Introduction differentiators which are influencing the way

Introduction :
The company chosen that is select for this assignment is the famous digital products manufacturing company ‘Apple Inc ‘as information systems in an information technology-based company would be curiously and profoundly critical to see into it. The company contains a worldwide presence with manufacturing, assembling, retailing, supply chain management, being the center activities of the company along with the imperative component of research and improvement which is the key differentiator for the company in terms of being the leader in the industry in relation to development. Hence, Management Information Systems can be portrayed as the key differentiators which are influencing the way companies are differentiating their products and benefit.

Information Systems in Apple Inc :
The organization structure of Apple with its worldwide presence and different spaces within the electronics industry would require a system of information dissemination which empowers accessibility of right data to the correct individuals and at the correct time, to guarantee that the business choices attempted by them are consistent and supported with the suitable accessibility of information.

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How Apple use information system that is used by the company to managing this mammoth task of information management.

Apple’s major objective has continuously been to be the innovation leader. The same reasoning extends even to the way in which they manage their internal communications which exhibit their prevalence. In agreement with this concept, they have most of the forms which are virtualized, as the company accepts that virtualization is the factor which is able to provide the company with a competitive advantage within the commercial center in future.

Apple’s intranet gives the desired stage for undertaking this process and this intranet within the company empowers the representatives to get to all required data from the consolation of their desktop. From an external linkage point of seeing the company has an extranet which empowers the company to connect with the key suppliers and developers of Mac-based applications. For exampla, the information from the retail stores is contend to the customer service department which already has accessible to other information about supplier and the production details. It is may impact the biggest business processes of the companies in order that the important management and decisions making are taken on the basis of the information system. Which is may build better communication with the consumers and stakeholders, that is rises the growth and profitability of the company.

Introduction:
This chapter includes tracing the elements of internal healing of the body which means detecting the factors that aid the body in its process of healing and examines the conditions under which these components are active. The aim is to prove that the healing process depends not only on drugs and medications, associated with typical healthcare, but is also related to other factors particularly in the surrounding built environment that affect the psychology of the patients and consequently their healing process.

Definition of healing
Healing is a dynamic and multi-faceted process that is experienced individually but with common patterns. (1) The process of healing is affected by subjective conducts and relationships.
Doctors and patients are overcome with a system of healthcare that prioritizes focus on disease over health conception; this type of systems often condones some faces of healing and disjoints them, it is also costly and often inefficient. On the other hand, organizations and researcher are recognizing more and more that in order to achieve a high quality of healthcare, a more holistic approach that takes the patient as the main focus and thus emphasizing healing as importantly curing.

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The origin of the word “healing” dates back to the old English term: haelen which means “wholeness” (2) from which came the logical necessity of aiming towards holistic healing and the achievement of consistency. Healing is interference, a consequence and a progression and at times all three. This term is related to a variety of disciplines such as medicine, psychology, education, public health and spirituality. Healing takes place on different levels including physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental; either in micro level as in cellular wound remedy to the macro level as in national healing. Healing initiates from inside the individual and is also affected by external elements (e.g., doctors, medicines, herbs, community, religion…)

504825183515Figure 1-1: Diagram showing the elements taking part in the healing process.

Source: Glaister JA. Healing: analysis of the concept. Int J Nurs Pract. 2011; 7:63-8.00Figure 1-1: Diagram showing the elements taking part in the healing process.

Source: Glaister JA. Healing: analysis of the concept. Int J Nurs Pract. 2011; 7:63-8.

73342589535(1) Jonas WB, Chez RA, Smith K, Sakallaris B. Salutogenesis: the defining concept for a new healthcare system. Global Adv. Health Med. 2014; 3(3):82-91.

(2) Kritek PB, editor. Reflections on healing: a central nursing construct. New York, NY: NLN Press; 1997.

00(1) Jonas WB, Chez RA, Smith K, Sakallaris B. Salutogenesis: the defining concept for a new healthcare system. Global Adv. Health Med. 2014; 3(3):82-91.

(2) Kritek PB, editor. Reflections on healing: a central nursing construct. New York, NY: NLN Press; 1997.

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1.2 The Body’s Internal Healing:
1.2 The body’s internal healing
Within the mind there is a great power to heal the body. Different internal body systems are influenced when the mind is comfortable, particularly on the level of brain pharmaceuticals. The immune system is found to be partly controlled by the nervous system according to studies focusing on the Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI).This mutual connection allows for a harmonious functioning of the body systems.(3) Consequently, there is an apparent connection between the brain, the mind, and the immune system; thus, the mind has incredible power over the immune system.

Numerous studies show much evidence of the body’s ability to “self-heal” through its ability to ‘tap into our internal pharmacies’. (4) “Brain Pharmaceuticals” are chemicals released in the brain that play an important role in the body’s process of healing itself.
343852579692500381000105410000Types of brain pharmaceuticals include Endorphins which are natural chemicals in the brain released in the pituitary gland (see fig1.1.) that reduce the perception of pain and lead to feelings of euphoria. (5) This type of chemicals enhances the response of the immune system in the same way as traditional drugs but only without the possible side effects.

Fig1.2: figure showing the location of endorphin release which boosts the immune system.

Fig1.3: diagram showing that the chemicals released in the brain affect many organs of the body.

Thus, these internal pharmaceuticals can replace the potentially addictive drugs as they are able to fortify the immune system and decrease diseases’ symptoms while avoiding the negative side effects.
-169545173105(3) Kabat-Zinn, Jon.1998. “On Healing” Chap. 13, In Full Catastrophe Living, New York, NY: Dell Publishing. Page 175
(4) “Pituitary Gland” Society for Endocrinology, last modi?ed 2016, accessed Oct 3, 2018, yourhorones.info/glands/pituitarygland(5) Ibid.

00(3) Kabat-Zinn, Jon.1998. “On Healing” Chap. 13, In Full Catastrophe Living, New York, NY: Dell Publishing. Page 175
(4) “Pituitary Gland” Society for Endocrinology, last modi?ed 2016, accessed Oct 3, 2018, yourhorones.info/glands/pituitarygland(5) Ibid.

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1.2.1- Traditional drugs vs. “brain pharmaceutical”:
60686951986915Traditional
Drugs
00Traditional
Drugs
123825112649000There are signi?cant di?erences between traditional drugs and brain pharmaceuticals. The former is used to make alterations in chemicals secretion in the brain including the pain receptors, however, many risks and side effects are associated with their use, especially if they were taken for a long term or in high doses.(6) (see figure1.4). The side effects that may occur during the prescription of these drugs include confusion, troubled breathing, fainting, racing heartbeat, weak pulse, vomiting, and many others.

238125-31115Figure 1-4: Traditional drugs: their use and dangers ( side effects)
Source: By author
00Figure 1-4: Traditional drugs: their use and dangers ( side effects)
Source: By author
2343152091690Figure 1-4: Traditional drugs, their use and dangers (side effects).

Source: By author
00Figure 1-4: Traditional drugs, their use and dangers (side effects).

Source: By author

21488402047777Dopamine interacts with opiate receptors of the brain to reduce perception of pain. They also lead to feelings of joy, modulate appetite and hormones and enhance the immune response.

00Dopamine interacts with opiate receptors of the brain to reduce perception of pain. They also lead to feelings of joy, modulate appetite and hormones and enhance the immune response.

1917708788400060661551756410Body Chemicals
00Body Chemicals
Brain Pharmaceuticals on the other hand are natural chemicals in the brain with the potential to have the same e?ect as traditional drugs, with additional healthy bene?ts. Natural chemicals produced by the body do not pose any issues of overdose or addiction, yet they can have the same e?ect as traditional drugs.

-723903489325(6) Gerteis, M., (2003). Introduction: Medicine and health from the Patient’s perspective, from Through the Patient’s Eyes by Gerteis, M. et al.

00(6) Gerteis, M., (2003). Introduction: Medicine and health from the Patient’s perspective, from Through the Patient’s Eyes by Gerteis, M. et al.

-1358903500755003390902278380Figure 1-5: Natural body chemicals, their benefits and actions on the immune systems with no side effects in comparison with the traditional drugs
Source: By author
00Figure 1-5: Natural body chemicals, their benefits and actions on the immune systems with no side effects in comparison with the traditional drugs
Source: By author
The thesis aims to study environments that stimulate these chemicals through the use of brain pharmaceuticals.

461010038100001.2.2- Holistic Medicine:
45720001050290Fig1.6: Holistic Medicine Concept
Source: By Author
00Fig1.6: Holistic Medicine Concept
Source: By Author
The fact that the body has internal healing capacities and that traditional drugs have many side effect, has led the way to the rise of “Holistic Medicine” which is a form of healing that considers the whole person — body, mind, spirit, and emotions — in the quest for optimal health and wellness. Practitioners who embrace this approach to medicine see the human being as the total of aspects that depend upon each other meaning if one part is not working properly, all the other parts will be influenced.(7). Thus, any physical, emotional or spiritual downfall can damage the overall well-being.
Holistic practitioners encourage patients to take control over their well-being by their will and perseverance in order to attain optimal health conditions. Their strategies include:
Patient education on lifestyle changes and self-care to promote wellness. This may include diet, exercise, psychotherapy, relationship and spiritual counseling, and more
Complementary and alternative therapies such as acupuncture, chiropractic care, homeopathy, massage therapy, naturopathy, and others
Western medications and surgical procedures
2685415316865001.3. The senses role in the internal healing:
Brain pharmaceuticals respond to stimulations from di?erent senses (see figure 1.7). The brain will react to environmental relaxers or stressors and release chemicals in the brain that respond to the fitting situation. Melatonin for example is a hormone linked with the inception of sleep; its release is often activated by dense light wavelengths of specific colors such as yellow and orange.

2743200661670Fig1.7: figure showing the 5 senses that affect the release of brain pharmaceuticals
Source: webmd.com/ pituitary gland
00Fig1.7: figure showing the 5 senses that affect the release of brain pharmaceuticals
Source: webmd.com/ pituitary gland
Numerous projects and studies revealed corporal reactions and conducts of responding to a variety of sensorial settings. We are continuously taking in impressions through the five sense organs the ears, skin, eyes, tongue, and nose. Sensory impressions are considered critical to health. Just as the nutriments we eat generate our bodily tissues, our sensory impressions regulate the quality of our thoughts and feelings. If better physical and emotional wellbeing is aimed at, we can use sounds, sights, tastes, and smells to accomplish equilibrium and heal ourselves.
28194011049000383540100330(7) Deng GE, Frenkel M, Cohen L et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for integrative oncology: complementary therapies and botanicals. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2009 ,p 85-86
00(7) Deng GE, Frenkel M, Cohen L et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for integrative oncology: complementary therapies and botanicals. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2009 ,p 85-86

This fact led to the rise of several sense-based types of therapies including:
Sound Therapy:
Every single sound has a biological effect. When an individual listens to a lovely piece of music or inspirational verses, a flow of pleasure-producing chemicals streams through his body, assisting health and wellbeing in its entirety. On the other hand, studies of urban environments show that people exposed to constant noise pollution are more likely to undergo stress and experienced regressed immune activity.
Healing Sights:
The optical impressions one experiences have a deep effect on the mind, body, and emotions. Unpleasant sights activate the body’s stress response, generating nervy cells and overwhelming the immune system. In contrast, viewing serene or beautiful imageries creates a cascade of calming neurochemicals in the body. Images that elevate the spirit are as important for health as nutritious food. Spending time in nature for example is therapeutic for the mind, body, and soul. When viewing a sunset, seeing the loved ones, or seeing a painting work, one develops the power of his inner pharmacy.

Aromatherapy:
The most basic of the senses, smell ties people right with their memories, emotions, and instincts. When we smell something, we are essentially gripping part of its molecules, making aromatherapy a form of natural medicine. Different scents have different actions such as refreshing, cooling, calming, etc.

Therapeutic Touch:
19050070104000Touch is essential to health and well-being. When the skin is stimulated by massage for example, it secrets several healing chemicals that boost immune function, enhance circulation, and promote peaceful sleep. (8)
2381252763520Fig1.8: figure showing the sense-based types of therapies, their methods and their effect on the body.

Source: By author
00Fig1.8: figure showing the sense-based types of therapies, their methods and their effect on the body.

Source: By author

123190333375(8) Coming to Our Senses: Healing Ourselves and the World through Mindfulness Paperback – Deckle Edge, January 18, 2006
00(8) Coming to Our Senses: Healing Ourselves and the World through Mindfulness Paperback – Deckle Edge, January 18, 2006
028309500
1.4. Stress and Healthcare:
31908751438275002165353731895Fig1.9: Images showing the stressful environments of typical healthcare centers, both internally and externally.

Source: https://www.gettyimages.ae/ accessed October 4, 2018
00Fig1.9: Images showing the stressful environments of typical healthcare centers, both internally and externally.

Source: https://www.gettyimages.ae/ accessed October 4, 2018
219075143319500A visit to a healthcare facility can be tenser than the stress that took one there to begin with. This is directly linked with stress. Many healthcare facilities in?ict high levels of stress on patients, visitors, and sta? members, this is because they tend to be designed merely based on its functions, namely; bed-related inpatient functions, outpatient-related functions, diagnostic and treatment functions, administrative functions and service functions Physical relationships between these functions determine the configuration of the healthcare facility without deep understanding and consideration of the patients’ psychological factors and their influence on their healing process
4181475324548500Stress is not so much an external factor, but rather it refers to the wear and tear on the body as it attempts to deal with environmental stressors. Stress puts the body into a “?ght-or-?ight” mode, shutting o? all systems unnecessary for the immediate potential danger. Stress reaches two biological systems: the endocrine and the nervous systems. When under stress the body releases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), a stress hormone, which stimulates the adrenal cortex to kill white blood cells which control allergic reactions and hypersensitivity (9) .( Long-term exposure to stress reduces the body’s ability to ?ght diseases, infections, and mental illnesses such as depression. Hormones released during stress also directly take part in the development of degenerative conditions and diseases.

4181475438785Fig1.10: Diagram showing the effect of stress on the body
Source: Awofeso, Niyi. “Rede?ning ‘Health’, World Health Organization
00Fig1.10: Diagram showing the effect of stress on the body
Source: Awofeso, Niyi. “Rede?ning ‘Health’, World Health Organization
Essentially, stress debilitates the immune system. This thesis aims to benefit from the internal healing capabilities of the human body and avoid the stress-stimulating design that diminishes the brain pharmaceutics.

254005276850037465535940(9) Awofeso, Niyi. “Rede?ning ‘Health’.” World Health Organization (WHO), accessed October 4, 2018, www.who.int/ bulletin/bulletin_board/83/ustun11051/en/.

00(9) Awofeso, Niyi. “Rede?ning ‘Health’.” World Health Organization (WHO), accessed October 4, 2018, www.who.int/ bulletin/bulletin_board/83/ustun11051/en/.

1.5 Conclusion of Chapter 1:
95250767715Table 1.1- Table summarizing the deduced elements that take part in the different methods of healing
Source: By Author
00Table 1.1- Table summarizing the deduced elements that take part in the different methods of healing
Source: By Author
From the data and analysis previously mentioned in this chapter, a group of conclusions were derived and summarized in the following table which portrays evidence about elements that take part in the healing process and which should be taken in consideration when designing a healthcare facility and how to stimulate these elements of self-healing for better healing process (Table 1.1)
Healing by Internal Healing Healing by medications Healing by Holistic Medicine Healing by Senses
Components Brain Pharmaceuticals
Traditional drugs
(with possible side effects) Interdependent Body, Mind, Soul and Emotions – Healing sights
– Sound Therapy
– Aromatherapy
– Therapeutical touch
Chemicals released by the body
(endorphin, cortisol,.., with no side effects) Diet, Exercise, Psychotherapy, Relationship and Spiritual Counseling

INTRODUCTION:
Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde is a gothic novella by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson published in 1886. It is about a lawyer named John Utterson who investigates strange situations between his old friend, Henry Jekyll, and the evil Edward Hyde. In this novel, we can see clearly how one person can live with appearances in their life, hiding situations, secrets, feelings, and others. The number of people in our society who judge based on the physical appearance of themselves and of others is illogical. When we get an opinion of someone, their appearance should be the last thing we had to get interested in. The idea of “perfect” people should be those who don’t criticize a person because of their image, those people who can say “I do not make any judgments based on appearance, I would need a chance to speak with that person to develop my opinion”.

ARGUMENT 1:
To begin with, an appearance of a person is the presentation for any moment in our life, and our society is interested in what we can demonstrate from our image. In the story, the appearance of Dr. Jekyll is a respected man, with good manners and with a spirit to help people. In what Mr. Hyde is quite different, the looks and appearance of Mr. Hyde leave people thinking negative things of him and a strong feeling of hate and disgusting. Hyde’s appearance is described as a “troglodyte”. Hyde’s evil seems to bring out the dark side of the society, bringing the reality of the duality of human nature. Daily, we want to bring out our evil side, when we are stressed with many situations that we have, but we prefer to not to be that side always. Dr. Jekyll appears to be a respectable man in society at the beginning of the book but the reality of his dark secrets and strange actions with Mr. Hyde shows another thing. Jekyll and Hyde is a dark novella full of repression and violence, horror and evil, which reveals the dark secrets of many personalities.

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ARGUMENT 2:
For instance, the religion takes part in this story because many Christians believes that to “abstain from all appearance of evil” is to avoid any behavior anyone might perceive as being evil. Not only do we escape from that which is evil, we escape from that which appears to be evil.
Appearance vs. reality also happens in this story. The appearance of the street and the building are the best description of both personalities. However, Jekyll was not happy having to oppress his dark side. The fact that Hyde was pure evil, it was destined to become impossible for Jekyll to oppress him once more.

CONCLUSION:
In conclusion, the analysis of this story only led one question: Why is Dr. Jekyll so concerned with keeping up appearances? And what appearance is he trying to keep? In this world everyone keep an appearance that don’t want to show all time, and in this story Jekyll want to be both persons but in the era he was living he had to keep the evil side (Mr. Hyde) because in the Victorian London, people can’t express their feelings out in the street, everyone had to be polite and quite silencious.

Introduction:
DCs are antigen presenting cells that control immunity and tolerance. DCs are located in the surface barrier and function by recognizing pathogens in tissues within the body by examining the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of body cells. 8 Stimulation of innate signalling receptors results in the migration of DCs to secondary lymphoid organs from the periphery. 6 This is a key factor that distinguishes DCs from macrophages, as macrophages are often sessile and remain in tissues after the initiation of inflammation. DCs are very effective antigen presenting cells and have a vital role in coordinating of both innate and adaptive immune response. 6 Therefore, high quantities of antigen are presented to DCs by cancer vaccines in order to break the tolerance. 7 DCs can be targeted very precisely by using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX). 5

Function of DCs and the strategies used to fight cancer (including contribution of Ralph Steinman):
In 1973, Zanvil Cohn and Ralph Steinman identified a rare cell type in the murine spleen which was identical to a phagocytic cell with dendrites like protrusions and they named them dendritic cells (DCs). Later in 1978, reports from Steinman were received that DCs were required for mixed lymphocyte reactions. During Ralph’s battle with pancreatic cancer, Ralph and his colleagues attempted to create three DC based vaccines which would improve the immune response to cancer, but were not successful and later in October 2011 Ralph Steinman passed away. 1
Mononuclear phagocytic cells are distinct ancestor of DCs which specialise in antigen presenting. DCs are able to activate T lymphocytes (capture, process, present antigen), activate B cells and are associated in the amplification of innate immune response (e.g. activation of natural killer cells). After identifying the pathogen the DCs undergo maturation which culminates with cytokine production and efficient antigen presentation. Cytokines produced than become part of the microenvironment that leads to immune responses which are capable of stimulating the development of effector T lymphocytes. 2
Vaccination strategies that involve the use of DCs have been developed. The objective of these vaccines is to induce tumour-specific effector T cells which can reduce the mass of tumour and that can lead to immunological memory to control tumour relapse. In the process of DCs vaccination the first step is to present specific tumour antigens. This can be done either by culturing ex vivo DCs that are obtained from a patient with adjuvant (that leads to DC maturation) and the specific tumour antigens and then the injection of these cells back into the patient or by inducing of DCs to take up specific tumour antigens in vivo. 3

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Structure of DCs (including antigen presenting to T cells):
As shown in figure 1, dendritic cells are often rounded with reinform nuclei and a few or sometimes no dendrites.
They can initiate adaptive immune response by presenting
Pathogenic antigens to B or T lymphocytes. Figure 1 shows
a dendritic cell presenting a foreign antigen to a
Cytotoxic T cell which than leads to a specific immune response. 4

Role of RNA-lipoplexes in Cancer Immunotherapy:
The systematic delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells is faced with various technical challenges. One of the most precise and effective way to target DCs is in vivo using intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes (RNA-LPX). The function of LPX is to protect from extracellular ribonucleases, mediate the efficient uptake of RNA and its expression of the encoded antigen (by DC population and macrophages) in various lymphoid compartment. RNA-LPX causes the release of interferon-a by macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Thus, DC maturation in inflammatory immune mechanisms and situ reminiscent of those in the early systemic phase of viral infection are activated. RNA-LPX the encodes viral/mutant neo-antigens or endogenous self-antigens lead to strong effector and memory T cell responses and also mediate potent interferon-? dependent rejections of progressive tumours. As all the polypeptide based antigens can be encoded as RNA, RNA-LPX is an example of a universally applicable vaccine class for DC targeting and synchronized induction of highly potent adaptive plus type-I-IFN-mediated innate immune mechanisms used for cancer immunotherapy. 5

Conclusion:
The review above demonstrates the role of dendritic cells in both innate (engulfment of pathogens) and adaptive (activation of B and T cells) immune response. Also highlighting the work of Ralph Steinman and his colleagues which contributes towards finding new strategies involving dendritic cells to fight cancer. The structure of the dendritic cell is also a key factor which contributes to the function, assisting in capturing the pathogens and displaying their MHC maker to a B or T cell. Finally, the review briefly talks about the use of intravenously administered RNA-lipoplexes for the delivery of vaccine antigens into dendritic cells which is used for cancer immunotherapy.

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