In the Eukaryotic cell, there are organelles that are membrane-bound. These structures include the nucleus, chloroplast, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the endoplasmic reticulum. Eukaryotic cells are different from Prokaryotic cells because they have organelles. The nucleus is the largest organelle in the Eukaryote cell. The nucleus contains chromatin and a nucleolus which is the same for the neighboring animal cell. Eukaryote cells are equipped with a central vacuole that fills with cell sap and maintains pressure against its cell wall, a cytoskeleton that tubes filaments microfilaments, and chloroplast which is the site of the photosynthesis process.
In the Eukaryotic cell, there are many functions of the organelles. Each organelle has its own job to do, which makes them special. All of the organelles work together to keep the cell healthy and prosperous. Different organelles play many different roles such as mitochondria generates energy from the food consumed, and endoplasmic reticulum builds membranes and transport proteins across the cell. Each of the organelles performs special crucial tasks that ensure the survival of the cell.
DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid contains instructions that an organism needs to develop, live, and produce. Parents pass down their genetic instructions down to their children. The structure of DNA is mostly made up of nucleotides, in which each contains a phosphate group, a sugar group, and a nitrogen base. The nitrogen bases are Adenine with pairs with Thymine, and Guanine which pairs with Cytosine. DNA is determined based on the order of the bases and the genetic code. DNA in humans has around 3 billion bases, and about 99 percent of these bases occur in all people according to the US National Library of Medicine.
In the neighboring RNA sequence, the nitrogen bases are not all the same. Instead of Adenine pairing with Thymine, Adenine pairing with Uracil. Adenine pairs with Uracil because RNA does not store the information for Thymine, so instead of the T it is now paring with the U. Uracil is a substitute for the Thymine. The backbone of the DNA contains the covalent bond in which joins the sugar and phosphate molecules together, this is known as the phosphodiester bond. Central Dogma is the transcription and translation of the DNA to the RNA. DNA Transcription is when the DNA is being copied into RNA molecules. Translation is when the newly copied DNA is being transmitted to the RNA.
Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection is a process in which a species adapt to their environment to survive, it is believed to be the process that brings evolution. Survival of the fittest is exactly what it means if you are not striving to survive and evolve you may not live in a life or death situation. Cells over the years have adapted and survived to only get stronger to allow us, humans, to continue living and evolving. Analogous structures are similar and resembling each other, like a butterflies wings are analogous because they are similar in appearance and function. Homologous is when pairing meiosis have the same structural features and patterns of genes. A vestigial is a degenerate part of the body that has become functionless due to the course of evolution.
There are many major biological molecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids allow our body to survive as a living organism. In Carbohydrates the body consumes energy that can later be used by the organelles to energize and fuel us. Proteins keep our bones healthy, in which helps prevent injuries especially in athletes. Lipids are another source of energy for the body, they also can provide insulation for animals to main internal and external temperatures. Lipids provide energy at a steady pace, unlike carbohydrates which are an instant source of energy. Nucleic acids are biopolymers which are essential for all life, nucleic acids molecules transfer genetic information down from generation to generation.
There are many chemical and biological process that occurs during photosynthesis and cellular respiration. Photosynthesis can be considered an opposite to cellular respiration. There are two processes, the dark reactions, and light reactions. Many Plants can absorb and utilize the suns energy, and then convert it into glucose in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis also manufactures oxygen, when the plant takes in carbon dioxide it releases oxygen which renews our atmosphere with breathable substances. Plants and photosynthesis are essential to our survival.
Cellular respiration is also very crucial to our survival. It is the process of the energy in the food molecules being released in the form of ATP energy. ATP energy is a molecule that breaks down the food and generates energy. ATP is essential to the human body because it creates nucleic acid. DNA is stored in the Nucleic acid, and are needed for healthy cell functions. ATP is made up of hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, and oxygen atoms.
In the real world, there are many jobs that allow you to use your knowledge of biology to help others. Each job has different responsibilities and education required to meet the criteria to apply for that job. To become an orthopedic surgeon, a bachelor’s degree in biology/pre-med is required, after graduation from college one must take the MCAT to determine if they can get into medical school. If you score decently on the MCAT most are admitted to Medical school in which one will study there for four years. After medical school, many start their residency, a residency is usually a four to five-year program that allows residents to learn from hands-on experience. During residency is when most residents chose their specialty, in this case, would be orthopedic surgery. After the time allotted residents take their certifications to become licensed in that specific field. In all the time it takes to be an orthopedic surgeon is about 12 years. Orthopedic surgeons can make anywhere from 199 to 548 thousand per year, the salary made is dependent on the name surgeons make for themselves. Orthopedic surgeons are in high demand for the reason that there are many injuring themselves daily, whether it be an injured wrist or a torn ACL it is work for an orthopedic surgeon.
Down syndrome is one of many genetic disorders that someone can be diagnosed with. Down syndrome is a common birth defect, usually a cause of an extra chromosome. This birth defect causes mental problems, abnormal facial appearance, and malformations of the body. Though it cannot be cured, you may receive treatment. Many who have this genetic disorder receive early intervention to develop mental and physical and capacities to their fullest potential. Those who have this defect live into middle age and live productively, though other may suffer from other problems rooting from Down syndrome such as septal defects of the heart, leukemia, etc.
Hemophilia is another one of these genetic disorders, in which blood does not clot normally. Hemophiliacs bleed for a long time after an injury then if your blood clotted normally. Those who have this rare disorder can be at risk if target areas are concerned. The knees, elbows, and ankles are target spots, in which the internal bleeding can cause dramatic damage to the organs, and tissues. Hemophilia is inherited genetically, but there is treatment. Hemophiliacs may receive replacements of the specific clotting factor. Many live with hemophilia, as it is not deadly. Hemophiliacs have to be very careful in many situations to ensure their safety.
Turner syndrome is a condition that affects females. A common feature of this defect is being short. At about 5 it can become evident. This disorder affected the ovaries of a young girl as well as affects her ableness to undergo puberty. Many receive hormonal treatment to develop, but many are not able to conceive a child, though some have normal function through adulthood. Some women with this disorder have folds of skin on their neck as well as a low hairline on the neck, kidney problems, and bone abnormalities. Many have heart defects, coarctation of the aorta, or troubles with the valve that connects the aorta with the heart. There is not a cure, though you may be able to receive hormones to go through puberty. 1 in 2,500 newborn girls worldwide.
Another genetic disorder is Cystic Fibrosis. Cystic Fibrosis is a disorder affecting the exocrine glands, produces abnormally thick mucus in which blocks the pancreatic ducts, intestines, and bronchi. It usually then results in respiratory infections. 30,000 people in the US live with cystic fibrosis, and 1,000 new people are diagnosed each year. This disorder affects not only the lungs but also the pancreas, large intestine, small intestine, bladder, kidneys, reproductive organs, liver, and etc. Cystic fibrosis is a severe condition that needs daily attention, treatments can improve your quality of life. It also may allow you to live longer.