In related to the Bandura’s (1977) concept

In a working environment, planned behaviour theory is used
as a theoretical groundwork to explain whistleblowing intention. Attitude,
normative beliefs and self-efficacy are the elements that will affect an
employee’s intention to whistle blow a perceived information security policy
violation internally (Wei & Hsu, 2014). As it is impracticable to measure various
behaviour in organizational environment, so behavioural intention is being considered
as a proxy variable for real whistleblowing action.  According to planned behaviour theory which
originate by Ajzen (1991), the behavioural intention of an individual is held to
be influenced by three key factors. First, attitude refers to the opinion of a
person towards another person behaviour. Secondly, subjective norm equivalent to
normative beliefs which represents the extent to which such planned behaviour
is being agreed by others. Third, perceived behavioural control refers to the perception
of how difficult or easy for a specific behaviour to be achieved. Attitude is pretty
much crucial due to reason that one’s attitude is the only variable which the objective
information can manipulate it (Bulgurcu, Cavusoglu & Benbasat, 2010).

 

The third element of Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour,
perceived behavioural control is closely related to the Bandura’s (1977) concept
of self-efficacy. Ajzen (1991) found that the intention of an individual to
perform a behaviour increases when his or her perceived behavioural control is
greater. Furthermore, the self-efficacy represents an individual ‘s belief
about whether the behaviour in question can be well performed by that
particular individual (Bandura, 1997). The individuals who able to make a sound
judgment and behave ethically are those with high self-efficacy, they always show
competence and high self-esteem when encountered with challenging circumstances
(Beu, Buckley & Harvey, 2003). Besides, theory of cognitive consistency proposes
that a high worth self-perception is align with the ethical behaviour and high
self-efficacy individuals in confident with their competence believe they can perform
ethically and succeed without unethical behaviour (Beu et al., 2003). There are
many previous studies revealed that self-efficacy was the best indicator to
predict one’s intention to obey rules (e.g.
Broadhead-Fearn & White, 2006). Moreover, self-efficacy is critical due to
high self-efficacy individuals tend to put more efforts on the task given and experience
positive emotions toward the task (Bandura, 1997). According to Park and
Blenkinsopp (2009) study, the perceived behavioural control is found to had positive
and direct effects on internal whistle-blowing intentions. Therefore, we can
hold that self-efficacy has positive relationship with the intention to
whistle-blow.

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            Employee
whistleblowing is a pro-social action, whereas student whistleblowing is to
report misconduct in a university (Burton & Near, 1995; Trevin˜o & Weaver, 2003).
 From the perspective of students, the factors
that will influence their intention to be a whistleblower are different as compared
to the willingness of whistleblower to report unethical behaviour in the organization.
Individual differences have a great impact on the willingness of students to
whistle blow and the control variables consist of general self-efficacy,
whistleblowing efficacy, ethical orientation, ethics
training, Grade Point Average (GPA), nationality, and gender (Stone, Kisamore, Kluemper & Jawahar, 2012). As
self-efficacy may affect an individual’s judgements to involve or refrain in particular
activities, thus students who possess high self-efficacy and with confident
they can report successfully will have higher possibility to whistle blow the misconduct
than the low self-efficacy students (Miceli, Van Scotter, Near & Rehg , 2001). 

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