INTRODUCTION and for enhancing the nature of learning



We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

is a standout amongst the most imperative factors that has an immediate
connection to the advancement of society from beginning and keeps on accepting
an indistinguishable part from long as society exists. Education is therefore a
procedure by which man transmits his experience, new discoveries and qualities
gathered for a few centuries in his battle for survival. It is a base for
financial, social and political advancement of a nation. It empowers people and
society to make full support in the improvement procedure by securing learning,
aptitudes capacity and states of mind. This statement above indicates how
important education has been throughout history.

indicated by Panda and Mohanty (2003) great instructors were basic for the
successful working of training framework and for enhancing the nature of
learning process. Employment fulfillment empowers educators to put their most
extreme exertion up on their work. Job fulfillment and confidence has for quite
some time been a vital goal for teachers. Instructors create execution style
attributes to their methods for identifying with the world, perceptually and in
addition intellectually. An educator is, in this manner, liable to act in a way
that amplifies the utilization of his/her aptitudes.

teachers perform well and deliver great outcomes by conveying quality instructions
to their students. Educators are the makers of future pioneers. In this way, it
is essential to keep educators fulfilled from their occupation and duties. They
won’t only deliver great quality pioneers of future but in addition will
contribute in the improvement of any nation by training the future age.

all the techniques that can be used by a teacher to make their class
interesting and informative there are various factors that can hinder their job
performance such as the teaching methods, autonomy, work load, work life
balance, personality of the instructor, motivation, relation with the students,
planning and preparation, motivation, confidence, attitude towards students,
working environment and peers attitude towards you and many more. However this
research will only focus on the following factors:  Motivation, autonomy and work load.

1.1  Problem Statement

teacher’s job performance can be portrayed as the obligations performed by
instructors at a specific period in the educational system in accomplishing
school/university objectives. In such manner, (Adeyemi, 2010) translates a
teachers job performance as means of bringing together suitable information
that contributes to the upgradation of education and the learning process.
Tutors are the most important resources of educational systems. Schools and
universities can be more prosperous though the engagement of development
programs. This relates to the idea of quality education as showed in different academic
records of UNESCO.


launch the level of training standard in a nation, the role of instructors
ought to be persistently upgraded as they are primary the pillars in the part.
For the most part, instructors are expected to perform different obligations,
for example, helping schools in regulatory assignments, assessing student’s
discipline, participating in additional curricular exercises, observing students
participation in class and assessing’ homework, teachers are also expected to
get engaged with the Parent Teachers Affiliation (PTA), and imperatively to
meet the prerequisites of their jobs. This therefore burdens the teacher and
ends up affecting the performance of a teacher.

core of this research is to evaluate how the determined factors which are
Motivation, autonomy, and workload affect a teacher’s job performance.


1.2  Research Questions


1)      What
is the effect of motivation on a teacher’s job performance?

2)      What
is the effect of autonomy on a teacher’s job performance?

3)      What
is the effect of workload on a teacher’s performance?



1.3  Objective of the study


1)      To
determine the effect of motivation on a teachers job performance?

2)      To
determine the effect of autonomy on a teachers job performance?

3)      To
determine the effect of workload on a teachers performance?


1.4  Significance of the study


the context of Pakistan, education is considered to be an extremely critical
issue in achieving quality and development (Akhter, S.N, Hashmi, M.A and Naqvi,
S.I.H, 2010). Past researches have indicated that the performance of teachers
has a direct impact on the achievements of students (Ahsan, N. Abdullah, Z Fie,
D.Y.G and Alam S.S, 2009). The better the teachers perform on job, the higher
the students achieve. The role of this research was to study the factors
affecting the job performance of teachers in the academic sector of Pakistan.

leading this study, researchers can learn further about the factors affecting
job performance of teachers and produce more qualitative results regarding how
motivation, autonomy and workload impact the level of performance teacher’s

is expected that this study will empower the relevant authorities to determine
the factors influencing the job performance of teachers and in return affecting
the achievements of the students. Furthermore, this research will clarify what
the authorities need to do to improve the job performance in academic sector of
Pakistan which as a multiplier effect would improve the education standards,
workforce standards and play a significant role in the economic development of
the country.





1.5  Scope of Study


job performance of employees is a common aspect that can be studied in any
organization, sector or country. However, this research is only limited to the
teaching faculty of schools and universities in the academic sector of
Pakistan. It focuses on investigating the factors affecting the job performance
of academic staff. The respondents for this study will consist of mainly
teachers and students from various schools and universities in Islamabad.  Very little research has been carried out
regarding this matter in Pakistan hence creating a large literature gap. Durthe
limited size of the research and time availability, this study will be carried
out in Islamabad, Pakistan.


1.6  Organization of Study

one (Introduction)- The first chapter is the
introduction chapter which concentrates on the background, importance and
problems of the selected topic followed by the aim, objectives, questions, key
words and definition.

Two (Literature Review) – This chapter aims to expand on the
information provided in the first
chapter by reviewing the literature of academic staff job satisfaction. The headings
of this chapter have been divided by following the research objectives in order
to meet the overall research aim. This chapter starts reviewing the importance
and status of education in Pakistan, significance of academic job satisfaction
in education sector and finally reviewing the factors that influences the
academic job satisfaction.

three (Conceptual Framework) – this chapter is considered to be a
continuous process of the literature
review in which a conceptual framework will be developed that includes
dependent and independent variables. The framework will be created through a
combination of factors identified from the literature and any additional
factors will be explored through an exploratory qualitative data approach.

four (Methodology) – this chapter is the research
methodology section which aims to measure
the level of teachers’ job performance against the factors that have been
presented in the conceptual framework. A quantitative methodology approach will
be utilized by circulating an electronic and printed questionnaire survey to
the academic schools and universities in Islamabad.

five (Empirical Evidence)-the results obtained from the questionnaire survey will be presented
in this chapter. It will be further analyzed through the SPSS software and the
relationship between the dependent and indepo0endent variables is discovered.

six (Conclusion)-a summary and conclusion derived
from the results analysis and
discussion will be presented in this chapter. This chapter will further point
to answer the research questions that have been presented in chapter one.
Furthermore, it aims to offer some recommendations and to improve the level of
job performance of academic faculty members in Pakistan. Finally, this chapter
will end up with some proposals of future research in order to improve the
performance of academic staff in Pakistan.



Job Performance

employment is one of the vital builds that has constantly been given genuine
consideration in the fields of both HR administration and organizational psychology.
Jamal (2007) characterized job performance as a person’s capacity to
effectively perform errands by utilizing assets accessible at work. Then again,
Borman and Motowidlo (1993) proposed that activity execution is an idea that
incorporates both assignment execution and logical execution. The last
concentrates on the significance of social aptitudes as indicators of job
performance. Undertaking execution is characterized as the viability of
occupation officeholders in performing exercises that add to the association’s
core (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). Griffin (2005) called attention to that
performance of an individual is dictated by three elements, in particular:
condition at work, inspiration, and the capacity to carry out the activity.
This is supported by Chandrasekar (2011), who implied that work environment
condition emphatically impacts representative confidence, profitability, and
job performance. If the working condition is not supported by representatives,
they will be demotivated and their execution level will crumble.

example, ineffectively planned work timings, unsatisfactory obligations,
absence of appreciation and the absence of individual basic leadership
opportunity would bring about disappointment among representatives. Such
requirements would make weight on representatives, which would have
antagonistic impacts on representatives’ job performance. As indicated by
Obilade (1999), teacher’s performance can be deciphered as the undertakings and
duties completed by instructors in a specific timeframe in accordance with the
educational system in accomplishing authoritative objectives. Peretemode (1996)
included that activity execution is resolved by the level of representatives’
everyday interest in different exercises at their separate establishment. Aside
from that, educators are additionally loaded with managerial work that ought not
to be incorporated into their sets of expectations. Various errands at work
with uncertain parts and duties at the work environment would imperil the
nature of work-life adjust among educators.


per (Okumbe, 1998) inspiration is a scholarly or mental inadequacy that
triggers the conduct, a drive that urges to an objective or motivator. Oxford
word reference characterizes the idea as the physiological capacity that stirs
a life form to activity to accomplish a coveted goal. Interestingly inspiration
is characterized by Hornby (2000) as affectation to act or move. Inside the
literature, Tomlinson (2000) contends that performance based pay is tied in
with inspiring individuals, and creating performance oriented societies.
Instructors, who are not inspired by money related prizes, can be energized
with non-monetary prizes these, prizes can incorporate, for instance:
fulfillment from high student accomplishment, acknowledgment, impact, adapting
new abilities, and self-improvement (Tomlinson, 2000; Odden 2000).

can then be divided into Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic
motivation is gotten inside the individual or action and decidedly influences
conduct, execution, and prosperity (a placated condition of being cheerful and
sound and prosperous). Intrinsic motivation is said to exist at the point when
the conduct is performed for its own purpose, not for social or material
increases. As per Mary (2010) intrinsic motivation of instructors incorporates
calling fulfillment, delight in the field, acknowledgment, controls over
others, the testing and focused nature of educating, profession advancement,
and instructing as the essential objective in life. For this investigation
intrinsic motivation includes; fulfillment and delight in instructing,
acknowledgment and educating as the essential objective in life.

per Sansone and Harackiewicz (2000), the most well-known result from the
accomplishment of remotely controlled remuneration (extrinsic motivation)
incorporates compensation/compensation/expenses, notoriety, material belonging
and a positive appraisal by others. As per Mary 2010 extraneous inspiration of
educators incorporate, remotely compensates like pay/compensation/expenses,
free settlement, remuneration with the expectation of complimentary therapeutic
care, free dinners, leave and prepaid installments in instance of money related
issues, and in addition additional instructing recompenses. With the end goal
of this examination extrinsic motivation consists of; remittances, compensation,
leave and material ownership.



autonomy is characterized as the degree to which work can give awesome
opportunity, autonomy, self-reliance and discretion of the employee in decide
the techniques to be utilized as a part of actualizing them. As indicated by
Pearson and Hall (1993), this idea has been characterized as instructor’s
recognition on the level of control that they have over their workplace and
furthermore themselves.

Diab et al. (2011) in Gavriliuk (2010) characterized teacher autonomy as
“the ability to take control of one’s own teaching”. In view of the
original work of Hackman and Oldham (1975), self-sufficiency (autonomy) is one
of five employment attributes that decide the level of motivation of an
employee. Hackman and Oldham (1975) attested that self-rule prompts a basic
mental state whereby “experienced obligation regarding results of the
work”, which thus leads to better outcomes, for example, better work
effectiveness and larger amount of inside occupation inspiration. At the end of
the day, this factor is set to bring about expanded inspiration and viability
of an occupation.

has recorded reliable discoveries on the effect of independence on different
results among workers. Davis and Wilson (2000) detailed that inspiration and
independence are the significant components in raising employment fulfillment
and mitigating work worry among instructors. Likewise, Bacharach (1986) found
that imperatives, for example, absence of independence and feeling of
vulnerability are exceptionally connected with stress, dissatisfaction and
nervousness among educators. Bandura (1997) had a similar thought that trust in
executing errands will profoundly impact the quality of employment execution.
In parallel mold, Wang and Netemeyer (2002) detailed that job independence has
a positive association with job performance. An investigation by Saragih (2011)
substantiated the experimental connection amongst independence and occupation
execution. This is on the grounds that higher activity self-rule prompts more
prominent trust in the execution of a specific undertaking. With regards to
educators, Lamb (2008) called attention to that teaching profession ought to be
conceded adequate opportunity in deciding the best arrangement or techniques in
guaranteeing understudies’ engagement in learning is set up. Critically,
instructors are in the best position to comprehend students need and to
overcome their learning issues.


alludes to all exercises including representatives’ chance spent in performing
proficient obligations, duties and interests at work, either straightforwardly
or in a roundabout way. In an educational setting, comparative meaning of
workload are advanced by different researchers in begetting this idea among teachers
(Harold, 1984). Shukri (1998) characterized workload as the duties given to
instructors, either in the classroom or outside the classroom.

(2012) pronounced that workload is the measure of time spent by instructors in
performing different assignments going from educating and learning,
co-curricular exercises, gatherings, and so on that are identified with
official obligations as an instructor amid or after school hours. Sharifah,
Suhaida and Soaib (2014) and Punia and Kamboj (2013) likewise gave a much
indistinguishable definition on this idea in which workload is characterized as
the measure of time taken by educators to set up their official obligations
inside or outside school hours. Consequently, instructors’ workload requires
their chance in schools as well as need to spend additional hours after work
with a specific end goal to be more viable and gainful in their educational

indicated by Easthope and Easthope (2000), increased workload incorporates the
instructor to learner proportion. This is because of the way that educators are
persistently loaded with new errands added to their sets of expectations. This
circumstance declines job fulfillment and authoritative responsibility among
instructors, which at last influences the quality of their job performance.
This thought is certified by the experimental discoveries by Hassam, Tahir and
Muhammad Aslam’s (2011), which announced that long working hours because of
additional workload may inversely affect work fulfillment as this condition
meddles with one’s prosperity at work and home. Comparable outcomes are
resounded in the examinations by Nachreiner (1995), Oron-Gilad et al. (2008)
and Yeh and Wickens (1988).



conceptual framework has been shaped through a blend of the major factors that
have been determined in the literature, when reviewing job performance of
teachers. The conceptual model presented below in figure 1 comprises of
dependent and independent variables. This exploration plans to recognize factors
that impact work job performance of scholarly staff. Job performance is thought
to be the dependent variable, motivation, autonomy, work load are considered to
be as independent Variables. 


I'm Alfred!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out