In today’s world with the rapid growth in population the societies are facing some of the major issues like obesity, health problems, early deaths and abnormal psychological and physical behavior. These concerns lead scientist to perform test to study the changes around the globe. http://cip.cornell.edu/dns.gfs/1200428197
Now if review one major aspect that is being under discussion by the people is the “sugar controversy “declaring sugar as an addiction like any other drug heroine, morphine or codeine. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/3/623.
In early times sugar was taken as a pleasure of life and with passage of time it became a need for people and dependency on the product increased making its use in not just food items but also medicines.
According to the reports by WHO world health organization and FHO food agriculture organization sugar is the bone of contention for the overweight, obesity and chronic diseases and it should be rationed like cigarettes and drugs. http://cip.cornell.edu
The American institute of intrusion conducted a research to prove that human’s diet consist of various supplements like sugar and fats which can have an influence on the brain and behavior as it is said “you are what you eat”. Consumption of sugar affects the mesolimbic dopamine causing it to release excessive DA which is basically a pathway in brain that is connected to the feelings and reward system letting the person to develop the urge for more sugar which is commensurable to the situation in the use of drugs or alcohol. http://jn.nutrition.org/content/139/3/623.
To elucidate or clarify the stance this research is supported by some significant test carried on animals which provide with the evidences that the substances in sugar have the same level of addiction that is usually caused by drugs and alcohol. Any food that delivers pleasant taste has the element of producing brain opioids and dopamine for the limbic system. ( Carlo Colantuoni1, Pedro Rada1,2, Joseph McCarthy1, Caroline Patten1, Nicole M. Avena1, Andrew Chadeayne1, Dr. Bartley G. Hoebel1,*Article first published online: 6 SEP 2012)
The phenomena of human behavior and metabolic system were analyzed under the four major factors Eating disorders, yearning (dependency), cross sensitization and with drawls. Now these behaviors are usually related to some form of drug addiction taking this under consideration same components were implemented to reflect the neurochemical changes in the brain that creates the dependency this was proved by the changes in the habits of rats. Neural systems support and encourage the individual on the repetitive use of something that has some element of addiction food intake lies in the same category that requires some self-discipline. (Aqua and Di Chiara, 1992E. Aqua, G. Di Chiara Depression of mesolimbic dopamine transmission and sensitization to morphine during opiate abstinence Journal of Neurochemistry)
Some people say the urges to eat sweets are just like irrepressible cravings for alcohol,sex or drugs. So to evaluate that whether sugar creates an addiction for a person numerous tests were done rats.
Research Methods and Procedure
Rats were food deprived for 12 hours after the required time period they were fed sugar solution which was sufficiently taken by the rats due to long period of hunger. After following same routine for one month the response was in line with the usual condition of drug abuse. The intake by the rats doubled with time these can be highlighted as opium withdrawal, depression, and anxiety.
After a month the cycle of discontinuous of feeding, rats behavior pattern were comparable to the effects of drugs on humans. It resulted in the manner of bingeing which is excessive indulgence of food (Colantuoni et al 2001) it’s like the feeling of relieving oneself from pain and feel sedative .Then comes the stage of withdrawal showing the signs of nervousness and depression, and in the absence of sugars the cravings were observed , intensifying the need of sugar rather than bringing it down. Lastly cross-sensitization making rats sensitive to substances used during the process completely shifting sensitivity level of mouth and there were also signs of behavior where the satisfaction was achieved by fulfilling the inborn drive for sugar. (Avena et al., 2004.
There are many experiments done which concluded the fact the addictive medication stimulate DA-comprising neurons and these neurons target the areas n brain that give boost to the addiction. Brain has a passageway in brain that links the individual to the sentiment of reward this is known as mesolimbic dopamine system. This circuit (VTA-NAc) basically exhilarate the reward system, manages humans response to rewards.
Any substances that stimulate the release of DA constantly fall in the category of items that can be addictive now this process can be control through self-administration.
There is range of foods that can discharge DA in the NAc, consist of lab chow, sugar, saccharin, and corn oil (Bassareo and Di Chiara, 1997; Hajnal et al., 2004; Liang et al., 2006; Mark et al., 1991; Rada et al., 2005b). The increase in space outside the cells carries on the meal in rats that are distressed due to lack of food (Hernandez and Hoebel, 1988). Though, in animals with full appetite, this DA release is highly dependent on the uniqueness or freshness of food as the level of urge has declined with constant access even if the food is pleasant. Only to the exception to the animals that were deprived of food and afterwards fed sugar from time to time.
Now withdrawal from the food that has dopaminergic is not as apparent as from the food that has opiates so it’s more understandable to elucidate the after effect from sugar as it contains opiates. Substance found in heroine and morphine. This gives brain the same behavior of reinforcement. The testimonies that opioids in the NAc have an impact on hedonic reactions are confirmed from the details showing morphine aggrandizes rats and the expressions by the rats from the sweet taste were positive. The division between liking and wanting were also studied.
The outcomes on behavior are similar to the effects of drugs on it. The unbalanced amount of sugar feeding to rats, heighten their sugar intake and rises in the first hours. (Colantuoni et al., 2001). The animals with ad libitum access to a sugar solution consume it even at the time of inactive metabolism. There is an overall increase in intake but for but rats without the ad libitum solution tend to over consume in less time.
After removing the availability of sugar to the rats that were made addicted to it showed symptoms decrease in body temperature, teeth chattering, forepaw and head shakes. Now for the comparison in rats were made by involving them into playful activities like swimming and floating now change in their dosage by not giving them regular intake of sugar instead injecting naxolane depicted aggression in the behavior of rats.
The model was used to evaluate the deprivation effect on the sugar binging rats that were deprived of sugar. When rats are provided with sugar for 24 hours (Fig. 4; Avena et al., 2005). A group with 0.5-h daily access to glucose did not show the effect. This provides a cogent control group in which rats are familiar with the taste of glucose, but have not consumed it in a manner that leads to a deprivation effect. The results suggest a change in the motivational impact of sugar that persists throughout two weeks of abstinence, leading to enhanced intake.