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INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION:
Persistent organic pollutants(POPS) are compounds that are resistant to degrade. They are organic pollutants. They have chemical, biological and photolytic processes. These pollutants have hazardous effect on human health and on the biological environment. Persistent organic pollutants are halogenated organic compounds. they gather in fatty tissues. They can transfer easily in any part of the world inside the human or animal body or in any agriculture product. The effect of POPs include harmful effects on human health and bio environment. It was decided to eliminate and severely restrict their production, by the international community at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in 2001,

HISTORY:
In 1995, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) called for global action to be taken on POPs, which it defined as “chemical substances that persist in the environment, bio-accumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment”.
This convention address only those agents that are present in environment for very long and are subject to long run environmental transport. That can transfer thousands of mile by air or water.
RULES:
This agreement categorizes different pesticides on the bases of their chemical composition and toxicity.
A —- very dangerous
B —- less dangerous
C —- use somewhere in the world but not identified
STEPS TAKEN AFTER STOCKHOLM CONVENTION:
BASEL AGREEMENT was signed after the Basel convention. This agreement emphasizes on the prevention of dumping waste in sea. this agreement restricted the transboundary movements of hazardous waste. After this convention many centers for training and technology transfer were established to make countries aware about the management and minimization of hazardous waste.

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Introduction

Introduction:
Cocoa is a crop which remains in demand around the world. Coffee and Chocolate industries are totally depend on cocoa seeds. This assignment contains information related with the case studies and companies learning for the production of cocoa. Firstly, there is analysis about the countries, namely Cote d’lvoire , Indonesia and Dominican republic as regarding their consumption and production of cocoa through PESTLE analysis. Further, there is analysis about “Barry Callebaut”, a chocolate manufacturing organisation and there is also Porter’s analysis about the company. The analysis would be done to assess information regarding shortage of cocoa in coming future and impact over the chocolate manufacturing companies. The practical example would aid in defining the situation in a more precise and relevant manner. ?
1) Analysis and summary:
Indonesia:
Indonesia is among agricultural dependent countries. Employment of around 30.27% is generated through agricultural sector and there are large people who live below poverty line. There is large production of cocoa in the regions of the country, There is cultivation of cocoa over 1.5 million hectares and the cocoa industry has witnessed significant growth in the past 25 years and has aided farmers in significant expansion through smallholder farmer participation (Witjaksono, 2016).

Figure: describing the cocoa production
Source: (Witjaksono, 2016)
Cote d Ivoire: In the West Africa, Cote d Ivoire has the most suitable for the climate of cocoa production. The movement of cocoa production is largest and is through private sector. The regions in West Africa like Cote d Ivoire provides high quality of cocoa and there is large export of cocoa production. Thus, cocoa production provides large revenues , foreign reserves through selling of cocoa production.
Dominican Republic: This country has also quite a suitable atmosphere for production of cocoa and coffee flavors. The farmers use this crop for cultivation purpose and make large revenues through the cultivation purpose. The government of the country ensures that the cocoa production is done suitably and in an environmentally friendly manner. The cocoa production is also certified into the certified category with a view to ensuring that fair trade practice might occur and farmers get sufficient prices for its products.
PESTLE analysis:
Political: The conditions of these countries are quite relevant and friendly in accordance with cocoa production. These regions are quite friendly for such acts and hence, official authorities also promote cocoa production. Since these countries population are majorly dependent on agricultural production and cocoa production provides a large source of revenues (Hütz-et. al., 2016).
Economic: The countries of West Africa are not that developed and cocoa production is quite useful as a source of earnings and revenues for the country. Cocoa production has a high effect on employment, GDP production, the source of foreign reserves, revenue earnings etc. In last few years, cocoa production contributes a lot in terms of economic stability for these countries. The issue with the agricultural production is that it is mostly dependent on natural climatic conditions and hence, the production varies in accordance with the changing production (Hütz-et. al., 2016).
Social: Coffee and cocoa are majorly consumed and has a significant market sector with the large customer base. Thus, the trend of cocoa and its consumables products are high and there is high future growth in future as well. But the degrading agricultural production and reduced natural agricultural environment, it is most likely that the cocoa and its products would face a shortfall. The shortfall would put stress over substitutes for chocolate products and the cocoa production industry will lose market concentration.
Technological: Since cocoa production is agricultural dependent and there are uses of the agricultural component which are used for agricultural production. With the technological advancement, various machines are being used for development of agricultural produced and these countries are introducing such equipment for the ease of agriculture. To increase the level of production of cocoa, they are improving their farming skills by new techniques like huge machinery for cultivation , pesticides , fertilizers and many more, which results in inclined productivity. (McIntire, and Varangis, 2012).
Legal: Varied legislations are formulated with a view to the development of agricultural production. The legislations such as selling and purchase of agricultural produce must be regulated through legislations so as to protect the interest of farmers, consumers and other associated persons. For instance: Dominican Republic government has declared the cocoa production to be under certified products which means that there would be fair dealing for cocoa products and also worked for fair treatment to farmers. These are done so as to encourage farmers for increased production as they produce large revenues to the country.
Environment: Cocoa is vulnerable crop to climate. Rate of rainfall plays an important role in production of cocoa. These countries are having the favourable climatic conditions for cocoa. With the increase in agricultural production and technological advancement, there are varied environmental issues faced by the society such as soil erosion, degradation, deforestation and industrial pollution. Moreover, with increased urbanization, there are emerging social waste, wrongful farming techniques etc. which are degrading agricultural development and also do not lead to much agricultural growth and expansion. For effective development, there is a need for improvisation of environment boundaries (McIntire, and Varangis, 2012).
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2) Strategic recommendations
Barry Callebut: It is a big organization which produces a wide variety of cocoa and chocolate products. A factory is located in Great Britain and produces the large and high quality of cocoa products and also produces large chocolates. The company has established into different continents namely, America, Asian market, European market and in the global market as well. The company has made quite good sales in most of the region but has not been able to perform much into the Asian market. The CEO of the company has put its potential into the Asian market so as to capture the developing economies market also. With the increase revenue growth of cocoa products, there is large essential that the company will cover many new and other countries as well (Callebut, 2018).

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(Source: Callebut, 2018)
The above image presents the large growth of Barry Callebut and the company is also planning to increase its share in Asia sector as well.
Group analysis: The group of the company has developed after emergence through merging between Callebut and Cacao in 1996. The Callebut was developed by Belgian chocolate maker and Cocoa was by a French producer. There merging between both the companies has led to the development of “Barry Callebut”. Since, then the organization was listed over Swiss exchange in 1998 (Callebut, 2018).
Its holdings: The shareholdings structure of the company includes Jacobs’s holdings is around 50.11%, Renata Jacobs has a shareholding of 8.48% and Massachusetts mutual life insurance company has a shareholding of 3.64% (Callebut, 2018). All the other shareholdings belong to a group which does not have a percentage of 2%.
Current market position: Currently, the company has revenues of 1.9 million tons sales volume and has around 55 factories across worldwide. The company has employed around 11,000 employees and also its 36% is sustainable sourced cocoa (Callebut, 2018).
Porter’s five forces analysis: five forces analysis is done to make an analysis about the external factors like the threat of new entrants, threat substitutes, bargaining power of buyers, bargaining power of suppliers, and degree of rivalry. The Barry Callebut is analyzed as below:
• Threats of new entry: The threat of new entrants is high since there are no much big capital requirements. Capital requirements are limited as there is no big hardcore machinery requirement and new startup does not find it difficult. But as far as the distribution channels are concerned, it is limited and hence, there is difficulty in distributing products. Barry Callebut is an organization which has invested ample amount and has also established itself in the market but the threat remains at a high point (Mitchell, 2014).
• The threat of substitutes: The threat for chocolate substitute is quite high as there are large numbers of regions whereby chocolates are not much popular and hence, chocolate substitutes are easily popularised. Also, the degrading situation of cocoa production might lead to focus on the establishment of a cocoa substitute. There have been a large production of cocoa in the last century. But the increasing inconsistencies in climatic changes such as inconsistent rains, polluted soil components, eroded by-products, deforestation has led to degradation of cocoa production which might lead for the shortage of products. Barry Callebut possesses threats for substitutes as the substitute has a high potential for becoming popular among chocolate lovers (Maurice, and Davis, 2011).
• Bargaining power of buyers: the bargaining power of buyers is quite high as there are limited choices in the field of chocolates. Barry Callebut is a large organization with large customer’s base and is also gaining new customers base (Nieburg, 2017).
• Bargaining power of suppliers: the chocolate market is dominated by few big sellers and these have gained the entire market. Few suppliers dominate market and supplies products worldwide. Such as Barry Callebut’s is the largest Cadbury manufacturer and works for organizations like Hershey, Unilever, Magnum, and Ben etc. But the shortage of cocoa is mainly due to degradation of the agricultural environment and also
• The degree of rivalry: There is a high degree of rivalry among chocolate makers. There are few chocolate makers which find it quite difficult for the chocolate makers to differentiate their products from others (Nieburg, 2017).
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Conclusion:
As discussed above, Cocoa plays a significant role in developing Cote d’ivoire, Indonesian and Dominican republic. Not only this, these countries have also introduced new techniques to enhance the cocoa production, It can be ascertained that cocoa production is a major source of earning and agricultural produce for many of the countries but the increasing depletion of natural environment and degradation, there is an assessment of shortage of cocoa production which might lead to the downfall of the chocolate manufacturer.
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Introduction

Introduction:
1. concept of redox system:
Redox system can be defined as a chemical reaction in which atoms’ oxidation states can be changed. Redox system has a formal name which is called ”oxidation-reduction reaction”. These two processes occur together. Normally, there isn’t an oxidation reaction without a reduction reaction. This system looks like transplantation of organs. For example, you can’t have a recipient if you don’t have a donor and vice versa. The oxidation process is referred to gaining of bonds to oxygen or it is a process of loss of electrons and increase in oxidation number. Some examples of compounds which can be oxidized are some organic fuel substances like, gas, wood or coal. These substances carbon atoms will form bonds with oxygen in burning process, and some of oxygen can be used to burn the fuel bonds to the hydrogen atoms from the fuel. The reduction process can be defined as gaining of hydrogen or in another way, it is the gain of electrons which lead to decrease in oxidation number.
C7H12+11O2 — 7CO2+8H2O
In this equation, heptane’s carbon atoms are oxidized, but oxygen atoms are reduced. Rusting process is an example of redox system. This process is explained by iron equation,
Fe+H2O+O2 — Fe2O3.
If the oxidation reaction occurs, iron will lose electrons in the presence of H2O and acquire a positive charge.
Fe — Fe2+ +2e-
If the reduction reaction occurs, oxygen will be reduced.
O2+4e- +4H+ — 2H2O.
And then, iron ions will react with hydroxide ions and lead to the formation of iron hydroxide that will dry in many steps to give a rust.
Fe2+ +2OH- — Fe(OH)2 —- Fe2O3 (rust).
Rust reaction can occur in dry conditions but it will be slow, so it is better to be done in the presence of moisture because redox reactions need water.
An indicator which is used in the preparation of KMNo4:
Potassium permenganate can be used as a self indicator.
There is another self indicator which is called iodine (I2).
Titrant which is used in this preparation:
There is no titrant, because this assignment is about the preparation of potassium permrngante not about titration.
Uses of potassium permenganate:
KMNO4 has several uses even if they are medical uses or other uses. Some medical uses of potassium permenganate are:
1. Treatment of skin infections such as canker sores, eczema, acne and dermatitis, we need a small dilute amount of it in the treatment of small wounds.
2. Treatment of fungal infections like athlete’s foot. This condition has some symptoms such as burning or itching, it occurs especially between toes. KMNO4 can treat this condition by putting the affected foot in its solution, and dissolved in water for 15min twice a day for two or three weeks.
3. Allergies of hair dye: KMNO4 contain a non-oxidized dye which is mixed with developer to break down the melanin, and then, this dye replace the melanin.
Other uses of KMNO4:
– Purifying water.
– Emergency signal in marking snow.
– As a disinfectant agent.
– Preparation of antiseptic solution.
Properties of potassium permenganate:
KMNO4 has some properties. These properties include,
– It can’t be considered as a primary standard.
– It is a self indicator.
– It is a very strong oxidizing agent.
– It is an impure solution.
– It is unstable.
– Solution of it can rapidly deteriorate on standing.
– KMNO4 can dissolve in an alkaline and acidic medium, in each medium it gives different products. For example, in acidic medium it is converted into manganese
Mno4-+8H+ +5e — Mn2+ +4H2O.
In slightly alkaline medium, it gives a brown product of Mno2.
Mno4- +4H+ +3e — Mno2+2H2O.
,and in strong alkaline medium, it gives a green Mno42- product.
Mno4+e — Mno42-
Experiment Layout,
– Apparatus needed for this preparation:
1. Burette.
2. Burette stand.
3. Volumetric flask.
4. Distelled water.
5. Watch glass.
6. Funnel.
Procedure:
1. Take 100ml of stock KMNO4 from the burette into 500ml volumetric flask.
2. Complete to the mark in the flask with distilled water.
3. Then, shake well.
There is another way to prepare KMNO4, this way is done in some steps,
1. Dissolve KMNO4 reagent grade in 1L of water, which should be purified.
2. Heat on a steam bath for two hours.
3. Cover and then, let it stand for 24hr.
4. Filter through sintered glass.
5. Store in a closed container and put it away from the light.
Standardization of potassium permenganate:
This step can be done by using sodium oxalate:
– Mno4- + 8H+ +Fe — Mn2+ + 4H2O.
– C2O42- — 2CO2+2e.
By adding the two equations to each other, the final equation will be:
– 2Mno4- +16H+ +5C2O42- +10e — 10CO2+2Mn2+ +8H2O +10e.
Procedure of standardization of KMNO4:
1. Fill the burette with 0.4N KMNO4.
2. Take 10ml Sodium Oxalate in a conical flask.
3. Add 20ml of H2SO4.
4. Heat to 60c.
5. Titrate to the first presistent pink end point.
Results:
The Volume needed from conc KMNO4 solution can be calculated from the equation, this equation said that:
N V = N’ V’., in which
– N means normality of conc solution.
– V means volume of conc solution.
– N’ means volume, which required for dilluted solution preparation.
– V’ means normality of diluted solution.
In case of preparing 500ml 0.4N KMNO4,
N V = N’ V’
2x? = 0.4×500 = 100ml.
Standardization factor can be measured from,
Mls of Na oxalate/ mls of KMNO4 (E.P).
Precautions:
1. Someone should be careful when he uses KMNO4 because it can leave a purple stain on his clothes or it may cause irritation to the skin.
2. KMNO4 solution must let to be dried for two hours at least at 105-110c, and then cooled in the device which is called a dessicator.
3. Heating a permenganate solution in the glassware to precondition them, and then using deionized water to risie them well.
4. Avoid over-heating of permenganate because this will lead to decomposition of the sample.
5. Store KMNO4 solution away from light in a vessel which have a glass stopper, and never be plastic.
6. Tie hair or scarf back.
7. Don’t wear open shoes, but covered shoes.
8. If a chemical move on someone’s skin, he should use the water on an affected area for 15min.

Conclusion:
From the above, it seems that potassium permenganate preparation is a type of redox system or ”oxidation-reduction process”. This product has some properties and uses. It is considered as a self indicator so, in its preparation, it doesn’t need an indicator and it can be considered as a very strong oxidizing agent. Potassium permenganate uses include, treatment of fungal or skin infections and other uses. This product can be prepared by two methods which are discussed before. Finally, when someone needs to prepare potassium permenganate, he must be careful due to its several precautions.

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