Name: show what I understood from our passed

Name: Askar Zhanbatyr Group: Accounting and Audit
Topic: Resource management and Budgeting
As this world is created ideally, so everything in the world should be managed also in a perfect way. But people cannot manage resources greatly, then population just trying to learn how, what, by which steps to manage the Earth, everything that around us. Imagine that, animals, flora and faunas are not acting by orderly, for example, Animals are speaking, consequently, there will be disastrous of management of functions. Oppositely, they are doing what should do, eating and giving benefits for people.

According to the above information, I would like introduce that in Economy also we need such kind of management, controlling of finances, resources, budgets and etc.
Mainly in my research, I would like to explain and show what I understood from our passed subjects like FFM, Corporate Finance. Therefore, I want to add that I did not include any articles, because it was so complicated for me even if I had read. However, I will conclude this project as theoretically, also passing with examples, reasons of use, and conclusion:
What is resource management and budgeting? Key factors, concepts?
Why it is Essential? For which reason do we use?
Advantages and disadvantages
What is resource management?
As I told that all the things should be regulated, so, in Economic sphere there is a theory of Resource Management, which means that RESOURCE could be anything, physically, measurable or not physically detected. Resource Controlling – is the process by which shareholders and business bodies regulates effectively and efficiently. Resources divide into two tangible and intangible, for tangible – buildings, equipment, cash; and for intangible are – brand names, time, goodwill.
As well as, it needs planning greatly, so it means that proper resources should be allocated to the right place, in a good way. Controlling resources include list of capitals, budgets for individuals, projects, outfit, and plants. How often utilized in respect to project management, this spread over to numerous alternative areas of corporate management. A tiny low business, most of all, may focus on to resource management within a variety of areas, that have important key factors as:
Moneys – are there enough incomes to covers expenses in order to invest money?
People – are the right people for the work? Whether you want to hire, if he receives the new client, and if so, what skills employers should demonstrate in front of clients?
Place of work – the Office of the company or production premises are configured in such a way that other resources can be managed with maximum efficiency?
Equipment- has it the tools needed to make that necessary?
Technology – what are the requirements, calculations, methods for business in order to achieve success, so how much financial assets should be spent, for which that we do not have yet?

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For instance, in scheme organization (project management):
When we use in relation to project management resource management is often applied to leveling and smoothing of resources. Resource leveling is intended to avoid the shortage or surplus stock, keeping a stock of resources at a level that avoids both problems. Specialized software can help determine this level.

It is also used in references to the time needed to complete the project. When aligning the start and end dates are adjusted so that they are combined with the availability of resources. Orientation can extend the time of the project. Anti-aliasing is a method of resource planning, which tries to meet the specified deadline, avoiding peaks and valleys among the wealth. General aim of project management – is the purpose of the continuous use of resources over time.

At the simplest level, for small business, resource management is to ensure that company uses its talents and materials wisely and effectively.

What is Capital Budget, budgeting?
Financing or budgeting is that the method of making a strategy to pay their cash. This payment is well known as budget. The creation of this value arrange permits you to work out earlier whether or not you have got enough cash to try to what would really like you wish to try to or would like to create.

If you do not have enough cash to try to everything that you simply would wish to try to, then you’ll be able to use this coming up with method to make priority your payment and focus their cash on things that square measure most significant to you.

Why is Capital Budgeting so Important?
As preparation of the budget allows you to create the plan of expenses on your money, it provides, that you always will enough have money for things which you require, and things which are important for you. After the budget or the spending plan will hold also you not having debts or to help you to work your way not having debts if you will have now a duty.

What does mean Capital finance Forecasting ; to plan?
As soon as you have created your first budget, start using it and get a good idea of how planning can keep your finances on track, you can compose your spending plan or budget for any months to a year or years down the road. By doing this, you can easily predict what months your finances can be difficult and which ones you will have extra money. Then you can look for ways to line up the highs and lows in your finances in regarding to be more manageable and enjoyable.
Expanding your budget within the future conjointly permits you to predict what proportion cash you’ll be able to save on the vital things, like your vacation, a new car, your initial home repair or home emergency bank account or your retirement. Use of accurate budget to predict your expenses for a year, will really assist you in long monetary scheduling. Then you will be able to build realistic assumptions regarding his annual financial gain and expenses, and to set up long economic goals, like gap your own business, investment or entertaining property purchase or retirement.

Key factors to evaluate budgeting:
As I have passed these theories, I decided to compute in my work because, without comparing NPV or IRR companies could not make right decisions think
Shareholders of firms like better to be made instead of the poor. in order that they wish the firm invested with in every project, that is value quite it’s value. The distinction between value the worth the price} of the project and its cost web gift value (NPV). Firms will best facilitate its shareholders by finance in comes with positive NPV or oppositely delaying those that have a low negative NPV.

In our Corporate Finance lesson, these underlying reverse with an outline of the NPV rules. Then we tend to travel to other actions that the corporate might face in creating investment choices. the primary 2 of those measures, the payback amount of the project and therefore the book profit higher than rules of thumb, it’s simple to calculate and communicate simply. Though there’s an area during this world for empirical rules, the engineer would like one thing a lot of correct once coming up with a 100-story building, and therefore the monetary manager can would like quite the rule of thumb once creating important choices on investments in capital.
Instead of conniving the NPV project, the company often compare the expected rate of return on investment in a project with a return that shareholders could earn about equivalent risk investments among the capital market. The one the company accepts those comes that provide profitability, that shareholders could earn for themselves. If when properly used, this rate of return rule should the definition of comes that increase the value of the firm. However, we will see that the rule establishes several pitfalls for the gullible. We conclude the chapter by showing the thanks to copewith things where the firm has exclusively restricted capital. This gives rise to two problems. One-computational. AT simple cases, we’ve an inclination to simply take the comes that offer. The highest NPV per greenback, but plenty of sophisticated methods usually ought to be compelled to be sorted out possible selections. Another downside is resolved Is there very a standardization of capital and can this invalidates internet gift value rule. NPV, properly understood, wins among the end.

Example; We are investing 100000 with payback of 110000 after 5 years. So IRR also calculated by, it is 10%
time money cash flow 8%
0 -100000  
1 10000 9259,259259
2 10000 8573,388203
3 10000 7938,32241
4 10000 7350,298528
5 110000 74864,15167
irr 10%  
npv 7985,42  Npv= sum of 1 to 5 – 0

According to the graph above, we can detect that NPV is positive number, that is found by percentage of cash flows at the back time and difference between investing. If I had company, I would invest on it.

Nowadays 75% of firms always or almost always expect the net present value when deciding on investment projects. About three quarters of firms expect the internal rate of return of the project (or IRR); about the same proportion as using NPV.A rule is a close relative of the IRR and NPV, if used properly, it will give same answer. That’s why you need to understand the IRR rule and how to take care when using it. Much of this chapter is devoted to explaining the rules of the IRR, but first we’ll look at the other two indicators of attractiveness of the project-the project payback period and its book value return. As we will explain, both measures have obvious deficiencies. some companies rely on they take the investment decision, but using for alternative way of measures.
Regarding the above example, we can determine that NPV mainly depends on cash flow. Not on book returns.
Net present value (NPV) depends on money flows of project and capital flows. However once corporations report back to shareholders, they do not simply show cash flowing, they conjointly book rate of come, i.e., accounting, financial gain and record assets. money managers generally use that numbers to calculate book (or accounting) the gain of projected investments. In different words, they appear at the prospect of record financial gain as a share of the value of the assets that the firm offers acquire.

Book rate of return = book income / book assets

Cash flows and book financial gain usually take issue, as an example, shortcuts comptroller some outflows of funds as capital investments et al as operative expenses.Work, of course, prices ar subtracted directly from financial gain every year. Capital expenditures ar mirrored on the record of the corporate, and so amortized.The annual quantity of charge is subtracted from financial gain every year.Thus, the speed of come back zavisitottogo that articles accountantrassmatrivaetkak capital investment and the way quickly they’re evaluated.

Mentioning IRR code of rules (joking)
Internal rate of return policy accept investment project, if the cost of capital is less than the internal rate of return. If it is equal to IRR, NPV project with 0. And if it is larger than the IRR, NPV project meet negatively. Therefore, when we compare the alternative cost of capital with the IRR on our project, we effectively ask has our project with positive NPV. This is true not only for our example. Rule gives also answer typically net present value whenever the NPV of the project is smoothly decreasing function of the discount rate. Many firms use internal rate of return as a criterion of preference net present value. I believe that this is a very sorry. Although, as it is mentioned, these two criteria are formally equivalent, internal rate of return rule contains several pitfalls.

Decision on IRR
I have given a few samples of things that may fail with IRR. Companies have a tendency to spent a lot of less space on payback or come back on book. Will this mean that IRR is worse than the opposite two measures? Quite the contrary. There is very little purpose in lodging on the deficiencies of payback or come back on book. They are clearly unexpected measures that always cause silly conclusions. The IRR rule contains a rather more respectable ancestry. It is less simple to use than NPV,but, used properly, it provides constant same answer.
As we known NPV and IRR so, they have their advantages and disadvantages on the project.

NPV directly measuring method of money (dollar) influence to the owners.

IRR technique demonstrates what is going to come back on the first cash endowed.

On the other hand, we have disadvantages of that methods:
The NPV technique doesn’t actually shows the size of project.

IRR technique will, occasionally, provide you with unexpected data compared to NPV for mutually exclusive projects. The “multiple IRR problem” can even play the role of a problem. It takes place when, there are just negative cash flows “non-normal cash flow”.

Conclusion : To sum up, I want to say that my topic – resource management and budgeting, is one of the big, general item in Corporate Finance, even in general life style of human being, because it is very important action, decision making process. First of all, you should take information, check, planning by IRR, NPV and finally analyze and invest on project.
If I’m going to convince my company to use net present value rule, I should be ready to explain why other rules cannot lead to correct solutions. That is why Corporate Finance considered three alternative investments.

Some firms look at book profit on the project. In this case the company takes the decision of which payments are capital costs and choose suitable bid for their amortization cost. Then calculated the ratio of the balance of income to the carrying value of the investment.
Few companies currently based my investment decision just at book rate of profit, but the shareholders pay attention to the book company profitability and some managers, therefore, look badly at projects that harm Portrait of the company’s profit margins.
Other entities use the method of payback for making investment decisions. In other words, they take only those projects which recover their initial investment within some specified period. Payback is Ad hoc rule. It ignores the period of cash flows during the period of recoupment, and it completely ignores the subsequent cash flow. So, it does not involve the opportunity cost of capital.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR) is defined as the discount rate, at which the flow, it would be a zero NPV. It is a simple measure and is widely used in finance; You must therefore know how to calculate it. IRR rule stipulates that companies must invest on complex IRR exceeding the cost of capital. Rule of IRR, as net present value, a method based on discounted cash flows. So, this gives good range when you use properly. When developing rules for NPV we tend to proceeded from the actual fact that the corporate might maximize shareowner wealth, taking each project, that price over it is price. Furthermore, if the investment is harshly restricted, then there might NOT BE taken every project with a positive NPV. But for me, NPV is easiest way to calculate and make decisions for the future of company.

Eventually, all the things that I have noticed to my mind, are just these information, so, in my point of view, resource management & capital budgeting is very important in our daily life, despite our ages. To be honest, I just learned this hypothetically, not in a real life, I have many problems with my much budgeting, such as time, money, interests.

Name : J.Mohamed Yasin Sheriff
Roll No : 17PS12192
Class : I MBA-B
Subject : Marketing Management
Date : 25.01.2018
Staff Incharge: Prof.Armaan Salik

Signature of the Student

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Name: Nihit Shah
ID No. 654848
Course:BUS 2020D
Instructor: Dr. Mary Ogola
Term Paper: The Impact of Technology on Business Communication
Semester: Summer Semester 2018

Technological advances bring huge opportunities as well as challenges for managers from all professional fields. Most organizations do not attach high or optimal priority to sophisticated technology that slows down an organization’s growth. In present competitive global economic scenario, organizations who fail to advance technologically are at potential risk of lagging behind competitively as well as in terms of productivity. Change is natural and the term “Change or perish” coined by Abrahamson, (2000) has become a new corporate mantra making rounds in every business circle. The present study examines the introduction of technologies and their influence on organizations due to their extensive use. The article sheds light on implications of technology, reasons for introducing technology and impact of technology on organizations. It also particularly addresses various issues that create barriers to technological changes within organizations.

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The word technology has been derived from Greek words “techne” meaning art or skill and “logia”. In context of day to day practice “technology” is a distinct word referring to the use and knowledge of humanity’s tools and techniques. Technology is one of the central and most significant elements related to effective operations management in an organization. It can be defined as a body of knowledge used to create tools, develop skills, and extract or collect materials. It is also the application of science (the combination of the scientific method and material) to meet an objective or solve a problem (Molinero, 2012). Technology increases the prospect for conducting business in more efficient and competitive
ways that are methodically different from the past.

Every organization uses different form of technology for their business which has a basic and critical effect on the nature, design, structure and work of an organization. In an organization departments and division are developed around the equipments used whether it is for production, communication, information or control. The scope of technology that an organization can adopt or employ is vast, ranging from something seeming simple, such as buying a personal computer with a word processor, to investing in the latest state-of-the-art computer-aided manufacturing machinery (art on impact of technology).

Along with the complexity of this technology increasing at a fast pace, the rate of change is also galloping fast. Development of modern computer systems is the most complex human activity so far under taken by organizations. Its application is also highly complex and beneficial for firms of all kinds. Though fast changes are taking place due to technology, still technologies are significant contributor to the unstable and competitive market. The disparity amongst the organization is observed due to competencies in different technologies (Dasgupta, Gupta & Sahay, 2011). The current dynamic environment demands all organizations to change— both radically and incrementally. Technological development cannot happen without innovation. It is very essential for an organization to change the way it operates and also change the products and services it provides. Growth through innovations might not necessarily take place through breakthrough innovations. The advancement due to innovations not certainly can occur with the result of highly modern inventions. However, to get better results it includes further new method of assimilating, existing, or advancing technologies. These new methods need integration across internal and external business fields and extend over the value chain (Wahlen, 2007).

The origin of new organization with new machineries at the place of work has created golden opportunities of employment for the people. There is complete change in the organizational structure and workforce and huge increment in the productivity and output due to impact of technology on organizations. Another change with the introduction of new technology was that it focused on the labour in mills, factories and mines which awakened the interests of employees by the formation of trade unions. During 1813-1913 there was a major increase in worker’s wages which was considered to be next organizational impact (Dawsen, 2007. p7). Because the extent to which collective and individual productivity in organizations seems to depend on the effective and appropriate use of technology by members, the impacts of new technology on people in organizations have held long and abiding interest for researchers (Stam ; Stanton, 2010, p.24).

The main aim of this study is to examine some of the key literature regarding implications of technology, reasons for introducing new technology. These literature hints at the importance of various organizational factors which are responsible to promote innovations within the organizations. A brief introduction on the implications of technology, reasons for introducing new technology is provided to make the reader acquainted with the knowledge base within the area and broaden the scope of further research on the topic. Next we focus upon various technological barriers to technology changes. Further we highlight impact of technology on organizations. Finally, we summarize and discuss the issues arising from our study and, provide some general conclusions on the state of the field which is followed by indicating some gaps for potential future study at the end. For this purpose secondary source of information was gathered from the vast expanse of literature related to the topic present and the internet sites as EBSCO, WILEY, EMERALD, SAGE and others.

This study does not focus back to the industrial revolution; still it ensures that the development of technology has influenced the organization. Instead ‘new technology’ ‘usually refers to a particular set of changes that have occurred from the 1970’s onwards… brought on by the development of microchips.’ (Arnold, Robertson & Cooper, 1995). The relationship between manpower levels and technology is less obvious in non-manufacturing industries, where the output is less substantial (Dawson, 2007. p29).

The link between technology and organization was first illustrated by Joan Woodward in mid 1960s. On the basis of a research which focused on production technology she was the first to view the organizational structure from a technological point of view. During 1950s, Woodward putting in mind the technical complexity of the manufacturing process built up a measurement scale on which firms were distinguished. With the result that high technical complexity implied that most of the work was performed by machines, whereas low technical complexity specified that workers participate almost all in the course of action.

Due to increase in technological complexity Woodward realized that the number of management levels and manager to personnel level increased. Woodward (1965) classified organization technology into three categories- unit or small batch technology- which means a technology where units are custom made and work is non-routine; large batch or mass production technology- where technology produce on large or mass basis; continuous process technology- highly controlled, standardized and continuous processing technology.

The relationship between people and technology has been established and recognized long ago and the effect of technology on organizational behaviour has become increasingly apparent. No organization can afford to ignore the fast developing changes in almost all the fields of management and have strong impact on institutional working, progress, productivity and profiteering. An organizational unit be it large or small, produce modestly or in a big way, irrespective of the size it has to be aware of the constant up-gradation of its production tools, methods and working, as these activities are as essential as any other component attached to high priority so far in the concern organization. Each technology is associated with a particular organization structure and has to be nurtured, nourished, and improved as a continuous process. Moreover, technology also influences the needs of the organizations, customers as customers are the one who purchase the organizations output in the form of goods or services. Customer is the main protagonist who has complete authority and choice whether or not to accept the organizations goods or services.

Organizations today are prolifically integrating new technologies to gain an edge over others in terms of productivity and services. With the help of technology there are remarkable changes in the processes like marketing, production, human development. Technology is useful in accurate decision making, time and money saving etc. and the same is based these days on scientific basis and analysis. Moreover, it has played a major role in conducting financial analysis and control.

Although, there are several implications of technology, two implications have the most influence in organizations today. First one is the automation or new technology and the other one is information technology. New technology’ or automation are not unanimous words rather they cover a wide range of tools, components and systems (Sheridan, 2002). Automation, information technology or combination of both of these together is termed as high technology. Advances in communications technology enables organizations to benefit from the technical skills of employees around the globe. Modern production systems use computer based technology for integrating various aspects of manufacturing process in a better and improvised manner and also allow quick and cost efficient modifications of any product. Technology can be liberating in enabling people to work at times and in places of their own choosing. Technology also has enormous potential to transcend, geographical, cultural and temporal boundaries and so increase collaborations amongst organizations and their members (Cartwright, 2003, p.121). The knowledge may be shared and distributed with this turbulent technological change. The electronic media is responsible to reduce the social aspects of communication between the individuals working together. As the electronics has been invasive, useful and established therefore the earlier relationship between technology and employment may be transformed. It is expected in future to have new establishment of organizational behaviour, a new feature of work, new model of production of goods and services and a new style of employment (Rahmati, et. al. 2012). Also it more depends upon the distant leadership.

There are a few authors who take technology as an absolutely moveable force inheriting constant inborn characteristics which technologists assumed as internalist view of technology (Nye, 2006), similarly Orlikowski (2007) describes technology as a techno-centric perspective. Most analysts of technology conceive of technology as being strongly influenced by its use in a social setting and the day-to-day interaction between users and technology (Ulla, 2009, p.1146). This view of technology is denoted by, social construction of technology (SCOT) viewpoint highlighting the social system and the social consequences of technology and is considered as externalist view of technology (Bijker, 1995; Law, 2002; Mackenzie, 2005). Regarding the practical use of technology within organizations it has been observed that technology is neither entirely flexible nor fully separated from any social system. Contrary to this the social and technological systems adjust and adapt with each other to attain a stage of semi-stable equilibrium (Boland et al., 2007; Spicer, 2005; Zammuto et al., 2007).

New employees to the workforce are expecting collaborative technology as a basis for internal communications. The three technologies worth adopting are: Desktop video chat, Video conferencing, Online visual collaboration tools that will boost the Companies service in future (Chuckk, 2011). Certainly, technology has its identity among the key elements which influence an organization. In fact technology is responsible to shape the lines between home and work. In the opinion of executives organizations are using technologies to boost their dexterity and to supervise complexity of the organizations.

Many positive and useful changes have taken place these days in the workplace in terms of competency and effectiveness with the invention of new technologies. In spite of that the introduction of new technology creates many challenges to organizations. One of them is to achieve user acceptance and approval of new technology and at the same time retaining an acceptable level of productivity and performance. There are a number of factors that that have an effect on an individual’s attitude toward new technology such as age, gender, and peers’ attitudes and perceptions. Time and again, short-term economic benefits are achieved with the help of designed technologies and there is insufficiency willingly available technical skills that may be applied to meet the criterion of union aspirations in a more reliable and dependable way.

According to Dawson, these are some of the reasons why organizations decide to introduce new technology: To reduce costs; to increase productivity; to increase quality; to reduce dependence on skilled labour; because it always seems a good idea to be up to date; because competitor organizations are also introducing new technology; because new technology is interesting; in order to change the relations between various groups in the organization (Dawson, 2007, p.8).

The new technology however has always faced various challenges that have dampened its effectiveness. All suggestions are linked with some pressure groups and without any job security the people cannot be helpful for giving suggestions for improvement. Moreover the power of the trade unions varies and depends on a number of factors. There may be the interests of the employees related with the introduction of the advanced level technology and so on.

The modern managers have the responsibility to introduce and integrate new techniques and skills to handle them to their employees in order to gain high proficiency in the new working styles. They must be supported in bringing change in their career and work-style and be readily accepted in the new system with self-esteem. The change must be made simple and easy and proclaim a new time for the success of everyone including management so that the concentration may be possible for inclusion to the highest level.

Technology research suggests that there are organizational and technological factors that limit the adoption and use of technologies. Indeed there is evidence that numerous aspects, such as organizational size, resources, management support, and innovation history influence the extent of technology adoption (Dawson, 2007, p.20).

The change due to a new technology in an organization faces not only financial barriers but also many political and cultural barriers. Due to insufficient finance or incompetent employees an organization may suppress in the process of innovation. While an organization with good resources of money, time and technical expertise can gain competitive edge over its rivals. Moreover lack of competitiveness among organizations also poses a threat to adoption of new technology.

Regarding the political barriers to technology, I agree with Acemoglu ; Robinson(2000) that the introduction of new technology, and economic change more generally, may simultaneously affect the distribution of political power. In particular sectors the regulatory barriers to entry also play a significant task in deciding the authority of organizations (Chataway, Tait ; Wield, 2007).

The organizations must welcome technologies enthusiastically to survive in today’s turbulent business scenario. There are many organizations which are anxious of change the reason may be unavoidable circumstances. Before, the society finds appropriate solution to the social issues the accompanying changes expose these issues at risks with greater speed. The concerned authorities have to be vigilant and employ reforms in their way of working as such problems impede the growth of the organization. Hence, it demands a style of management, reward system and entirely a new way of thinking among employee’s relationship and organizational matters. The bureaucracy must be removed as they create hindrance in the process of change. Old styles and techniques must be updated to achieve better prosperity and productivity.

This problem may be resolved by conducting periodic meeting and inter departmental consultations. Employees being misfit with new technology feels insecurity with their employment. The management should take care of their future prospect and provide them best facilities like training program, refresher courses related to their job at some intervals.

Industrial engineers and personnel officers may be given training to handle psychological problems. Thus, a healthy team spirit and cordial working environment may be preserved which is quite essential for the development of an organization and conducive to new innovations and research. Technology has made working more simplified but it should not entail that employees’ involvement is not needed. Because, it has made them feel even redundant or significant sometimes. There is need on the part of management to concentrate at this feeling of isolation and work on a new environment wherein employees may feel themselves more relevant and useful.

In present business scenario it is difficult for the organizations to work in alienation and be resistant to changes. Globally, scientific and technological innovations have proclaimed that the fittest will carry on and those who cannot adjust to changes will be terminated. Technologies are continuously changing and are a critical contributor to the turbulent markets. Firms differ because they develop competencies in different technologies (Dasgupta et. al, 2011, p.258). The organizations must change their systems and working timely at the same time modern business cannot overlook the humanitarian aspect of the situation or avoid its employees who are the central main player of any organization.

In their life span organizations experiences change at least once. With the result everything involving organization is influenced such as: tough competition and prospect of management and other components upgraded technologies, coming up opportunities etc. The reason is either some significant thing concerned to organization has occurred or under the impact of change. Some vital areas of change have been discussed.

Every organization has a goal and the organization structure is among the forces that work towards achievement of that goal. The structure is helpful to achieve efficiency and provides guidance to all the members.
The organization structure is one of the forces that exerts for the achievement of the organizations goal. The structure of the organization is simple originally but it gets complicated when the technology develops. An organized and planned structure come to light at this juncture that is supported by technical experts and social specialists. Without structure a business cannot grow and survive as it facilitates management to implement rules and regulations. The behaviour of technical experts is unique whereas the working style of social specialists and anthropologists is found to be very sophisticated. Technology simultaneously improves quality and service, overall efficiency and reduces costs at every level of the conversion process. It occurs at every stage from input to conversion to output (Jake09, 2011). At every level the organization structure is influenced by technology. Technological skills, systems and procedures handle environmental factors effectively at the input stage (Jones, 2010). Technology affects decision making, middle managers, information processing and communication etc. coordination apart from complexity and formalization. The performance relationship is maintained at different institutional positions and activities based on organizational hierarchy. Also, technology influences design of the organization such as techno-structural activities concerned with design of the organization, and the inter-relationships of design and technology with people on job. To confirm the effect of internet in organizations design there are many examples available. Further, e-businesses focus on design as they adapt to the dynamic internet environment. Besides characteristics of the innovation or the new technology itself, other factors have been proposed, namely, organizational and environmental attributes such as the size of the organization, its willingness to absorb risks, the degree of competition in the industry, the activeness of change agencies, type and extent of authoritative intervention, etc. (Rahmati, et al., 2012, p.133).

There are organizations that have formed teams like quality circles, self-managed work teams, task forces to boost organizational effectiveness along with new technology. The new technology helps to reduce costs, improve quality and productivity, and encourage the use of innovative and creative methods for solving problems. But, it was also observed that many team members resisted technological changes and adoption of new practices. This attitude of the workers was apparent because all team members did not have the skills, ability or knowledge necessary to use the new technology which may help the teams to perform effectively. Recruitment of personnel is one of the most vital elements. Recruitment process has taken a new turn in this era of information technology. With the advent of Resumix6 system from Ltd., automation has replaced the entire process of recruitment. This system has also cut the cost per hire by more than 50 percent.

Today, technology has indented wage payment system of organization also. Offices are now sending employees’ salary cheques, directly to banks thus eliminating a lot of accounts work and long queues of employees waiting to receive their wages every month. Thus, new technologies are a form of communication that has made the scope for betterment.

Also it is a more efficient way for transacting business because it greatly improves work flow, and a new set of organizational behaviour. The personnel profession develops on the basis of a set of system and procedures. These bring consistency, order and conformity to an organization.
It is also in the interest of an organization to keep and follow an open communication policy about the forthcoming technological changes in the system. All likely to be affected or otherwise concerned must be kept informed and should be kept in picture right from the initial stage. Employees should have access to all information about the changes an organization intends to bring and the skills that will be required for that. This will forewarn the workers and they will know where they are likely to stand in the new set up. This though delicate, will give them ample time and opportunity to plan their future and how they should change themselves in order to remain relevant to the organization.

Those who can get themselves updated with the addition of some more skills should be encouraged to do so. Since it is a humanitarian aspect, people have a right to know in what manner they are likely to be affected and how they have to meet the new challenges. Management approach has to be to absorb the surpluses as far as possible by absorbing the skilled, natural wastage or voluntary redundancies.

1. Abrahamson, E. (2000). Change without pain. Harvard Business Review, 78(4), 75-79.

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Name: Gusti Ayu Agung Tania G.

NIM: 1712021227
Class : 3G
Assignment : Drama in Literature
Date : 30 August 2018
Drama is a mode of fictional representation through dialogue and performance. The dialogue will be demonstrated by the characters in the story. Drama as one of the genres of literature also has some characteristics. Drama usually reflects human behavior in the form of a story through acting and dance. This creative art form is renowned throughout the world as drama. It is means of self-expression, where the actors showcase their inherent talents on stage and is interwoven with other elements, like music, dance, instruments, microphones, and lights, to make it more appealing to the audience. Theater and drama are collective terms, and the basic component of the play is a story based on fictional and characters (based on: ). Drama also has several types. The first type is comedy, the intention of dramatist in comedy is to make the audiences laugh. They use quaint circumstances, unusual characters, and witty remarks. The second type of drama is tragedy drama, this type will use darker themes, such as disaster, pain, and death. The third types is farce drama, this type is a nonsensical genre of drama, which often overacts or engages slapstick humor. The fourth type is melodrama, this type is an exaggerated drama, which is sensational and appeals directly to the senses of the audience. The last type is musical drama, this type of drama is not only tell their stories through acting and dialogue, but through dance as well as music (based on: ). Drama has so many types and has several characteristics for each types that can make the drama will usually interest the audience.

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