). The basic goal of this research is to help create a smart city project by applying the most appropriate topic modeling and to run a sentiment analysis in order to find a better actionable knowledge and decision support mechanism. While comparing with previous studies mentioned in related the works, the majority were emphasized on topics such as “How to do smart city analysis and future scope of smart cities in the economic and social area of life”. However, this study is more concentrated on the practical side of sentiment analysis and points out which specific areas need more focusing on to move forward to the smart city position.

However, the main limitation of this study was to filter out the data which relate only to city services. This was mainly due to the vast scope and availability of data. The second major limitation of this study was related to the accuracy of topic prediction. Even though LDA is a proven method, sometimes it also fails to showcase the related words in same topics which results in a decrease in the dependability and reliability of topics. This study helped to find the main topics where people have discomfort but did not cover the reasons behind this discomfort in depth.

The sentence by sentence sentiment analysis table helps future studies to categorize this topic further into different sessions and boost up further studies on smart city development. The scope of this study varies from person to person and as per their requirements. The main advantage of this study is that it covered all areas of machine learning except image analysis and neural networks. A study as an extension to this which can predict the reason for the negative sentiment and resolving measures has a wide scope in smart city studies. This study is a halfway mark to that ultimate aim.

The next step was to screen titles and abstracts to deter-
mine which ones to accept for full article screening. This
was accomplished using two reviewers who rated each
article for inclusion or exclusion based on predefined cri-
teria. Disagreements among raters were settled by a third
reviewer. Inclusion criteria were as follows (i) Objective or
self-report measurement of physical activity or body mass
(e.g. height and weight, skin-fold or waist circumference);
(ii) Measurement, either perceived (e.g. participant self-
report) or objective (e.g. geographic information systems
GIS mapping of objective environmental data or neigh-
bourhood audits) of at least one of the 10 smart growth
principles and (iii) Publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Exclusion criteria were (i) Papers that focused primarily on
socioeconomic characteristics of a geographic area, neigh-
bourhood problems, social cohesion, social capital, or total
city or town size; (ii) A target population consisting mostly
of senior citizens (because of functional limitations that
may limit their physical activity); (iii) Instrument validation
studies; (iv) Papers that were reviews, case reports, edito-
rials, commentaries, discussions or letters and (v) Behav-
ioural interventions without an environmental component
(e.g. walking programmes, fitness education classes, etc.).
Full articles of the accepted titles and abstracts were then
screened using the same dual rater system and against the
same criteria.
The next step was to screen titles and abstracts to deter-
mine which ones to accept for full article screening. This
was accomplished using two reviewers who rated each
article for inclusion or exclusion based on predefined cri-
teria. Disagreements among raters were settled by a third
reviewer. Inclusion criteria were as follows (i) Objective or
self-report measurement of physical activity or body mass
(e.g. height and weight, skin-fold or waist circumference);
(ii) Measurement, either perceived (e.g. participant self-
report) or objective (e.g. geographic information systems
GIS mapping of objective environmental data or neigh-
bourhood audits) of at least one of the 10 smart growth
principles and (iii) Publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Exclusion criteria were (i) Papers that focused primarily on
socioeconomic characteristics of a geographic area, neigh-
bourhood problems, social cohesion, social capital, or total
city or town size; (ii) A target population consisting mostly
of senior citizens (because of functional limitations that
may limit their physical activity); (iii) Instrument validation
studies; (iv) Papers that were reviews, case reports, edito-
rials, commentaries, discussions or letters and (v) Behav-
ioural interventions without an environmental component
(e.g. walking programmes, fitness education classes, etc.).
Full articles of the accepted titles and abstracts were then
screened using the same dual rater system and against the
same criteria.
The next step was to screen titles and abstracts to deter-
mine which ones to accept for full article screening. This
was accomplished using two reviewers who rated each
article for inclusion or exclusion based on predefined cri-
teria. Disagreements among raters were settled by a third
reviewer. Inclusion criteria were as follows (i) Objective or
self-report measurement of physical activity or body mass
(e.g. height and weight, skin-fold or waist circumference);
(ii) Measurement, either perceived (e.g. participant self-
report) or objective (e.g. geographic information systems
GIS mapping of objective environmental data or neigh-
bourhood audits) of at least one of the 10 smart growth
principles and (iii) Publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Exclusion criteria were (i) Papers that focused primarily on
socioeconomic characteristics of a geographic area, neigh-
bourhood problems, social cohesion, social capital, or total
city or town size; (ii) A target population consisting mostly
of senior citizens (because of functional limitations that
may limit their physical activity); (iii) Instrument validation
studies; (iv) Papers that were reviews, case reports, edito-
rials, commentaries, discussions or letters and (v) Behav-
ioural interventions without an environmental component
(e.g. walking programmes, fitness education classes, etc.).
Full articles of the accepted titles and abstracts were then
screened using the same dual rater system and against the
same criteria.
The next step was to screen titles and abstracts to deter-
mine which ones to accept for full article screening. This
was accomplished using two reviewers who rated each
article for inclusion or exclusion based on predefined cri-
teria. Disagreements among raters were settled by a third
reviewer. Inclusion criteria were as follows (i) Objective or
self-report measurement of physical activity or body mass
(e.g. height and weight, skin-fold or waist circumference);
(ii) Measurement, either perceived (e.g. participant self-
report) or objective (e.g. geographic information systems
GIS mapping of objective environmental data or neigh-
bourhood audits) of at least one of the 10 smart growth
principles and (iii) Publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Exclusion criteria were (i) Papers that focused primarily on
socioeconomic characteristics of a geographic area, neigh-
bourhood problems, social cohesion, social capital, or total
city or town size; (ii) A target population consisting mostly
of senior citizens (because of functional limitations that
may limit their physical activity); (iii) Instrument validation
studies; (iv) Papers that were reviews, case reports, edito-
rials, commentaries, discussions or letters and (v) Behav-
ioural interventions without an environmental component
(e.g. walking programmes, fitness education classes, etc.).
Full articles of the accepted titles and abstracts were then
screened using the same dual rater system and against the
same criteria.
The next step was to screen titles and abstracts to deter-
mine which ones to accept for full article screening. This
was accomplished using two reviewers who rated each
article for inclusion or exclusion based on predefined cri-
teria. Disagreements among raters were settled by a third
reviewer. Inclusion criteria were as follows (i) Objective or
self-report measurement of physical activity or body mass
(e.g. height and weight, skin-fold or waist circumference);
(ii) Measurement, either perceived (e.g. participant self-
report) or objective (e.g. geographic information systems
GIS mapping of objective environmental data or neigh-
bourhood audits) of at least one of the 10 smart growth
principles and (iii) Publication in a peer-reviewed journal.
Exclusion criteria were (i) Papers that focused primarily on
socioeconomic characteristics of a geographic area, neigh-
bourhood problems, social cohesion, social capital, or total
city or town size; (ii) A target population consisting mostly
of senior citizens (because of functional limitations that
may limit their physical activity); (iii) Instrument validation
studies; (iv) Papers that were reviews, case reports, edito-
rials, commentaries, discussions or letters and (v) Behav-
ioural interventions without an environmental component
(e.g. walking programmes, fitness education classes, etc.).
Full articles of the accepted titles and abstracts were then
screened using the same dual rater system and against the
same criteria.
VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to thank my supervisor, D.Sc. Antti Knutas for the support and direction in helping me to complete this research and document. I would also like to thank Dr. John Breslin (NUIG) for provide the access to the SIOC Corpus database.

VIII. REFERENCES
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2 F. & Sullivan, “Frost & Sullivan: Global Smart Cities market to reach US$1.56 trillion by 2020.” Online. Available: http://www.prnewswire.com/newsreleases/frost–sullivan-global-smart-cities-market-toreach-us156-trillion-by-2020-300001531.html. Accessed: 30-May-2016.

3 ?eh??ek, r. and Sojka, P. (2010). Software Framework for Topic Modeling with Large Corpora. online https://radimrehurek.com/gensim. Available at: http://is.muni.cz/publication/884893/en Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
4 Wilson, T., Wiebe, J. and Hoffmann, P. (2005). Recognizing Contextual Polarity in Phrase-Level Sentiment Analysis. online Available at: http://delivery.acm.org/10.1145/1230000/1220619/p347-wilson.pdf?ip=51.171.78.86&id=1220619&acc=OPEN&key=4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E4D4702B0C3E38B35%2E6D218144511F3437&__acm__=1533388406_8f45c230c6f0ffd6e2ad9592cbdcf4c6 Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
5 V.Mäntylä, M., Graziotin, D. and Kuutila, M. (2016). The evolution of sentiment analysis—A review of research topics, venues, and top cited papers. online Available at: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1612/1612.01556.pdf Accessed 18 Nov. 2017
6 Vakali, A., Chatzakou, D., Koutsonikola, V. and Andreadis, G. (2013). Social data sentiment analysis in smart environment extending dual polarities for crowd pulse capturing. online Available at: http://oswinds.csd.auth.gr/sen_2_soc/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/DATA13-Vakali-camera.pdf Accessed 29 Oct. 2017.
7 Lu, B., Ott, M., Cardie, C. and Tsou, B. (2011). Multi-aspect Sentiment Analysis with Topic Models. online Available at: https://www.cs.cornell.edu/home/cardie/papers/masa-sentire-2011.pdf Accessed 5 Nov. 2017
8 Barnaghi, P. (2014). Large scale data analytics for smart cities and related use cases. online Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/information_society/newsroom/cf/dae/document.cfm?action=display&doc_id=7686 Accessed 12 Oct. 2017
9 Hong, L. and D. Davison, B. (2010). Empirical Study of Topic Modeling in Twitter. online Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.180.5941&rep=rep1&type=pdf Accessed 18 Nov. 2017
10 Anon, (n.d.). lxml – XML and HTML with Python.
11 Bicking, I. (2008). lxml: an underappreciated web scraping library. online Available at: http://www.ianbicking.org/blog/2008/12/lxml-an-underappreciated-web-scraping-library.html Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
12 Jones, E., Oliphant, T. and Peterson, P. (2001). SciPy: Open Source Scientific Tools for Python. online Available at: http://www.scipy.org/ Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
13 AlSumait, L., Barbará, D., Gentle, J. and Domeniconi, C. (2009). Topic Significance Ranking of LDA Generative Models. online Available at: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-04180-8_22 Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
14 Li, S. (2018). Topic Modeling and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) in Python. online Available at: https://towardsdatascience.com/topic-modeling-and-latent-dirichlet-allocation-in-python-9bf156893c24 Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
15 Anon, (2018). Latent Dirichlet allocation. online Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latent_Dirichlet_allocation Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
16 Breslin, J. and Bojars, U. (n.d.). sioc-project. online Available at: http://sioc-project.org/ Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
17 Mabey, B. (n.d.). pyLDAvis. online Available at: https://github.com/bmabey/pyLDAvis Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
18 Sievert, C. and E. Shirley, K. (2014). LDAvis: A method for visualizing and interpreting topics. online Available at: https://nlp.stanford.edu/events/illvi2014/papers/sievert-illvi2014.pdf Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
19 Hutto, C.J. & Gilbert, E.E. (2014). VADER: A Parsimonious Rule-based Model for Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Text. Eighth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media (ICWSM-14). Ann Arbor, MI, June 2014.
20 Loria, S. (n.d.). TextBlob: Simplified Text Processing. online Available at: https://textblob.readthedocs.io/en/dev/ Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
21 Finn Årup Nielsen, “A new ANEW: evaluation of a word list for sentiment analysis in microblogs”, Proceedings of the ESWC2011 Workshop on ‘Making Sense of Microposts’: Big things come in small packages. Volume 718 in CEUR Workshop Proceedings: 93-98. 2011 May. Matthew Rowe, Milan Stankovic, Aba-SahDadzie, Mariann Hardey (editors)
22 Wu, X., Kumar, V., Quinlan, J., Ghosh, •. and Yang, Q. (2007). Top 10 algorithms in data mining. online Available at: http://www.realtechsupport.org/UB/CM/algorithms/Wu_10Algorithms_2008.pdf Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
23 Gibbert, M., Ruigrok, W. and Wicki, B. (2008). What Passes as a Rigorous Case Study? online Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40060241 Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
24 Liu, Z. (2013). High Performance Latent Dirichlet Allocation for Text Mining. online Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/6390/31a930df256987a1a230e319e19d3b0c2b84.pdf Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.
25 M. Blei, D. (2012). Probabilistic Topic Models. online Available at: https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2133826 Accessed 4 Aug. 2018.

Name: Sakariya Ahmed
Tutor: Brian Payne
Business BTEC Level 3 Subsidiary Unit 4
P1. For your chosen organisation investigate and explain the different types of information that are being used, where this information come from and explain its purpose.
Introduction
The organisation I have chosen for this is John Lewis. I will explain the different types of information that John Lewis uses to help improve its company and help it function with the day to day actives of the company. John Lewis, being a retail store, needs information to keep the company running. The way they pass information is very important to how the business handles its day to day activity. There are many three different types of ways that information could be passed, there is verbal information, Written information and on screen information.
How john Lewis uses verbal information
Passing information face to face is the best way to pass information, this is verbal communication. Verbal communication allows less room for misunderstanding, if the other person does not understand the information being passed, the one giving the information could clear up the misunderstanding. John Lewis being a retail store, verbal communication would be the main way the outlet stores pass information, it could also help employees when costumers need help with something, they would pass the information by verbal speaking with the costumers. This would also be used when John Lewis has meeting, for example they could be having a meeting about a new advert, they would talk about their ideas.
How John Lewis uses on screen information
If they are providing information for a large audience, on screen information would be best. On screen information is information that is produced on a screen, this would also include multimedia TV. The term “multimedia” means multiple forms of media integrated together, this would include the TV news. On screen information could include text, graphics, animation, audio and video. John Lewis would also use on screen information, once again I’m going use the example of an advert, the company could have an on screen display explaining their ideas for the advert.
How John Lewis uses written information
Written information would be any type of information that is written down, this could be in a form of newspaper, books, etc. Companies like John Lewis could have customers writing either saying if they had a problem with the company or in ways to change the company to improve the customer services.

Reference list
david dossantosg. (2017). BUSINESS UNIT 4 P1. Available: https://www.emaze.com/@AFORWCFR. Last accessed 16/02/2018.

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Summary Review and Introduction of Centre of Functional Food and Human Nutrition (CFFHN)

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1) Background of Adolescents’ nutrition status
2) Background of Adolescents’ physical activity level
3) Available nutrition programs in Singapore and overseas that help to prevent chronic diseases and are meant for adolescents as well as adults
4) Complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, cardiovascular diseases
5) Lifestyle prevention of chronic diseases with modifiable and non-modifiable factors

1. Background of Adolescents’ nutrition status
Adolescents are young teenagers with age between 13-18 years old (Sallis, Prochaska, ; Taylor, 2000). It is an age state when there is a lot of changes taking place during puberty period and will affect one’s future health development, in which having adequate amount of nutrition intake is very important. The figuring out of correlates of youth physical activity will have impacts on public health, in which this kind of details could showcase efforts that are trying to raise the number of adolescents who reach health-related physical activity guidelines (Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000).
1.1 Despite with young age, study is being done and it was found out that many adolescents have poor nutrition status, which is closely linked to physical image and psychological state (Pelegrini & Petroski, 2010). This is due to adolescents being more self-conscious and they are very sensitive to how people around them perceive their physical look. It will cause them having the mindset to want to look good with nice figures. As such, adolescents will eat very little or have extreme diets to make themselves look slim, which result in them having insufficient nutrition that their bodies required and being under-nutrition (Pelegrini & Petroski, 2010). Body image is a complicated issue that involves a lot of discussions and will include distorted perceptual, affective, cognitive or behavioral actions or thoughts. Body dissatisfaction is extremely common during adolescence. A study was done and it showed that more than fifty percent of adolescents were dissatisfied with their individual body image. Research also states that females in general have greater body dissatisfaction than males. While body dissatisfaction is closely connected with the hope of being slimmer among ladies, for the male adolescents their body dissatisfaction is more related with the wish to gain weight instead, in order to obtain an athletic figure (Pelegrini & Petroski, 2010). Body dissatisfaction has frequently been linked to differentiation between actual and virtual expectations. Even though it is a complicated matter to look deeper into, there is proof that social and sociocultural elements have an impact on implanting improper body image. A number of nutritional status disorders can be seen in adolescents of current generation, classified both by nutritional excesses and deficits (Pelegrini & Petroski, 2010). Over these few years, overweight and obesity have been discovered to rise in all age groups, and as a result, obese adolescents are having a hard time from issues that are linked to acceptance of their self-image and cherishing of their own bodies. Body dissatisfaction is widely known to be a greatly common problem in adolescents of both gender (Pelegrini & Petroski, 2010). Therefore, parents, educators and health professionals have to be notified about the increasing negative impacts of body dissatisfaction in adolescents. Since obesity is confirmed by many as a global public health issue, discovering that overweight adolescents are unhappy with their body figure should imply that they are prepared and encouraged to take actions and try to reduce body weight. This can result, in greater depth, to unhealthy actions such as anorexia, bulimia, muscle dysmorphia and improper dieting (Pelegrini & Petroski, 2010).
1.2 With reference to the analysis being done, the discoveries inform that nutritional status, primarily overweight, determines body dissatisfaction, typically for female adolescents (Horikawa et al., 2011) (Lytle, 2002). Despite of the body dissatisfaction to be more prominent in male adolescents, they are able to accept their body image greater, even those are having unhealthy nutritional status. Hence, it is advised that studies of nutritional interventions and physical exercise are need to be carried out in place in order to aid in decreasing the occurrence of overweight and obesity, and in frequent state of intervals to enhance the self-esteem of the adolescents. More in depth cross-sectional researches and studies with regards to unique social classes and various age groups are also required to enhance the understanding of the relationship between body image and nutritional status (Lytle, 2002). The economical state of the nation also plays a part in adolescents’ poor nutrition status. Countries with good economy and wealth are able to import and have large amount of fast foods and snacks. Adolescents from the rich families will then consume these imported fast foods and snacks in long period of time and develop obesity, causing them to be overweight (Horikawa et al., 2011). Furthermore, unhealthy lifestyle habits such as smoking and drinking of alcohol will also add on to the poor nutrition status of adolescents (Lytle, 2002). This can be influenced by family and friends who are also smoking and drinking alcohol, which affect the adolescents in following their footsteps. During puberty period, adolescents may also have mood swings that affect their psychological mind and have negative feelings such as pressure. This will also affect the nutrition status of adolescents (Horikawa et al., 2011). A balanced diet during adolescence helps to encourage appropriate health state, growth and development of adolescents, in which it will enable precaution against the chronic disease when adolescents get older. There are solid proofs which shows that eating habits being developed early in childhood are linked in one way or another with adulthood, while the growth change from childhood into adolescence is always connected to improper dietary changes (Lytle, 2002). Hence it is crucial to develop appropriate eating habits from young, as well as typically concentrate on the growth change from childhood to adolescence. Studies show that the dietary recommendations for a balanced diet in western countries suggest to obtain minimum ?ve portions of fruit and vegetables for one day, decrease the consumption of saturated fat and salt, as well as to eat greater amount of complicated carbohydrates and ?bres (Horikawa et al., 2011). Nevertheless, questionnaires done for dietary eating habits have revealed that most adolescents do not meet the dietary guidelines. Current numbers also portray shocking and rising amounts of obese and overweight children and adolescents in the western countries, implying that energy intakes are larger than energy requirements. Resolutions on ways to handle the problem of obesity is extremely huge on the health policy agenda and effective health promotion is still being the major method (Lytle, 2002). Hence, there is the requirement to create and initiate successful programmes and events which will enable adolescents to obtain healthier diets. Schools are an important social environment for adolescents and several solutions have been done to make use of this environment to enhance appropriate eating habits in adolescents, including positive eating thoughts. School-based interventions have the ability to achieve almost full percentage of teenagers from various ethnic and socio-economic groups in the western regions (Horikawa et al., 2011). Other impactful aspects at school for affecting eating habits are food and beverages that can be obtained at school outside meals, such as vending machines and school stores, as well as nutrition education classes. Thus, it can be seen that schools depicts a crucial surrounding to advertise and give out healthy nutrition and nutrition education (Lytle, 2002) (Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2010).
1.3 The main idea of the nutrition research done is to obtain the verified proofs of the impactful outcomes of school-based programmes that advertise a balanced diet on dietary intake and assessments of children and adolescents in western countries (Rolland-Cachera, Bellisle, ; Deheeger, 2000). As the number of researches being done among children was greater than twice and further discovery work in children were of greater standards, this have led to more assurance of impact for interventions towards children than towards the adolescents. There are stable proofs for children that multicomponent interventions with merging of upgraded convenience of obtaining the fruit and vegetables with a nutrition education curriculum conducted by the teacher, and furthermore with the addition help from various parents which will also influence the consumption of fruit and vegetables (Rolland-Cachera et al., 2000). On the other hand, there is little amount of proof of effect that could be obtained for nutrition education programmes dedicated by teachers with the use of practical lessons which are taste testing, cooking classes and so on. Very little amount of available proofs of effect was also discovered for the effectiveness of events that only concentrated on environmental change. These were only available for fruit and vegetables disseminate events, either for free or as a kind of subscription activities. For both activities, proof for effectiveness was discovered (Rolland-Cachera et al., 2000). Moreover, proof with no ending determinant of effect on dietary habits was identified for environmental initiatives that are aiming towards breakfast eating behaviours, for studies mainly focused towards children from socio-economic backgrounds or ethnic minority groups that are not high. The study also portrays not completed proof of impact of educational interventions on body composition, while this impact had never been calculated in the environmental and multicomponent interventions in children. It is able to be summarised for children that various types of fruit and vegetable promotion programmes are suitable to be suggested for carrying out to be done, which will ensure a huge chance of success, in which all the environmental and multicomponent interventions that also have a fruit and vegetable provision event have ended up in better progress in this habit (Rolland-Cachera et al., 2000). Regardless of fruit or vegetable advertising event will significantly play an impactful role to obesity precaution is quite doubtful, and further researches will be required that are aiming at a certain amount of nutrition eating habits, which play a significant role that is also crucial for energy balance (Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2010) .
1.4 With regards to adolescents, quite a number of available proofs were discovered for the impact of education-only interventions towards dietary consumption (Rolland-Cachera et al., 2000). Educational experiments done on adolescents will mostly portray a nutrition education curriculum that was conducted by the teachers. Moreover, very little amount of solid proofs of impact is given for the various component programmes on dietary eating habits. The environmental part of these various component experiments has displayed possibility of modifying or raising the ease of obtaining healthy food. This was merged with passing on of knowledge to the adolescents about healthy nutrition through the teacher (“/Reviews A nalyses Use and interpretation of anthropometric indicators of nutritional status* WHO WORKING GROUP’,” 1986). In an overall view, there is uncertainty about the presence of solid proof of impact from all these interventions that had been found on anthropometrics. With regards to children, it is also quite obvious in the various experiments for adolescents that there is an emergency requirement for dietary interventions in adolescents which will evaluate the impact towards overweight or obesity (Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2010). The most current international review that analyses the positive or negative impact of interventions in upgrading the school food environment, is discovered to have positive impact for school food policies on appropriate food consumption, but very minimum amount of analysis on the outcome on BMI was discovered. It is widely known that parents have a greatly significant role in children’s and adolescent’s eating habits and as a result, it is being recognized that interventions which are targeted towards enhancing children’s and adolescent’s nutrition are required to notify the family and enable them know about it (Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2010). Moreover, many of the past reviews also summarized that the engagement of parents is an extremely crucial factor for good eating behaviours. Several school-based interventions that are carried out in the current review also depict the engagement and contributions from parents (Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2010).
1.5 Despite that it was always allocated only for newsletters, folders, homework assignments, or at most the organisation of certain family nights at school, it was simply being shown that more than half of the interventions were able to work out well in enhancing dietary behavior, which cause it to have problems in having an identical, stable and recognized ending statement that is found in other international reviews (Butte, Garza, ; de Onis, 2007). The solid proof of impact that are all gathered together within the respective Western countries studies have implied plenty of suggestions and ideas for further discoveries in the western countries (Butte, Garza, ; de Onis, 2007). The current review has portrayed in a number of researches that have involved anthropometric evaluation, the solid proof on body composition was not sufficient or inappropriate. There is very little and restricted number of researches that calculate anthropometrics, in which the researches that have done were studies with little significance and quality within a short amount of time in general (Butte, Garza, ; de Onis, 2007). Moreover, a lot of the involved studies were not specifically targeting to reduce obesity, in which obesity precaution is merely a portion of a nutritional problem. Nevertheless, there is an emergency requirement for researches that involve calculation of body composition to. Next, more agreements are required about the ideal amount for diet, which would aid in raising the differences among various studies and help to organize progress of impact (Butte, Garza, ; de Onis, 2007). As such, this demonstrates the requirement for objective and agreed result calculations for health behaviours. On the other hand, certain studies merely analysed the impact on food consumption at school. This leads to the appearance of queries about the ability of children to make up for during the entire moment of the day. Thus it is crucial to evaluate the impact of the intervention with regards to total dietary habits. Hence, greater in-depth research is required in certain particular groups (Butte, Garza, ; de Onis, 2007).
1.6 As a whole, a lot of studies are required for adolescents, particularly the older adolescents who were not mentioned in the respective studies (Butte et al., 2007). Moreover, socio-economic status and ethnicity are recognised as factors of healthy eating, but lesser interventions aimed at children and adolescents from socio-economic backgrounds that are not high and from ethnic minority populations. As such, many more research are needed to notify these groups of people. It also shows that the follow-up periods were not long in general, with less than fifty percentage of the studies in children and in adolescents have proven large period of effects (Butte et al., 2007). Furthermore, the interventions were mainly having attention on short period changes immediately after the intervention, while it is necessary to have calculations of minimum half a year after the intervention to enable the research on the progress of behaviour evaluations and to identify whether weight condition has changed (Butte et al., 2007). Studies with larger portions are required to enable it happen so that conclusions can be made about the positive impacts on behaviour and obesity, as well as the continuity of the intervention. Furthermore, data with efficient cost were merely given within in a single study, while it is suggested that the impact of the intervention is also evaluated together with its availability (Butte et al., 2007).
1.7 Economic evaluation and economic proofs are required for a major part of prevention studies. They are required for suitable policy decision making as well as to analyse long period of advantages (Gibson, Sazawal, ; Peerson, 2003). Many of the methodological weakness that were showcased in the quality evaluation were resulted from too little amount of required details. Hence it is shown that researchers will go along with the current available guidelines for showcasing outcomes of experiments in the future. Moreover, the major causes that researches obtained quality of rating that are not high in general were resulted from a poor evaluation on the requirement selection bias as well as ways of obtaining data (Gibson, Sazawal, ; Peerson, 2003). There is continuous proof within the same area from the literature which implies that the efficient usage of information will effectively upgrade in a large extent, however not the entire of the studies will showcase the function of a theoretical background. The educational and multicomponent studies will specifically require a lot about a theoretical background, while environmental interventions will not showcase a theoretical background even once (Gibson, Sazawal, ; Peerson, 2003). From the current review, it is unable to state that a theoretical background is a crucial role to achievement due to both studies showcasing the function of a theory and studies that never showcased positive outcome (Gibson, Sazawal, ; Peerson, 2003). One of the main benefits of the current review is that grey literature and poorer quality studies can be obtained. Through this method, proof from the western countries was widen and expanded, but grey literature and poorer quality studies are beneficial in-depth details that is not included in several systematic reviews that will go on to initially concentrate on researches with hardcore designs. Second benefit is that the current review seems to be typically at the evidence that are situated in western countries (Gibson, Sazawal, ; Peerson, 2003). Western studies were the least amount of involved studies in other systematic reviews. However, a lot of the studies that are mentioned in the current review were done respectively in countries from Western and Northern parts of Europe. This generates doubts with regards to the ability of summarising these results to other countries in Europe, typically because contextual variables were always not in sufficient amount in the involved researches (Gibson et al., 2003). For the purpose of evaluating the benefits of the methods in the other parts of Europe, it is suggested that double copying of the analysis of the successful interventions that are pointed out in the current review suited to a particular nation and its culture should be done (Gibson et al., 2003). A wide range of policy documents are being summoned for the enhancement of efficient methods to enable better dietary behaviours in children and adolescents, which will aid in stopping or reverse the rise in obesity as well as to enhance other areas related to health. For adolescents, an educational event will exhibit high chance of having great impact in advertising healthy nutrition (Gibson, Sazawal, ; Peerson, 2003). Additionally, proof was also discovered for events that have enhanced school lunches or raised the ease of obtaining of healthy food and merged this together with a nutritional curriculum on food eating habits. In summary, proof of positive impact was discovered for the western countries school-based first-done activities that advertise a healthy diet in school-aged students about good eating habits (Gibson et al., 2003). Western countries’ proof of the positive impact was not being set up for school-based dietary interventions on precaution against obesity. Moreover, suggestions should not merely be focusing on effectiveness, quite a number of other aspects such as sustainability, integrity, context and impact of pricing should also be taken into notice so as to enable successful dissemination of suitable evidence-based suggestions and solutions to the policy makers. Further in-depth studies should concentrate about ?lling the lacking areas mentioned in the current review (Gibson et al., 2003). To better enhance the quality of the solid proof of positive impact towards these types of interventions, it is extremely crucial that good quality researches are conducted, which should focus on studies with the largest amount of eye-catching design as possible, together with a suitable sample size, a more detailed description about further post intervention, the function of greater unbiased evaluation about dietary habits, calculations about body composition as well as the analysis of implementation problems and impact of pricing. Together with good quality researches, excellent quality interventions are needed (Gibson et al., 2003). They are interventions with higher level and greater in-depth, in which interventions with small amount of dose over short amounts of time are highly unable to implement better changes in eating habits and anthropometrics, appropriate amount of integrity as well as sufficient engagement of the parents and schools (Gibson et al., 2003). Additionally, researches should be done according to some particular standards such as the consort and the trend statement, in which the present researches are able to be better identified for their weakness and strengths and also all the required details are disseminated to viewers (Gibson et al., 2003).

2. Background of Adolescents’ physical activity level
Physical activities are very important in keeping adolescents in good state of health with sufficient nutrition. The physical activity level of adolescents is expected to be high as adolescents are young people with youth age that is supposed to have great amount of energy and being active (Mota, Almeida, Santos, ; Ribeiro, 2005). Research was done and it was found out that adolescents’ physical activity level is largely affected by factors such as the accessibility of shops, social environment, neighbors with recreational facilities, as well as aesthetics (Mota, Almeida, Santos, & Ribeiro, 2005). When people are able to access to aesthetic and recreational facilities that are convenient to go to with ease, they are more willing to do physical activities as compared to people who have inconvenience in accessing the recreational facilities. When adolescents are in a social environment where people around them are doing physical activities frequently, they will be influenced by the people and also do more physical activities (Mota, Almeida, Santos, & Ribeiro, 2005). On the other hand, if the surrounding people seldom do physical activities, there is high possibility that adolescents will also not do physical activities as well. For aesthetics, adolescents are more willing to do physical activities with facilities that are able to get their attention and being appealing visually. If the aesthetics of the facilities are boring and unattractive, then most likely adolescents will not tend to try out on the particular facilities to do the physical activities (Mota et al., 2005).

3. Available nutrition programs in Singapore and overseas that help to prevent chronic diseases and are meant for adolescents as well as adults

As such, there are a number of available nutrition programs in Singapore and overseas that helps to prevent chronic diseases. In Europe, school-based interventions are carried out. It implements healthy eating habits of consuming fruits and vegetables as well as having breakfast habits that promotes healthy diet (Van Cauwenberghe et al., 2010). In United Nation, the UNU Food and Nutrition Program works with WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Food and Nutrition Division (Butte et al., 2007). World Food Dietary Assessment System is also carried out in developing countries (Gibson et al., 2003). In Singapore, several health promotion activities were carried out by the Ministry of Health, such as Trim and Fit program, National Healthy Lifestyle Campaign and public education nutrition programs which educate the public on healthier food choices as well as creating positive environment of healthier eating with sufficient amount of healthier food products (Gibson et al., 2003) (Toh, Chew, & Tan, 2002). Cancers and cardiovascular diseases are the main causes of health concerns that are influencing Singaporeans negatively today, being responsible for more than fifty percentage of all deaths. This is a huge difference from the 20th century when spreadable diseases such as tuberculosis and gastroenteritis were within the top five major factors of death in Singapore (Toh, Chew, & Tan, 2002). The main causing aspects of the epidemiological in improvement are upgraded housing and sanitary conditions, ease of obtaining clean usable water, successful vaccine and disease surveillance events and better cleanliness lifestyles, which occurs due to fast growth of socio-economic progress. With the change in disease formats upon chronic lifestyle diseases, the Review Committee on National Health Policies had implemented a policy review of the healthcare services in 1991 (Toh, Chew, & Tan, 2002). The Committee emphasized the attention that was put on health advertisement and disease precaution to minimize movement and mortality of Singaporeans and strongly encouraged the importance of each and every Singaporean in being accountable for taking care of their personal health (Toh, Chew, & Tan, 2002). Therefore, a combination series of health broadcast activities was simultaneously organised under the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme which took place in 1992. Information about citizens is required for looking into the changes about the health situation of the country (Toh et al., 2002). With respect to this, the first National Health Survey (NHS) was taken place in 1992 to evaluate the national baseline prevalence of the cardiovascular danger aspect status of diabetes, hypertension, high blood cholesterol, obesity, physical activity as well as smoking before the launching of healthy lifestyle intervention activities (Toh et al., 2002). NHS 1998 was also performed to evaluate the development in the standards of the danger aspects that lasts for six years. By looking through the multifactorial reasons of cardiovascular disease and its danger aspects, as well as the obstacle of designing and organising positive analysis researches about health advertising activities, the NHS information will be taken into consideration in this study, as a determining factor for the general effect of the entire activities done under the National Healthy Lifestyle Programme on the precaution of cardiovascular danger aspects in Singapore (Toh et al., 2002). The identical activity for the wide range of disease status are being done for the information from both NHS. Non-specific population of approximately 4,000 Singaporean residents of 18 to 69 years old have taken part in each of the two surveys (Toh et al., 2002). This nationally motivated Healthy Lifestyle Programme concentrated upon four major lifestyle precautions, which are staying smoke free, physical activity, consume moderately and appropriate handling of pressure from daily lives, in order to fight against the widely known chronic diseases and their danger aspects (Toh et al., 2002).
3.1 For smoking problem, Singapore has stably and frequently implementing challenging no-smoking policies since the 1970’s (Toh et al., 2002). A wide range of combination of solutions was being carried out which consist of public education, legislation, cigarette taxation and limitation of smoking cessation management. The goal of the solutions was to give warning to the public about the negative impacts of smoking, to enable it being obstructing and costly to smoke, as well as to protect them from the forced decision to smoke (Toh et al., 2002). Legislative solutions with examples of the banning of smoking in public by age eighteen years old or below, compulsory implementations of health effects on cigarette packaging covers, limited allowance of smoking in public areas as well as the limited allowance on the selling of cigarette materials are showing positive effects merely with the aid of largely known and impactful emphasizing by the legislation with the conduction of penalties on people who go against the implemented laws. Together with largely promoted public education programmes in every year, these solutions could have played a role to the minimizing of the general smoking rates, such as from 18% in 1992 to 15% in 1998 (Toh et al., 2002). For the present rates of smoking that are not high, it will be full of obstacles for Singapore to minimize the number of people smoking to an even larger extent. The number of male smokers is made up of 90% of all smokers in Singapore, in which 46% of all the adult female smokers are between eighteen to twenty-nine years old. The national program will concentrate on these two populations of smokers, which comprise of the males who take up smoking cessation as well as young children who personally went through and being glued to smoking of cigarettes. The Singapore Youth Tobacco Survey in year 2000 portrayed that one out of four secondary school children was discovered to being attempted to try on smoking, while approximately one out of ten had smoked minimum for a single day in the last one month (Toh et al., 2002). To improve any amendment in their smoking behaviours, the requirements and insecurities of the young children such as perception by others as well as peer pressure are necessary to be completely analyzed with more in-depth. A lot of innovative interventions are required to be upgraded in order to overcome the cunning strategies done by cigarette companies to advertise their product, with examples like placing cigarettes into tiny packets with lesser amount that enable it more cost-efficient for people to smoke, particularly young adults (Toh et al., 2002).
3.2 The double issues of physical inactivity and aggressive diet are largely related to obesity (Butte et al., 2007). The solution was to advertise physical activity and eating appropriately with two portions of a healthier lifestyle, which is from the working locations as well as schools where people spend a great period of their time daily (Butte et al., 2007). Obesity in students from primary, secondary and pre-university schools portrayed an almost three-fold rise from 5.4% in 1980 to 15.1% in 1991. With regards to this norm, the Ministry of Education, hugely backed up by the Ministry of Health, implemented the Trim and Fit (T.A.F.) program to students in 1992 to minimize obesity and enhance physical fitness among school children in primary schools up to pre-university level (Butte et al., 2007). Most of the solutions implemented in the T.A.F. program involve the management of food and drinks sold in school canteens, exercise activities for overweight and obese students, parental engagement and support, as well as working together with other relevant labels. Over the long duration of ten decades starting from 1992 when the event was implemented, obesity in school children have positively decreased from 14% to 10%. As the T.A.F. activity contributes significantly, other ongoing events for exercise and sports done by the Ministry of Education could have also play an important role to the reduction of obesity occurrence in young children and adolescents. There are other solutions that can be carried out to cut down the obesity occurrence to a larger extent (Butte et al., 2007). Large amount of hard work during the start of intervention stage that can enable students to reduce weight is crucial. Larger engagement of parents in the TAF program is required, in which the home conditions plays a significant role to the shaping of the child’s habits in positive or negative way. Intervention for people at young age has also been proven to have positive impact locally. A current recognition of the C.H.E.R.I.S.H. (Championing Efforts Resulting in Improved Health) Award, acknowledge schools that have implemented more innovative and interesting methods in grooming the physical and mental health of students and staff to enable them live healthy lifestyles. When there is increasing number of schools which manage to get this award, many more schools will be motivated to achieve identical levels as them (Butte et al., 2007).
3.3 The alternative way of achieving the people for healthy lifestyle advertisement is through the working areas where adult Singaporeans spend approximately two-thirds or more of their daily waking time (Toh et al., 2002). Until now, several companies still unwilling to carry out the strategy of organising health advertisement events for their employees as they felt that it was an unneeded spending of company’s money. Nonetheless, studies have proven that implementing of health advertisement activities in working areas are efficient in enhancing the health condition and working ability of employees. The National Workplace Health Promotion Programme implements a plan to motivate more relevant parties to organize and maintain health advertisement activities in working areas which will obtain expected health results. This plan makes use of health-related staffs who are employees of an organization to be the first and foremost starters in the companies to motivate and manage the implementation of healthy lifestyles among the working staffs (Toh et al., 2002). Training sessions and education programmes are held to impart supervisors and management personnels with information and skills to carry out and advertise a healthy lifestyle at their working areas. The Singapore H.E.A.L.T.H. Award was introduced in 1998 to showcase national acknowledgement to working areas with positive health advertisement activities in working areas, which could involve health detail distribution, appropriate events for behavioral changes and environmental back up with the establishment of water coolers and healthier choices at the working areas’ canteen. In 2000, 135 companies had received the H.E.A.L.T.H. Award. Several initiatives are underway to further encourage the adoption of workplace health promotion (Toh et al., 2002).
3.4 The Workplace Health Promotion Grant, which focus on the rational of co-funding, was established to aid organisations in broadening and enhancing their health advertisement activities (Toh et al., 2002). There are intentions to implement health advertisement at the working areas as one of the achieving point for national productivity awards to showcase the importance of employee health to business management. A National Healthy Lifestyle Campaign is held for thirty days annually, which aims to educate Singaporeans of the crucial significance of a healthy lifestyle (Toh et al., 2002). From day one when the Campaign began in year 1992, it has obtained the back up and engagement of several politicians. The Great Singapore Workout, a combination of simple and little effect aerobic procedures for both young and old people, is being taken as the exercise activity for the yearly National Healthy Lifestyle Campaign since year 1993. Unfortunately, its function outside the campaign time was not broad enough, in which a new exercise activity was implemented in year 2001. The new workout, the “Work Fit” was intentionally created with the thought of working adult, imitating steps of widely known sports for convenient memory. The public education nutrition activity implements several methods to impart knowledge to the public regarding healthier food preferences, enabling a positive surrounding for healthier eating, as well as giving sufficient amount of healthier foods (Toh et al., 2002). In year 1998, Nutrition Labelling was implemented to motivate the food industry to showcase nutritional detail panels on amount of energy and composition of seven selected nutrients in one serving size and 100 grams of the packaged food. The Healthier Choice Symbol on packaged food was implemented for the convenience of consumer acknowledgement. Restaurants, food courts and hawker centres are being motivated to provide customers with greater amount of vegetables, lower amount of fat and oil though the “Ask for Healthier Food” activity (Toh et al., 2002).
3.5 The health advertisement hard works of the National Healthy Lifestyle Campaign will most probably play a role in the rising standard of announced exercise event in the population and decrease of in smoking occurrence (Toh et al., 2002). Unfortunately, detectable causes of cardiovascular occurrence seem to have destructed. There is a need to analyze and improve the existing methods for fighting cardiovascular illnesses. Present improvements in services should be identified and mentioned. More in-depth focus could be given to high risk population. A large-scale implement was required to modify health services with the changing national requirements and concerns. Since year 2000, the Ministry of Health launched a national illness improvement project for common chronic disease status in Singapore (Toh et al., 2002). The purpose was to minimize the pressure of severe disease status that resulted in mortality and morbidity, with examples like cardiovascular diseases. The National Disease Plans implement an efficient method that enhances patient responsibility, integration of care by many providers as well as acknowledgement of responsible people to enable successful outcome. In the implementation project, initial precaution events are aimed at both the major public and high-risk populations. In cases when initial precaution is unsuccessful, danger causes are needed to be discovered early and healed with secondary and tertiary precaution methods, with regards to the general necessary implementation ways to disease precaution and management (Toh et al., 2002).
3.6 For initial precaution, all along for several years, health teaching and advertisement have given details to the public about the advantages of a healthier lifestyle. Certain methods were also being done to ensure an appropriate surrounding for the taking of healthy habits. When the population gains more knowledge about healthy lifestyles, the public will have greater attention and more understanding about health problems (Gibson et al., 2003). The following obstacle will require the government to explore further other than simply distributing of knowledge to the following status of emphasizing the advantages of the healthier decisions, as well as giving skills and surrounding priviledges for the public to enable the successful improvement of health behaviour. Problems such as socio-cultural causes are needed to be announced when activities are targeted at typical high-risk populations. To ensure higher concentration upon initial precaution, a new statutory board, the Health Promotion Board was being implemented in April of year 2001 with a rise in spending of approximately $100 million for the year 2001 (Toh et al., 2002).
3.7 With regards to secondary and tertiary precautions, diabetes and hypertension will cause a person to have a higher danger for cardiovascular diseases. Almost two-thirds and more than half of Singapore residents with diabetes mellitus and hypertension did not know about their illness condition (Murray et al., 2003). To enhance early discovery of the chronic situations of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia, the government in year 2000 implemented the “Check Your Health” community health screening event. This event is aimed at the elderly of 50 years old and older. With cost of a greatly subsidised fee of $5, the screening activity is extremely available to lower and middle-income populations and is carried out at neighbourhood areas on weekends, when the children of these elderly are available to attend together with their parents. Even though there is efficient pricing and ease of convenience to go the location, merely around one out of four of the acceptable people was being screened (Murray et al., 2003). Further details could be found on the causes of the little engagement of people, in which strategies are implemented to improve them. Greater amount of frequent reviews should also be carried out. Furthermore, necessary procedures were done to enhance the handling of diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with the help of a Comprehensive Chronic Care Program. With references to government subsidised foremost healthcare polyclinics, this activity enables an efficient management to the three illnesses’ status, such that each of them will get an organized system of concern from aid of evidence-based healing processes. With the reshaping of the public-sector institutions in year 2000 into two groups of straightly integrated delivery managements that provide a variety of primary, secondary and tertiary care, polyclinics are able to contact hospital specialists and obtain efficient suggestions for their healthcare groups, as well as looking through the handling system of complicated issues with frequent intervals (Murray et al., 2003). An efficient benefit for patients is that the individualised attention of relevant supervisors who trail and motivate each patient to keep up with the required treatments and follow-up (Cheung et al., 2000). National Disease Plans are being implemented for myopia, cancer, coronary heart disease, final-stage renal failure as well as stroke. Mental health education events are being enhanced to incorporate more concern of people towards mental disorders among the major public (Cheung et al., 2000). Educational personnel and health specialists are also being groomed to identify, diagnose as well as handle mental health disorders which are widely known. While it is being recognized that high quality and analysis researches are difficult and expensive to carry out, it will become more and more important to have evidence-based details about the impact of associated activities. As pricing of health care rises, efficient pricing researches will also become crucial as a baseline for identifying the similarities and differences between various activities (Cheung et al., 2000).
3.8 Several health advertisement methods are being carried out efficiently through the National Healthy Lifestyle Program. It was shown that the National Smoking Control Program has successfully manage a low rate of smoking occurrence in Singapore (Toh et al., 2002). More enhancements of the methods are required to acknowledge new problems and awareness with examples like the increasing rate of young female smokers, in order to enable Singapore to be a smoke-free nation (Toh et al., 2002). The implementation of the chronic disease handling activities for the illnesses of great significance in Singapore will target on greater minimizing of the pressure of these illnesses among the people. Obesity is slowly being recognised as an aspect of concern in all parts of the world. Influential aspects involve rising of convenience from technological improvements that results in a lower manually requesting world. There is also convenient way of obtaining the food and ease of getting fast-food chains. Furthermore, obesity precautions at the moment being done in Singapore are according to the Caucasian norms, in which it may not entirely portrays the health hazards of Singaporeans. Researches have proven that a lesser amount of maximum level of the Body Mass Index may have higher appropriate amount for Asians which also involves Singaporeans (Toh et al., 2002). In situation where by a lesser amount of maximum Body Mass Index level is accepted for the symbolism of obesity in Singaporeans, the number of obesity in adults will be exceptionally greater. Higher level of concern towards the health dangers being connected to, as well as the requirement for handling of obesity will hence be required for both the general public and health professionals. The current society is ageing in fast rate, in which chronic diseases will further go on to take over as the main disease status in Singaporeans in the long run. The precaution against chronic, non-communicable diseases is very complicated and needs actions for large amount of time to avoid or reduce the further worsening of the various chronic diseases (Toh et al., 2002). The main aim will continue to be focused first and foremost on health advertisement, as well as the area of its weakness, management of danger aspects and the conditions of disease. The obstacle in first and foremost health precaution for non-communicable diseases is that there is zero immediate healing to a disease status. Not similar to infectious diseases when an antibiotic condition gives a positive effect solution, non-communicable diseases interventions usually need to have larger period of time with non-stop lifestyle improvements (Toh et al., 2002). As lifestyle improvements influence on the social, emotional, physical and even psychological factors of people’s daily activities, a higher quantity of encouragement as well as perseverance are to be achieved to initiate the will for better improvement as well as to carry out the improved ways in the daily lives. Intense management about the results of the current implementations as well as studies in health advertising activities will help to produce importable information on the long-term efficacy and impact of pricing of these types of methods. This information will enable useful effects in the non-stop hard work to uphold the increasing public health effect of widely known non-communicable diseases in Singapore (Toh et al., 2002).

4. Complications of chronic diseases such as diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity, cardiovascular diseases

Moreover, chronic diseases are one of the major health destructing diseases that result from poor nutrition status of adolescents. They include diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, obesity as well as cardiovascular diseases (Chang-Chen, Mullur, & Bernal-Mizrachi, 2008a). For diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of ?-cell failure in the building of insulin resistance. During the initial state, pancreatic ?-cells will adjust to insulin resistance by having larger amount and uses. As it continues to have extra nutrient, hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids will impact ?-cell function in bad way. This occurs through several mechanisms such as creation of reactive oxygen species, alterations in metabolic pathways, greater amount of intracellular calcium as well as release of endoplasmic reticulum stress. These processes severely cause obstruction to ?-cells by hindering insulin secretion, reduce insulin gene expression and eventually result in apoptosis. (Chang-Chen, Mullur, & Bernal-Mizrachi, 2008b) For high cholesterol, experimental trials show that the amount of mean distinction in LDL cholesterol observed between all the testing simvastatin and placebo only portrays approximately two-thirds of the LDL-difference created by the real function of osimvastatin. Thus, using simvastatin daily is able to reduce LDL cholesterol gradually (“MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20?536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebocontrolled trial,” 2002).

4.1 For high blood pressure, it is shown through improvised information on degree of contacting and analysis of the magnitude of hazards that strokes and ischaemic heart disease can be attributed to systolic blood pressure greater than 115 mm?Hg (“MRC/BHF Heart Protection Study of cholesterol lowering with simvastatin in 20?536 high-risk individuals: a randomised placebocontrolled trial,” 2002). The joint impacts of blood pressure with cholesterol concentration are not too additive due to the multicausality of cardiovascular disease and both of their joint activity. Researches have also shown that high blood pressure is a huge risk to health in all parts of the world and not only in developed countries (Murray et al., 2003). For obesity, it is shown that massive localized lymphedema (MLL) is an excess production of soft tissue resulted from chronic lymphedematous changes. It usually appears on the thigh and is huge and painless. It is not greatly developed and consists of chronic lymphedema changes such as epidermal thickening. There is always inflammation with erythema and severe drainage. Furthermore, there is also diffuse edema on the skin and subcutaneous tissue without extension to muscle, as well as a dermis marked by dilated lymphatic spaces, dense edema, and extensive dermal fibrosis. The intense tissue portrays lobules of mature fat intercepted by pale-staining interlobular septa without presence of atypical septal fibroblasts and lipoblasts (Asch, James, & Castelo-Soccio, 2008). For cardiovascular disease, studies show that diabetes are greatly linked to both coronary heart disease and peripheral vascular disease, but not linked to cerebrovascular disease in one way or another. Smoking is one of the factors to the cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease and not coronary heart disease. Furthermore, diabetes are shown to have greater impacts than age towards these diseases (Cheung et al., 2000).

5. Lifestyle prevention of chronic diseases with modifiable and non-modifiable factors
Nevertheless, there are a number of lifestyle prevention ways of chronic diseases which consist of modifiable and non-modifiable factors. For modifiable factors, people need to avoid smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol (Willett et al., 2006). People who have been smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol should reduce the intake of them in gradual state, in which slowly the smoking and drinking habits will be quitted eventually. There is also the need in increase of pricing and taxing of cigarettes, in which this will cause people to have difficulty in affording and buying cigarettes, and gradually less people are willing to fork out money and pay for them (Brownson, Haire-Joshu, & Luke, 2006) (Egger & Dixon, 2014) (Lv et al., 2011). One of the easiest and highly efficient methods to minimize smoking is to increase the cost of cigarette products. Economic behavioral theory recommends that when the price of cigarettes becomes greater, it will result in lesser number of people begin smoking, and also present smokers will smoke less frequently, as well as larger number of smokers will try their best to get rid of their smoking habit. The first and foremost method in affecting the cost is by implementing federal and state excise taxes. In 2005, the federal tax rate was 39 cents for every packet while the median state tax rate was simply less than 70 cents for one packet (Egger & Dixon, 2014). A great number of econometric researches have studied thoroughly about the various connection factors between cigarette pricings and function of cigarette for adults and young people in both developed and developing countries. For adults, a 10% increase in cigarette prices is roughly calculated to create a 3% to 5% reduction in request by people. There is an increasing in trend condition that adolescents and young adults are showing greater amount of concern to the cost than the middle-aged adults. The rough calculations are shown as about 7% to 8% to as high as 14% (Lv et al., 2011). Current researches have mentioned that greater costing will influence smoking through the reduction of occurrence level, minimizing number of cigarettes smoked as well as cutting down the period of time for smoking and getting rid of smoking desire. After all, world-wide researches have showcased that in developed countries, costing flexibility is identical to the one discovered for the western countries, while the developing and countries with little amount of earning portray higher costing sensitivity. In addition to their certified positive impact, cost rises through tax strategies are appealing due to their wide expansion (Brownson et al., 2006). The country and region implement taxes that will impact every cigarette buyer. There are people who are concerned that rise of cost would lead to tax evasion and backing off through rising sale of illegally-sold cigarettes, greater manipulation of the social media to buy cigarettes that are not expensive, or extended amount of cross border cigarette buying and smuggling. Nevertheless, even though researches have showcased that people will buy cigarettes of lesser cost when they can be obtained with convenience, most of the researches also mentioned that cigarette buyers will have problems in getting away from greater cigarette costs when they are implemented (Lv et al., 2011).
5.1 Another method to modify the ?nancial condition for cigarette management is to minimize the prices for cessation goods and services for long-term smokers. Respective pricings for cessation are decreased first and foremost through rising of public or private insurance coverage. A minority of researches have showcased that decreasing cessation pricings can raise the amount of people who use cessation services by around 7%, as well as raise the amount of people who are able to fully get rid of smoking habits by around 8% (Lv et al., 2011). Even though insurance coverage of cessation services has been proven to be efficient in pricing, these services are still not being implemented in western countries insurance and handling care managements to a large extent. In the western countries, the National Health System has begun taking over cessation pharmacotherapies, in which existing proofs imply that this management has raise the function of services, get rid of attempts as well as short period of people getting rid of smoking. Clean indoor air laws and regulations minimize interaction of people with smoking of cigarette that also limit chances of touching cigarette products by only allow certain specific areas that people are able to smoke freely. The first and foremost impact of clean indoor air regulations is to minimize people who smoke as well as people who don’t smoke to come into contact with hazardous second-hand smoke (SS). SS occurrence has been connected to a large range of hazardous health impacts that involve lung cancer, pneumonia, bronchitis, nasalsinus, cancer, as well as unexpected baby death occurrence. Smoking restrictions are mainly being efficient to a large extent in lowering SS interactions with people (Egger ; Dixon, 2014). Through the researches done by the Community Guide, it showcases that the average decrease in SS interaction with people is 60% for self-report methods and 72% for environmental methods. Many of the in-depth details of worksite studies show that restrictions of smoking in restaurants and drinking areas have also lead to decreased occurrence for community residents (Egger ; Dixon, 2014). Researches have also proven that fully constructed smoking restrictions have greater impacts on decreasing ETS interaction with people than smoking limitations. A crucial secondary impact of clean indoor air regulations is that when the amount of smoke-free surrounding areas gets larger, the ecological and social emphasizing efforts to minimize smoking also rises proportionally. Cross-sectional evaluations have showcased that the occurrence of adult smoking is lesser among working staffs in smoke-free working areas than working staffs at working areas with zero smoking limitations (Lv et al., 2011). More solid proofs for the impacts of clean indoor air strategies regarding smoking habits are noted in experimental or prospective researches analyzed in the Community Guide. These researches similarly portray that the carrying out of impactful clean indoor air laws leads to a decrease in number of people buying cigarettes, smoking occurrences as well as raised cessation.
5.2 Even though it is unlawful to make profits from cigarette goods that are bought by few number of people, 82% of adults in the western countries started their initial smoking experience before eighteen years old, while 53% of adults became every-day smokers before eighteen years old (Egger ; Dixon, 2014). The main aim of youth entrance strategies is to minimize the selling of cigarette goods to adolescents and hence decrease smoking occurrence by stopping or procrastinating smoking desire. Despite of regions that have greater expansion of youth entrance strategies which effectively reduce number of adolescents smoking, it has been challenging to showcase a connective relationship between enhancing and emphasizing of youth entrance strategies as well as respective decrease in adolescents smoking (Brownson et al., 2006). Activities that enforce community and retailed decrease, sales monitoring together with policy enforcement is able to obtain efficient changes in retail business development, but this does not always portray the improvements in smoking habits (Brownson et al., 2006). Current literature searches of youth entrance interventions, purchase, function as well as possession strategies have portrayed little amount of solid proofs, in which they have commented that the obstacles in program monitoring, the potential of adolescents to obtain cigarette goods from social providing areas, as well as the large pricing of strategy emphasis all request that the respective parties involve in cigarette management should look for other strategies that have greater efficient pricing. Next, people need to reduce their time in using of electronic devices such as handphones and watching of television (Willett et al., 2006). Hectic and fast-paced life in developed countries has greatly minimize the chances of people to increase their physical activity level, regardless of travelling from one destination to another, in the job surroundings or within housing area. Huge amount of decrease in physical activity are also taking place in developing countries due to urbanization, rise in convenience of motorized travelling devices that takes over walking and bicycle riding as well as mechanization of physical work (Willett et al., 2006). However, frequent physical activity is a major factor in weight management and precaution against obesity. There are proven evidences that among middle-aged West African females, higher walking frequency was resulted to a three-unit lower BMI, while in China, people who have cars are 80% higher chances of being overweight. Furthermore, other than its major function in managing a healthy weight, frequent physical activity minimizes the occurrence of CAD, stroke, type 2 diabetes, colon and breast cancer, osteoporotic fractures, osteoarthritis, depression as well as erectile dysfunction (Willett et al., 2006). Crucial health advantages have even been connected to walking for half an hour every day, but higher decrease in occurrence are shown effective with longer periods of physical activity and greater vigorous activity. The amount of duration of television watched every day is connected to rising of obesity occurrence among both children and adults together with a greater danger of getting type 2 diabetes and gallstones. This relationship is most likely resulted from decrease of physical activity as well as greater intake of foods and drinks that have large amounts of calories, which are particularly the ones that are advertised on television. Reduction in amount of time spend on watching television programs will enable loss of weight, in which the American Academy of Pediatrics gives advice on spending two hours of watching television programs every day at most (Lv et al., 2011). Moreover, people’s diets can also be improved by upgrading the food supply. The common system of the food industry is that it merely supplies all the requests made by consumers, but this is an inappropriate point of view as the food industry spends more than US$12 billion dollars every year to manipulate the preferences of consumers merely within the western countries and multiple amount of this sum of money globally. A lot of this amount of money is spent on advertising foods with drastic health impacts, in which young kids are the first and foremost aims (Brownson et al., 2006).
5.3 Changing the manufacturing procedures can quickly and efficiently enhance diets, in which this type of action does not need the slow procedure of behavioral development. An example is getting rid of the half-done hydrogenation of vegetable oils, which destructs important omega-3 fatty acids and develops trans fatty acids (Willett et al., 2006). Western manufacturers have greatly excluded trans fatty acids from their food supply by modifying production steps. Regulations can aid in taking note of changes in manufacturing through straightforward or non-straightforward way by showcasing an incentive for manufacturers to alter their procedures (Willett et al., 2006). It was shown that in 2003, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration broadcasted that food manufacturers were required to insert trans fatty acid details on the standard food label. Abiding by the implementation of this requirement, a lot of huge food companies mention that they would decrease or exclude trans fats, in which many more are willing to do the same as well. In Mauritius, the government needs a modification in the widely used cooking oil from mainly palm oil to soybean oil, which altered the consumption of fatty acid by people and decreased their serum cholesterol levels. Modification in types of fat can frequently be almost unseen and cheap. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acid can be raised by gathering oils from rapeseed, mustard or soybean into manufactured foods, as well as cooking oils sold for consumption at home (Willett et al., 2006). Typical breeding and genetic engineering enable other routes to enhance the healthfulness of oils through altering their fatty acid contents. When the intake of processed food is in large amount, a decrease in salt intake will usually need improvement at the stage of manufacturing as processed food is the main provider for salt. When the salt composition of food products is minimized slowly, the improvement is acceptable to consumers (Willett et al., 2006). Cooperation among manufacturers or government regulation is required, in which otherwise the producers of food products containing minimal salt content will be situated in a negative state. Sadly, appropriate examples are unable to be identified. Other way of enhanced manufacturing would be to minimize the improvement of grain products, which can be completed in tiny, almost unseen surroundings (Willett et al., 2006).
5.4 Food fortification has gotten rid of iodine deficiency, pellagra as well as beriberi in most parts of the world. In areas where iodine deficiency is still being a severe issue, fortification is supposed to be a high advantage. Folic acid consumption is unobtainable in several locations of both developing and developed countries. Fortifying food products with folic acid is very affordable and is able to gradually minimize the occurrences of many chronic illnesses (Willett et al., 2006). Grain products such as flour, pasta and rice are often the most suitable foods to fortify, such that they are already being fortified with other B vitamins in a lot of countries. Since 1998, grain products in the western countries have been fortified with folic acid, which has almost gotten rid of folate deficiency, with occurrence of neural tube defect pregnancies being decreased for approximately 19%. As for consumption of vitamins B12 and B6 are also minor and play a part in elevations of homocysteine, as among vegetarian populations in India, subsequent fortification of food products with these vitamins are to be thought about. The impacts of fortification on decreasing CVD are not known to be certified, but the possible advantages are large, hence intervention experiments to analysis the impacts of fortification are to be great opportunity (Lv et al., 2011). Moreover, strategies related to the manufacturing, importation, distribution as well as retail of particular food products can affect their pricing and ease of obtaining. Implemented activities may be targeted at the main point of agricultural studies and the various kinds of production advertised by extension services. Strategies always tend to advertise grains, dairy products, beef as well as sugar, while those that motivate the manufacturing and intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, whole grains as well as healthy oils would often refine rather than decrease health (Lv et al., 2011). Nevertheless, almost each national hard work to enhance nutrition emphasizes together with the advertisement of healthy food preferences, such as fruits, vegetables and legumes. This kind of collaboration is being carried out smoothly among government related parties, sellers, professional people as well as non-profit parties in a successful way, such that investment in hard work like this should involve the cautious experimenting and improving of social-marketing methods. Another solution is to protect consumers against vigorous advertising of unhealthy food products (Lv et al., 2011). Manufacturers spend billions of dollars annually in motivating children to eat food products that are causing damage to their health. Producers and fast-food chains beautify their food products with cartoon characters, place food brands on toys, as well as giving out “educational” card games that further encourage children’s natural attention for having fun, storytelling and easily persuasive nature (Brownson et al., 2006). The urge and desire to restrict promotion relies on a nation’s political norm, but the public is able to differentiate between promotion targeted at adults and that aimed at children. It was shown that in the western countries, 46% of adults have feedbacked to show approval upon limitations of promotion to young kids. Limitations can include from restricting promotion to children to restricting the kinds of products that promoters may showcase to the targeted consumer (Brownson et al., 2006). Moreover, people can also take up hobbies that do not require use of electronic devices, such as learning of musical instruments, calligraphy, reading and drawing. Short frequent break intervals should also be taken during the period of time of using handphones and watching television.
5.5 Furthermore, people are required to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables which are anti-oxidants and rich in vitamins B and C (Boeing et al., 2012). Fruits and vegetables play an extremely crucial role in human nutrition as providers of nutrients and non-nutritive food compositions which also includes for the prevention of disease occurrence. Even though their significance as providers of nutrients and non-nutritive food compositions is widely recognised, there are still doubts about their significance for the precaution of illnesses. Due to this issue, it has to be verified ?rst, such that diseases researches have discovered connection between the intake of fruits and vegetables as well as the danger of disease, so as to the way that this relationship has to be evaluated (Boeing et al., 2012). The more in-depth details showcase a crucial reference to analysis the precaution possibility of a diet that consists plenty of fruits and vegetables. Moreover, this would enable a rough calculation of the various developments pertaining to the issue of particular illnesses. The necessary information that can be obtain with little difficulty were noted down by respective literature study, in which the required aspects of the proof was confirmed by requirements stated beforehand (Boeing et al., 2012). As further detailed researches about the relationship between the intake of fruits and vegetables together with the danger of illness have been recognised since 2007, it was required to keep up with the latest information. Hence, the readily obtained information about the illnesses being identified in 2007 were carefully looked through again by noting down with concentration on important epidemiologic observational and intervention researches, such that with reference to these research information, the proof that is related to a precaution impact was analyzed. Various developments in lifestyle have lead to a huge rise in the occurrence of obesity in Western countries (Boeing et al., 2012). Obesity is connected to processes that enhance cancer such as chronic in?ammation, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance as well as altered hormone metabolism. Fruits and vegetables consumption have been certified to have impact upon these developments, such as greater intake of fruits and vegetables is able to overcome chronic subclinical in?ammatory reactions that take place in cancer and obesity (Boeing et al., 2012).
5.6 Larger botanical range in fruits and vegetables consumption is connected to lower infection. It was being proven that the intake of fruits and vegetables from some particular botanical species will showcase unique protective impacts from all kinds of cancers, which will not be visibly witnessed if the whole range of fruits and vegetables are evaluated together (Boeing et al., 2012). Identical analysis was done for particular subtypes of cancer. Fruits and vegetables intake portrayed a protective impact merely for particular kinds of lung cancer, but not against other histological kinds of lung cancer. Hence, the general evaluation of all fruits and vegetables species as well as all cancers can lead to a severe missing of data. As the phytochemicals within the fruits and vegetables will especially affect in?ammatory reactions, cellular redox processes together with endothelial and metabolic developments, which are included in the evolution of the wide range of diseases, these mechanisms are first and foremost responsible for lowering of danger effect of fruits and vegetables intake in relation to the typical diseases (Boeing et al., 2012). This also being implemented to diseases with little amount of information, such that the strong components of proofs were given passed scores. Hence, it will be logically allowable to implement intervention researches that typically play a role in the evolution of the mechanisms. As it is always unable to conduct positively managed and long effect dietary improvements in a randomised study concept, intervention researches should be done as short period researches with a deeper insight of suitable surrogate creators of tough limited areas (Boeing et al., 2012). These intervention researches should manage efficiently the entire amount of obtainable fruits and vegetables to a large extent. Moreover, it is required to specifically carry on the evaluation of information in the current cohort researches about the connections between fruits and vegetables intake, as well as the danger occurrence of different types of diseases (Boeing et al., 2012). There is also likely to have the requirement to carefully evaluate the information about the analysis of the intake of fruits and vegetables in order to enhance the solutions for better outcomes. The outcomes from the various cohort researches together with the ones from intervention researches about the progresses of development will showcase a path of possibility for more in-depth analysis about the precaution ability of fruits and vegetables intake that is related to different types of chronic diseases through proof-based method. Physical activity also plays an important role in preventing chronic diseases (Kruk, 2007). People need to increase their physical activity level by doing appropriate amount of physical activities daily. Adolescents should take up sports such as running, swimming, dancing, cycling etc. and do exercises that help enhance physical activity. The act of walking as well as cycling with regards to traveling and during free time are positively impactful and realistic ways of being involved in physical activity and are still the most widely used methods to move around in quite a number of developing countries (Kruk, 2007).
5.7 For non-modifiable factors, it is the family history of family members who previously have gotten the chronic disease, in which the chronic disease is being passed on from generation to generation of the same family lines. This is unable to be prevented as it is occurred throughout the entire family line who are blood related to one another (Walter & Emery, 2005). The family history is gradually being developed into a largely influential factor of health advertisement and non-late discovery of widely known chronic diseases in primary care. There are several past studies on patients from genetics clinics which implies a significant difference with regards to how people that have a family history of chronic diseases will evaluate in their point of view and understand the hazards, as well as the risk details that are given by health professionals. The study is targeted to find out the approach that patients in primary care take to analyze and have better understandings of their family history of the various common chronic diseases and the impact of family history that will influence consultations with regards to the disease risk and way of handling (Walter & Emery, 2005). When a person is able to recognise that an illness is taking place within the family, the family history will expand in different ways with the aid of many paths to the point where there is increase in sense of weakness to the disease, such that the person will try to take charge of the situation or risk. The various ideas of personal relationships that are occurring within a family will influence the possibility of hazard, the impacts of their own experience of similar illness on risk understandings, as well as solutions patients will do to adapt to or manage their similar risk that were topics which have a place of certain crucial parts. Having understanding that a family record of a disease does not link or connect with feeling personally at risk with regards to the illness (Walter & Emery, 2005). The path of feeling at risk depicts the process of the family history achieving personal meaning, examples are the emotional influence about personally see a particular relative’s illness or death as well as the progress of that illness. Hence, having the feel of the progress of a relative’s illness, recovery or death, especially a parent or sibling, will further add on towards the participants’ point of view in evaluating the illness together with analysis of individual hazard. Being able to personally see the illnesses of closed ones or friends who are more far apart will increase in their personal analysis of the illness but with lower effect towards their feeling at risk (Walter ; Emery, 2005).
5.8 Patients’ analysis with regards to the factors of an illness of the family will have a crucial impact towards creating sense of individual hazard (Walter & Emery, 2005). When evaluating about the significance of a family history, the majority of the participants develop a multifactorial type of familial hazard, balancing the hazards of nature and grooming. The study has showcased that the ability to analyse the processes of inheritance was impactful merely to few people who were being aware of the danger of familial hazard (Walter & Emery, 2005). A lot of participants were cautioned with regards to their familial hazard being continued for endless of generations within the family line. Lesser participants figured out issues that the danger of these diseases might be passed on to their children or future generations, hence view themselves as ones with no hope of recovery. Negative attitudes about disease dangers were widely known by many, especially for cancer, which was known to be under fewer individual management, with lesser modi?able lifestyle hazard factors. Results of fatalism were also being recognised to be responsible for non-stop risky lifestyles, examples like smoking regardless of a family history of coronary artery disease. Reports of fatalism are being spread among people with familial hypercholesterolaemia which is a greatly concerned issue linked with a large possibility of coronary artery disease. These types of fatalistic reactions connected with thoughts about familial danger may disrupt the behavioral or lifestyle intervention that occur in multifactorial disease (Walter & Emery, 2005).

In conclusion, it is essential and important to penetrate deeper in finding out and analyzing more about the various causes and factors that affect and impact greatly on adolescents’ nutrition status as well as physical level, so that most of the current implemented nutrition programmes can be further enhanced and improved to enable more adolescents have a healthier eating habits and lifestyle, which will also help to reduce further the number of people being at risk of having chronic diseases. Through our Final Year Project, the objective is that my groupmates and I aim to enhance and increase people’s awareness about nutrition through assessing their knowledge on nutrition and at the same time also educate them about essential nutrition information, so that we can aid in helping more people to have a healthier lifestyle with appropriate eating habits as they change and improve on their current eating behaviors. People will also take notice about the importance of nutrition which will have great impact on their health.

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Name: Noureddine TaimoumSemester 6: Media Studies
Chapter Five: The Propaganda Model & the Five Filters of Media
Essay Question: Discuss the five Filters advocated by Herman and Chomsky
In bureaucratic countries, the elite exercise a severe control on media’s activities. This control helps the dominant groups propagandize certain ideologies that work for their benefits. Herman and Chomsky assert that there are five filters shaping the setting of news and placing a huge amount of restrictions on its integrity and rectitude.

Ownership is among the filters every news item must go through before it reaches the audience. Ownership simply means that many media companies tend to diversify their business interests into other sectors of the economy. Ownership also includes wealthy individuals holding shares in the mass media industry. These types of ownership influence the production of news because the different shareholders have different political orientations. Thus, several media corporations incline to produce media contents that serve the interest of the whole parts. In other words, mass media favor a consensual atmosphere that brings them economic benefits.

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Advertising, second, participate in the process of shaping the news-making. Because media corporations are businesses that seek profit, the advertising income is critical to their continuity in the field of production. The advertisers effect news content by the terms and the conditions they impose on the media companies. As a result, the news media are very selective in terms of what content to be produce or shared. This proves that media corporates prioritize making programs that serve the advertisers needs; while reliability and the audiences’ right to access pure content remain irrelevant.

Sourcing is a very powerful filter because mass media are in a constant demand of information and resources. Most media companies cannot afford the costs of putting journalists and cameramen in every part to cover events; so, they are obliged to get raw news from the government and other media agencies. The dominant elite’s subsidize the mass media, and they gain a special access to media’s content in return. As a result, the majority of news is biased and manipulated.

The fourth filter advocated by Herman and Chomsky is flack. This filter happens when media and/or journalists stray away from consensus. Flack can take the form of lawsuits, petitions, and many other modes of complaints: phone calls and letters. The dominant groups in any given society take flack as a tool of threat and punishment to control any deviation from media that may antagonize their interests.

The fifth filter is the ideology of the market. This filter is linked to the ideas and the doctrines of the market that are capitalist in nature; therefore any communist ideology is filtered. The ideology of the market function by gathering the general public’s opinions against a common enemy: immigrants, terrorists, or communism.

To conclude, Herman and Chomsky challenge the everlasting argument, which says that media says truth to power; through the propaganda model’s filters, it is clear that the news content of media is manipulated and serves the interests of the dominant minorities. The propaganda model has established for itself a space in the field of media behavior analysis; however, this theory has many limitations: namely, this model cannot be applied outside the U.S. because in each country there are specific relations between media and institutional pressures.

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