Multiple surrounded by a fatty, insulina-ting myelin

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic multifactorial disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS) 5(1) characterized by «sclerosis» of different domains in the CNS and the presence of MRI-detected lesions called «scars» or «plaques» 6.
MS is a major inflammatory and neurological disease affecting the white matter in the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves 1, 3(5). The substantial role of white matter is to contact impulses between the gray matter domains and the rest areas of an organism 3(8) and it consists of neuronal axons surrounded by a fatty, insulina-ting myelin sheath, which increases the speed of impulses across the axons 1, 3(8) and functions as a protective substance. Destruction of the above insulinating sheath and degeneration of the cells that produce myelin leads to axonal loss 1 (Meffe et al, 2005), 9(2) and impair neurotransmission due to degeneration of neurons 7 (1). As a result and depending on the affected area of the CNS, a spectrum of various symptoms and disabilities can be manifested resulting in deficits of crucial functions of an organism 9(2), 11.
Experts, also, highlight some other major hallmarks of the disease such as gliosis, blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction 7 high infiltration of various cell types of immune system such as T cells, B cells, macrophages as well as secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules 8(1-3).
The disease was first identified and characterized by Jean- Martin Charcot at the end of the 19th century and up to now millions of people affected worldwide 3(17). Based on the data referred to the Atlas of MS, the number of people that are diagnosed with MS increased around 10% globally from 2008 to 2013 either because of clearly developed diagnostic criteria or a bad and unhealthy lifestyle that people adopt it. However, the distribution of the disease shows different rates between distinct regions and distinct populations 12 (2), 5, 3(6) giving a substantially increased prevalence in countries that are far away from the equator 5,12.
MS affects children and adults between 10 and 80 years of age 5, 12(3) but the onset of symptoms is recognized between 20 and 40 years of age with the female individuals being affected two times more frequently comparing with the males


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