The main aim of this research is to examine the indicators of the quality of river belts in cities. A subsidiary aim of the study is to propose policy options and planning interventions for improving the quality of riverfront in cities. This literature review looks into other studies, articles and books done which are in line with topic making the study of the topic have a global perspective.
Waterfronts are dynamic places by nature. As an edge environment, the overlap of different communities of users and dramatically different conditions make for enormous amounts of complexity and energy. In the non-human realm, waterfronts are the interface of the aquatic and the terrestrial, the site of complex intertidal communities, the point of release for wave action, and the vehicle for many dispersal patterns. As related to human history and use, waterfronts have a long history of changing types and levels of uses, and are now coming back into potentially thriving and layered public use. Once the site of first settlements and exploration, they have long served as transportation corridors and ports, hubs of trade, travel centers, recreation venues, and much, much more. Waterfronts have been extensively used by humans for their utility in travel, trade, recreation, and general enjoyment, and have also suffered cycles of abuse and neglect from these very use patterns.
The waterfront zone is a special area which holding special characteristics as discuss in Table below.
TITTLE Special characteristics of waterfronts
Dynamic area Waterfront zone is a dynamic area with frequently changing
Biological, chemical and geological attributes.
Habitat Waterfront zone include highly productive and biologically diverse
ecosystems that offer crucial nursery habitats for many marine
Natural defense Waterfront zone features such as mangrove forests serves a
critical natural defense against natural hazards (flooding, erosion
Pollution Water ecosystems may act to reduce the impacts of pollution
moderator originating from land such as, wetlands absorbing excess nutrient
Sediments, human waste.
Types of waterfronts
A strip of land that fronts a beach.
A strip of land that fronts a lake.
A strip of land that fronts a River.
Concept of waterfront Development
Waterfront began as commerce centers, transportation hubs, manufacturing centers and commercial areas. Therefore, Waterfronts are seen as the focal point in many cities. But, due to various reasons including changing in transportation, containerization shipping and manufacturing this has led to a significant decline in waterfronts.
As related to human history and use, waterfronts have a long history of changing types and levels of uses, and are now coming back into potentially thriving and layered public use. Once the site of first settlements and exploration, they have long served as transportation corridors and ports, hubs of trade, travel centers, recreation venues, and much, much more. Waterfronts have been extensively used by humans for their utility in travel, trade, recreation, and general enjoyment, and have also suffered cycles of abuse and neglect from these very use patterns.
HISTORICAL PROGRESSION OF WATER FRONTS
COASTAL SEAPORT: Settlement and Initial Development
The development of modern North American seaports began with early European settlers. As ships were the primary mode of transportation for both goods and people, sites for ports that provided shelter from harsh weather and geological formations that allowed for convenient ship movement and docking became the center of all transportation-related activity. These port sites developed into bustling developments to sup- port shipping-related activities and served as a staging area for further movement.
INDUSTRIAL CENTER: Shipping and Manufacturing
Once established as a port city, these settlements then came to also serve as centers of shipping to export newly found resources, as well as sites of industrial manufacturing. As shipping becomes more advanced and the ships more massive in size, more elaborate docking structures and cargo storage infrastructure is constructed, often resulting in dredging the natural shoreline, and railroad infrastructure may be introduced. Culturally, these port cities also served as centers for exchange of ideas, information, and other cultural happenings
DECLINE AND DECAY: Changing Economies and Changing Land-Use
As the shipping industry moved to more reliance on the trucking industry, and industrial manufacturing became unfeasible, these large industrial waterfront developments were abandoned. The structures obsolete and the land often polluted, waterfronts became airports, parking lots, red-light districts, and the like.
2.2.3 Types of riverfronts
This a riverfront that is associated with a particular community and is
2.2.4 The place of river belts as open spaces
Green open spaces and Blue open spaces
2.3 THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVE
2.3.1 FIGURE GROUND THEORY
2.3.2 LINKAGE THEORY
2.3.3 PLACE THEORY
2.4 RIVER BELTS/FRONTS IN CITIES
2.4.1 INDICATORS OF QUALITY
2.4.2VALUES AND BENEFITS
2.4.3 RIVER FRONT AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT
PLUS MANGEMENT OF INTERFACE