In this assignment

In this assignment, the focus will be on the negative impacts of socio-cultural of tourism. Tourism has three major impacts namely, Socio-cultural, environmental and economic impacts. Besides the consequences on the economy and the environment, it is also important to consider the effects of tourism development on the societies that inhabit a given territory, since such effects involve processes of cultural changes and significant socio-political transformations. Most of the studies that deal with the socio-cultural impacts of tourism emphasize the negative effects of this activity. Such a propensity to highlight the deleterious effects of tourism in the societies of the places visited is based on the idea that this activity exports the models of modern society (standardized models and empty of content, typical of Western society), for the recipient societies which would have their own social and cultural values.
According to the analyses, the tourist activity implies, in most cases, in disorders for the populations of the destination spaces. These disturbances mainly concern the use of local infrastructures (the large concentration of tourists implies overcrowding of infrastructures and collective use equipment such as roads, airports, sewage systems, telephone and electrical networks, etc.), the increase of undesirable practices such as violence, prostitution, alcoholism, drug trafficking, gambling, etc., and the loss of cultural integrity due to influences on local customs, language and culture.
There is also a reference to the negative moral and psychological effects resulting from the servile and passive attitude with which many populations are inserted in the tourism development process, such as tourism projects that are imposed by governments to serve their own interests, or interests external private groups and regional and local elites. In this respect Cazes makes the following consideration: In a dichotomy whose simplicity is rightly criticized by researchers, tourism policymakers often oppose economic impacts considered globally as positive, to derived social effects, generally judged to be negative and thus strongly feared. (…) On the one hand, the uncontrolled development of certain tourist practices can have very popular social effects, for example, the new extensions of sex tourism located in developing countries; On the other hand, tourism opening should be seen only as a factor of acculturation and therefore of corruption of traditional values and, among the various effects, those that are undoubtedly very striking are the influence of the great media and the migratory processes of population abroad (CAZES,1996: 81).
Jurdao (1992) even talked about ethnocide tourism to refer to tourism as an exterminator of traditional cultures. Without being so catastrophic, the truth is that many conflicts can arise between residents and tourists, due to economic, social and cultural differences.
An example of this is the so-called “demonstration effect,” which encourages a type of behaviour through which local society, especially young people, try to imitate ways of talking, dressing, or trying to adapt to the patterns of behaviour of tourists. The “demonstration effect” can generate social problems and the loss of cultural identity, as well as generating the transformation of customs, language and religion, causes changes in the traditional patterns of consumption of the visited societies, imposing standardized and westernized standards on the receiving regions, not practised before the arrival of tourism.
In other words, all these negative consequences end up reinforcing the thesis that tourism is an instrument that promotes knowledge, understanding and understanding among peoples of different nations and cultures. Indeed, in many regions, the current expansion of tourism has been marked by the physical and social separation between host and visitor populations, where the latter enjoy certain patterns of accommodation and services that isolate them in predetermined places, which are explained in the concepts of “Tourist ghetto” and “exotic destination”. In addressing the impacts of so-called mass tourism, as well as other forms of tourism, in Latin America Gormsen states the following: The impact of tourism on the cultural, social, economic and, on the conditions of the population, may be completely different in the case of an established and established rural community, with long-lived lifestyles, and more or more unchanged, if compared to the case of immigrants who have recently come from rural areas and who have at least partially cut off their ethnic traditions and social ties. However, in this relation, an issue remains unresolved, i.e., which of the different types of tourism causes more damage to the sociocultural manifestations of the two? Mass tourism, which functions in extraterritorial ghettos of the “Club Med” type, or the so-called alternative tourist who wants to give the impression that he likes the local populations in his more or less unchanged, social-indigenous forms? (GORMSEN, 1989: 75).
What the author calls “extraterritorial ghettos of Club Med type”, have been the targets of the contumacious criticism made by scholars who analyze the expansion of tourism in the peripheral countries of the world tourism system. In this respect, one of the most current examples is the implementation of so-called resorts. Resorts are the largest expression of globalized tourism and constitute destinations called “non-places”, which are spaces created exclusively for tourism purposes. (RODRIGUES, 1997).
They are built with a physical infrastructure in the form of modules, concentrating attractions, facilities, equipment and services, and materialize the emergence of enclaves, tourist landscapes strange to the territory where they are located, explicitly assuming a translocal aesthetic of Caribbean style (Cancun model, for instance).
Finally, we must add to the negative effects of tourism the processes resulting from urbanization and the diffusion of the media, especially from television, which can become a powerful vector of social and cultural change particularly in less developed regions and places. The tourist, who comes from a world dominated by the consumer society, becomes one of the main bearers of cultural impacts. Tourism can also promote the banalization and use of traditional practices, such as art that starts to produce masses of artistic objects (souvenirs, handicrafts, etc.) that are designed to meet the needs of tourists. It is precisely this standard of commercial and consumer behaviour that guides travel and tourism organizers (tour operators, travel agencies, hotel chains, and others). These, for the most part, reduce the culture of the places visited a lot of stereotypes in which folklore, traditions, popular festivals and customs are transformed into commodities to be traded. Also, the tourist himself sees the destination space with superficiality, with detachment, as something exotic, in short, as an object to be appreciated by the “tourist look” (URRY, 1996).
What is interesting is that the commercialization and banalization of places by the dot-art industry affects not only the developing countries but also the developed countries, putting in check one of the major values attributed to tourism and leisure travel, according to which they constitute true instruments of cultural promotion, of bringing together societies and educating people. This, incidentally, is one of the arguments favourable to the tourism used by those who seek to point out their positive effects in the regions of destination.
Finally, it is important to emphasize that, alongside the opportunities for preservation and/or enhancement of socio-cultural elements, tourism can pose risks not only for the culture itself but also for the environment and for the economy of a region. Therefore, if the development of tourism activity is not preceded by well-designed territorial planning and properly implemented or, rather, by appropriate territorial management, tourism can bring more problems than those that can come to help solve. Moreover, as we have seen, the environmental erosion diminishes the attractiveness of the destination regions, and in the medium and long term, the contribution of tourism to territorial development.
Many scholars and researchers now argue that, in the design and implementation of tourism policies, another model of tourism development should be promoted, taking into account not only the economic dimension but also social issues and the preservation/conservation of the environment. It is in this context that the paradigm of sustainable development has gained importance.

In this assignment, I will be explaining the limitations of marketing research used to contribute to the development of Waitrose´s marketing plans.

Sampling is the statistical method of obtaining representative data or observations from a group of people that is assumed will match the total populations by organizations. The total population is necessarily everyone in the country, but rather anyone who might be interested in buying the product.

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There are some types of sampling and they are







Random sampling is the basic sampling technique where an organization selects a sample for study from a larger group (a population). Everyone is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

Quota sampling is the sampling method of gathering representative data from a group. This sampling requires that representative individuals are chosen out of a specific subgroup

Stratified sampling is a type of sampling method in which the total population is divided into smaller groups or strata to complete the sampling process

Systematic sampling is the method of choosing a random sample from among a larger population. The process of systematic sampling typically involves first selecting a fixed starting point in the larger population and then obtaining subsequent observations by using a constant interval between samples taken. Some limitations of systematic sampling will be that it works well only if there is a random population, if there is a hidden trait in the population the data gathered will be compromised. This type of sampling does not provide 100% accurate information on the condition of the batch. Systematic sampling also limits the number of participants that can participate because it will not be suitable for large population. Another way Systematic sampling can limit the research of Waitrose will be that some of the populations will be expensive and time consuming even if there is a ready list since there will be different ways in which they can be found, and they will be challenging, and the samples can also be geographically scattered.

Convenience sampling is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher. This type of sampling can limit Waitrose because it could lead to a possible bias in the gathering of data. This is because it will get the views of a group of people and not the whole population and so the quality of the data collected can be affected if there is an over or under representation of a group of people. Waitrose´s will also experience sampling errors. This is because since the results are already biased, there will be some inaccuracies in the data collected. Another way convenience sampling can limit Waitrose in their data collection is that there will be no generalized results. This is because they will not be able to conclude with their data research since it is biased, and it will not be possible to formulate rules for this type of research.

Cluster sampling is the sampling method is used in statistics when natural groups are present in a population. The whole population is subdivided into clusters, or groups, and random samples are then collected from each group. The limitations of cluster sampling are very similar to convenience sampling. This is because the individuals in the clusters will have different characteristics and the researcher might have over or under represented clusters which will give a biased result on the data. There will also be the problem of high sampling errors. This is because there will be limited clusters and biased data in the research.


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