Language writing skills too(ww.englanglanguage, so Speech

Language is a
mean of communicating and expressing thoughts and ideas. The need of a spoken
language emerged first by making sounds that represent pictures which address
the auditory system, then letters and words that address the ophthalmic system
of the human being. The necessity of a writing system aroused from the need to
record events and communicate it with different people across the different
period of time. Different writing systems were developed across the world which
varies in its complexity.(Webster,1806) It relates, letters, syllables and sentence
to communicate language through speaking and writing.                                                                                                                          

The child starts learning language by
imitation and exploring through babbling, then he uses a one word sentence,
next a two word sentence, and later a whole sentence where he begins to expand
his language which is not confined to speaking, but also to reading and writing
skills too(ww.englanglanguage, so Speech is important in developing language skills,
improving vocabulary, receiving and producing language, furthermore,
understanding the connection between spoken and written language is essential
to organize and deliver the meaning of the message in a more efficient and
coherent way.(

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Orthography is “the accepted way of spelling and
writing.” (

“The art of writing words with the proper letter
according to standard use “( .                                     

 The English
language is an alphabetic language that consists of twenty-six letters written
from left to right side ways to bottom, it is a syllabic language which
consists of five vowels and twenty-one consonants, letters are compound to
convey a more complex meaning(words) that could be broken into rime and onset
and words are brought together in a special manner to give a much more complex
meaning(sentences), which means that the alphabetical system is directly
related to semantics, grammar, and phonology (ww, gives this
language its features . In a perfect language every letter corresponds to a
sound, however, some of them correspond with more than one sound. (Webster,
1806).The inconsistencies in the English orthography made English a challenging
language to acquire even for children who are mono-lingual English native speakers,
because many inconsistencies were not just at the level of the letter and their
presentation of more than one sound, but also at the level of words.                               

   Historically the English language is a dialect;
its position was elevated and became an international language spoken by many
tongues as a mother language or second or foreign language, it came into
contact with English like Latin, German, French, Danish which brought many
words into the language and changing other words meaning pronunciation and use,
For example: the word colonel has French and Italian origin, In French, it is
coronel, but in Italian it is colonello, now it is written in the Italian way
and spelled in the French way. Building on what is previously written the
grapheme-morpheme relationship in English is opaque due to the loan words,
which were largely absorbed by the English language causing frozen spelling for
a massive amount of word which makes the prediction of its pronunciation and
writing very hard.(                                               There are other difficulties
that face not just children but adult too, for example some sounds stayed or
disappeared ,the /f/ sound in words like: cough, enough, through or thought,
other sounds were lost at the beginning of the words in words like: wrong and
knee, some letters become silent when pronounced for e.g. Psychology, Island.
Daughter, furthermore words have swallowed syllables e.g. Vegetable is
pronounced vegtable (, and some English letters give many different
pronunciations for the same letter for e.g. the words bear, ear and heart.

The English orthography stabilized through the
centuries mostly because of the printing invention by Guttenberg, which helped
in the dissemination of English and the role lexicographer who document the
pronunciation and writing of millions of word albeit the difference between
different standard English like standard American, standard British …Etc.(
The English orthography has its positive sides, the spelling system help to
differentiate homophones in words, for example: alter and altar, morphemes like
inflections stay the same with different words e.g. sides, derived. (allington,mayor,2012)

Studies of the various aspects of the English language
led to the development of new methods of teaching the based on the different
perspectives that was adopted by many institutions and was pointed out for its
efficiency even among parents, one of those perspectives is social perspective,
which depends on the need and the necessity for the child to express his
emotions, needs, and his social identity in the society, and since spoken and
written language are closely related literacy becomes a part of a wider
communicative practice, using literacy in this sense involves exchanging
knowledge with a social-network, parents or caregivers who have their essential
role in the way children acquire language, getting involved in these practices will
help the children to gain literacy in a more effective way like storybook
reading which studies shown that it supports the child language development,
and literacy practice later in life.(

There are many other reasons that affect
how child literacy evolved, which involve the culture of his parents, the
society that he is surrounded by and the economic status of his parents, the
level of their education, the school’s environment, the quality of learning, social
class, religion, the position of the child in the family, and how he deals with
the difficulties that he faces which is part of the child psychology.

The literacy of the child at an early age
is strongly connected to learning the alphabet it is the first predictor to his
or her reading and writing accomplishments in his first formal schooling process that is
intertwined with the parent’s role in involving their children in practices on
a frequent basis with multiple genres of literacy like children’s fiction or
adventurous stories, newspapers adds…etc, another key role in acquiring the
language in children is their relationship with their parents and their parent
beliefs about literacy.Many activities are used by parents at home or in school
that facilitate literacy practice as a social activity like engaging children
in songs, hymen’s books, spelling contests, flash cards and interacting with
children in conversation to see how they understand literacy and literary
texts, furthermore the need to encourage children emotionally and physically to
learn written and spoken language alter the child perspective toward learning
and make it more appealing to him(

The literacy practice of English also existed in
bilingual communities which is also affected by religion, social class, schools
parent’s educational level. The bilingual children may have in common impediments
with native speakers or different problems in learning English for example if
their other language is written from right to left, not from left to right they
may start writing English from right to left, or they may think about the
subject in one language and write it in another or they may code-switch during

Finally, there must be a collaboration of efforts
between families, teachers and the society around him and trying to use the
best practices that will allow the child to have a good command over language,
so he or she would be articulate in the way he wants to express his emotions,
needs, and pursue what he really wants through education and life to convey the
full potential of his persona.


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