Introduction is that the DC one. https://www.teamwavelength.com Smoothing-

Introduction
As a part of preparation of the engineering career, one ought to be ready to construct, style and be ready to well papers regarding what has been done. For this case we have a tendency to were asked to create associate in nursing wattage provide. The aim of this power provide was to scale back high voltage to low voltage and to convert electrical energy from AC to DC. The foremost vital part was the transformer as a result of its purpose is to scale back high perilously voltage to a low voltage to favor elements like light-weight emitting diodes.
Theory
The power supply consists of 4 main steps namely:
Transformer- is that the one that steps down high voltage AC to low voltage AC. https://electronicsclub.info/powersupplies.htm
Rectifier- it converts AC to DC and therefore the varied voltage is that the DC one.

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Smoothing- swish the DC from varied greatly to a tiny low ripple.

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Regulator- it eliminate ripple by setting DC output to a set voltage.
Transformer
The aim of an electrical device is to vary associate in nursing electrical system quality to from one level to a different level as a result of the increase transformers increase voltage whereas the diminution transformers cut back the voltage. An electrical device is formed from 2 or a lot of conductors wound around one core. The wound conductors are referred to as windings. It’s fabricated from 2 windings the first and therefore the secondary windings. The first winding is connected to the facility supply whereas the secondary coil is connected to the output. There’s no affiliation between the first and therefore the secondary windings, they’re connected by the alternating flux created inside the soft iron core of the device.

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How do transformers work?
They work by passing the electrical energy through a coil that then causes alternating magnetic flux within the core. The magnetic flux circulates within the core passing through another coil and therefore the alternating voltage is evoked within the coil. The quantitative relation of turns determines the quantitative relation of the voltages. The transformer has range of activates in its primary winding and a tiny low number of activates on the secondary winding to provide a low output voltage. The output power should be adequate to the input power.

Rectifier one amongst the foremost vital rectifiers is that the bridge rectifier as a result of it produces full-wave varied DC
Components used to construct power supply
WO4 BRIDGE RECTIFIER
IN4007 DIODES
LM317T
1K
220 OHM
5K POTS
1000UF CAPS
100NF CAPS
LED AND LED HOLDER
SPDT SWITCH
3 WAY CONNECTORS
POLYSWITCH FUSE, 0.1 FUSE, FUSE HOLDER,
4MM PANEL SOCKETS
ENCLOSURE
12-0-12 CENTER TAP TRANSFORMER
Construction
All the components that needed to be soldered were soldered according to the schematic on the circuit board. The resistors are not polarized so it does not make a difference on how they are placed on the circuit board. The diodes are polarized in such a way that the silver line should be on the right hand side. The small capacitors having 100nF are not polarized. The black capacitors are polarized the longer wire on it represents positive and the shorter wire represents negative. The outer cover of the power supply was drilled for some of the components to stick to the box for example the output voltages, fuse, switch and the variable resistors are seen form the outside making it easier to measure the desired values.

The blue wire of the transformer is connected to the blue wire from the plug. The brown wire from the transformer is then connected to the switch. The earth from the plug is connected to the bottom part of the transformer to prevent electrical shock. The brown wire from the plug is combined with the red wire to make connection with the fuse and another wire from the fuse to the switch was added. In all the three outputs the red one represents positive, the yellow one represents negative and the black indicates the ground.

Conclusion
There were some challenges when building the power supply since it was the first time for me to be building the power supply so I had to enquire about almost everything. I even went online to get some guidance on how to tackle the problem that I had and I got the help that I needed and from there everything looked easier than I thought. When testing whether it is working the first thing I checked was the LED and it was working perfectly. I then started varying the output voltages only to find that one variable resistor was not connected and from there I started soldering again and everything was perfect. The varying voltages reads from 0-17 V. This was such an amazing adventure for me because I have learnt so many things about how the power supply works at first I knew little but now my mind is thinking out of the box because of this amazing project that I had done on my own.

References
1 James S.Kang, “Electric circuits”, Cengage learning. 2016.

2 Raymond A.Serway and John W.Jewett.Jr, “Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, Ninth Edition.2010.