Lean management is defined by Daniel et al

management is defined by Daniel et al (1990) as “the practice of using
scientific methods to solve business problems in order to create value” Lean management
method has certainly become the most successful method to business improvement
of this era. It has endured other improvement approaches and been taken up by
organisations in all kinds of businesses across the world.

to Torbjorn et al (2016), every large business has some practice of the lean platform
or internal lean development and it has established an army of lean experts. The
lean philosophy and practice has extended across every sector of activity, from
retailing, supplies to distinct and process manufacturing, service and repair,
financial services and management, construction, software development and IT,
healthcare and service delivery in government.

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of Botswana is one of those businesses that have also adopted the lean
management system through an approach of improving its customer security access control system to the bank. Access control system is the extent aimed to allow
authorized personnel, vehicles and equipment to pass through protective
barriers such as walls, gates, doors, biometrics, identity cards, access tags
etc. to give authorized access to the area. It consists of device technologies
as well as operational policies and procedures for utilizing the technologies.

According to Messaoud (2006), Security Access Control Measures are mainly an
integral part of the lean system of every business organization and it is so
strategic that Banks understand how these work. The more advanced technology on
security measures, the need for security measures increase. With greater
security measures, crime such as robberies, espionage, theft etc. can be
controlled and all this is evidence of the linkage between lean management and
organizational management. Access control is motivated by the
need to divulge access to information and valuable resources and services to
authorized entities only. Banks today have many security concerns regarding physical
security and information security. Planning for security is therefore an
integral part of any Bank function. The most efficient and cost-effective
method of instituting security measures into any facility or operation is
through advance planning and continuous monitoring throughout the project or

According to Robert (2009) Reliability
on security access systems is defined as the credibility of a computer systems
and physical security such that dependence can justifiably be placed on the
service it delivers. Some of the different reliability attributes include:
availability, reliability, safety and security. Some of these attributes are
often considered separately because the techniques used to achieve them are
usually perceived as being mutually antagonistic. Firstly, reliability and
availability are generally achieved by incorporating mechanisms for tolerating
any faults (especially accidental faults) that occur, or that remain despite
attempts at fault prevention during the system design process. These techniques
will of necessity involve space and time redundancy; they can easily take
advantage of a distributed computing architecture by means of replicated
computation using sets of untrusted processors or systems.

security features are normally accomplished by way of fault prevention
mechanisms whereby vital applications are applied on physically and logically
protection means. Unintended-fault 
tolerance (by way of 
replication)  increases  the 
number  of potential access
points  to  confidential 
information and  accordingly  can 
reduce  the  effectiveness of  the safety 
techniques. To  be  adequately practical,  a 
solution  dealing with  this 
antagonism should be taken 
into  account  the subsequent two requirements: trusted area
reduction, and safe security access systems.

to Yunping et al, (2007) Authentication and access control are often combined
into a single operation, so that access is approved based on successful
authentication, or based on an anonymous access token. Authentication methods
and tokens include passwords,
biometric scans, physical keys,
electronic keys and devices, hidden paths, social barriers, and monitoring by
humans and automated systems.


Lean management is a technique that goes back to production
with the main purpose of increasing output by means of decreasing input. This
philosophy has its origin in the Japanese manufacturing industry and strongly certain
to the Toyota production system. This has additionally proved effective to Bank
of Botswana through the advent of the security access control system which has
seen work being accomplished efficiently and effectively. Verona, (2011)

The lean management system’s biggest benefit through the
Access control measures is in the system’s usefulness in
deterring crime. When potential intruders see the Access
control system, they may go elsewhere because it isn’t worth the time to
try to go around it. 

Some access Control measures like Video surveillance with high-resolution footage and sound recordings enables
the Bank to capture everything that happens on the property. Even if the main
purpose is to catch criminals, they can end up capturing far more than
intended. For example, sound recording, may pick up on foul play among employees
or record instances of harassment. With audio and video evidence, the bank can
have everything needed to shore up legal cases that arise.

Bruno, 2010, Lean
management aims to satisfy customers in terms of product and service quality and
to simultaneously reduce the lead times. The quality in the service context is
a strategic element because it allows gaining competitive advantage, reducing
costs and increase market share and profits. Lean management helps in the
improving of the normal daily operations of a bank typically performed in
so-called “back office,” and to some degree the work of tellers and supervisors
in the front offices.


It should be noted that customers are not security
experts and therefore cannot be expected to give an accurate assessment of the
Security Access Control Systems. In many cases their information is based on
speculation. There is another aspect to Access Control other
than physical security Access Control, this is Information security control.
The authorization, authentication,
access approval, and audit to make a decision to grant or reject
an access request. Thomas, (2007)

Sometimes the bank is concerned that the workers are
taking information from the site. In these situations security may be asked to
do searches of employees as they are leaving the site. This may also not go
well with the employees who may feel they are being treated as criminals.

It should be noted that customers are not security
experts and therefore cannot be expected to give an accurate assessment of the
Security Access Control Systems. In many cases their information is based on

are many individuals in today’s society whose goal is to take advantage of
commercial organisations and the government. Law enforcement and corporate
security departments are heavily involved in countering identity theft and fraudulent
activities being committed by criminals. Other than this there are some hard
core criminals who take advantage of lapses in security and break into
facilities to steal money, valuables and information.

is mistrust and usefulness recognition (people do not see the usefulness of
some access control measures), who are generally not educated on the systems.
Their concerns include possible invasion of privacy and the association of
fingerprinting technicians with criminals. The widespread implementation and
use of Access Control has not established a foothold in the Bank. Any effort in
trying to impose it is being viewed as a “Big Brother” initiative.

the other hand, everyday life is getting more complicated, especially with the
need to remember an ever-growing number of different user Ids, logons,
Passwords, PIN numbers and lock combinations. There are many risks involved
when using Passwords or any other ID numbers.

Control also introduces not just financial concerns but also psychological
issues as well. In a day and age where most people feel that they are monitored
for one reason or another, Access Control is being viewed in this line. Harold
F (2012)

fundamental fear behind Access Control measures is the fear of the unknown,
much of the wariness may be coming from the strangeness of a new technology.
Sixty percent of the people asked how they would react to finger scan at the
Bank say they would find it a problem.

control measures, like network security measures and security to buildings and
other assets that must be protected from unauthorized personnel and
nonemployees, require a substantial investment. It is therefore imperative that
they be undertaken with some confidence that the investments are warranted and


In addition, the Financial Intelligence Agency Act,
2009, provides a comprehensive legal framework to support AML with the
establishment of a new Financial Intelligence Agency (FIA). The agency, which is
in the process of being established, coordinates, including through cooperation
with relevant bodies both within and outside Botswana, activities relating to
the collection and investigation of financial information. (This was previously
the task of the Financial Intelligence Unit of the Directorate of Corruption
and Economic Crime.) The legislation also prescribes punishments for failure to
report suspicious transactions.

As part of the country’s effort to support
anti-money laundering (AML) activities, Botswana is a member of the Eastern and
Southern African Anti-Money Laundering Group (ESAAMLG), the objective of which
is to develop the regional response for combating money laundering and the
financing of terrorism. This is through implementing the recommendations of the
Financial Action Task Force (FATF) established at the G-7 summit in 1989. ESAAMLG, which has a secretariat in
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, was founded in 1999 and has fourteen member countries
as well as various accredited observers (both other jurisdictions and

Legislation in Botswana aimed at combating financial
improprieties includes:

As well as the FIA, a National Financial Intelligence
Committee was established. The Committee assessed the effectiveness of measures
to combat financial crime and make recommendations for legislative and policy
reforms with a view protecting the reputation of Botswana.

Recorded footage of a theft or vandalism should be enough to
validate the Bank’s insurance claims. Plus, even if the Bank never uses footage
in court, for investigations, or to make insurance claims, the lower insurance
premiums that result from installing security cameras help the investment pay
for itself..


 Awareness (knowledge) about security
functionality is considered convenient.  Most people do not actually
understand security very well. Thorough understanding about how security
functionality works may thus be crucial before any adoption takes place. The
study showed that due to changing technology, attitudes towards increased
security were good in general but attitudes towards biometrics and usage if
identity cards were poor.

According to the Bank of Botswana official website, www.bankofbotswana.bw/, financial crime, such as money laundering, is a
serious problem globally and allowing it to carry on unchecked is a major cause
of financial instability. It is, therefore, important for all countries to be
vigilant and take necessary steps to counter such crime. This is true even for
countries where financial crime is currently not perceived to be a major
problem, as it can be easy for the perpetrators of such crimes to switch to
more vulnerable jurisdictions. It is also particularly important in countries,
such a Botswana, which host providers of international financial services.

to Harold et al, (2012) Uneasy situations on
a global market are concerns about Information security
control that have been raised, these include; Having too few people who
understand what is this all about. This makes it too expensive and some
implementation projects simply become impossible. We need an army of people
able to help with the roll-out as well as daily processing issues. Too many
network fees on transactions, these transactions should be affordable
for everyone, while boosting market penetration and providing strong security.


management’s enhancement of the Relationship between quality and performance

to Bohdan W et al, (2014) most banking institutions suffer from fairly basic
inefficiencies such as problems and frustrations arising from poor
productivityand work quality, inefficient planning, inadequate coordination and
communication, insufficient preparation of people, processes and tools, uneven
workflow, excessive bureaucracy, reactive rather than proactive management.
After the lean management system is developed in a serious way, organisations
can achieve a higher quality of work in a shorter amount of time, with nobody
working harder and everybody working smarter. Employees move from fighting
crisis to increasing both customer satisfaction and bank competitiveness. Bank
of Botswana is not an exception after introducing the lean management system
through the introduction of the customer security access control system to the organization;
there has been better quality service and customer satisfaction.

W et al, (2014) goes ahead to say that after the introduction of the lean
management system, performance measurement becomes easy since work becomes more
predictable, stable and pleasant. It soon becomes truly shocking to both
management and staff how much work can be accomplished in the same amount of time
and with the same resources which simultaneously improves productivity,
quality, cost, work morale and customer satisfaction. This is true and evident
with the introduction of the lean management system at Bank of Botswana,
quality security has been achieved at a low cost and customer satisfaction is
greater compared to the time before the strategy was introduced.

conclusion, lean management system mainly aims at strengthening the
productivity reserves by reducing or eliminating wastage. This leads to lower
costs, increased customer satisfaction and higher quality. This enables the
bank to keep employees on the payroll since quality service leads to greater
customer satisfaction hence increasing business.


















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Marek Felbur,
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Daniel T. Jones,
Daniel Roos,
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John Shook,
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Hospitals: Principles and Key Factors for Successful Implementation, Bachelor +
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