Home Research PapersIn more ways to define games. Manfred Eigen’s and

In more ways to define games. Manfred Eigen’s and

In the German language, a game is any activity which
is executed only for pleasure and without a conscious purpose. In this
definition, every activity that brings pleasure is a game. For example, people
dance, play musical instruments, act in plays, and play with dolls and model
trains. This definition people use today comes from the
works of Johan Huizinga (Homo Ludens, 1938) and Friedrich Georg Jünger (Die
Spiele, 1959). But there are more ways to define games. Manfred Eigen’s and
Ruthild Winkler’s definition for the game goes beyond the definition used by
Huizinga. They see a game as a natural phenomenon: half necessity and half
coincidence (Das Spiel, 1975). Their definition of games comes closer to
Adorno’s’ definition, who set himself apart from Huizinga by identifying games
as an art form. But in our sense these definitions are too wide, we
define game more succinctly. Thus, I am writing about games which belong to the
class that includes Chess, 9 Man’s Morris, Checkers, Halma, Go, Parchisi,
Monopoly, Scrabble, Skat, Rummy, Bridge, Memory, Jack Straws, Dominoes, and so
on. Unfortunately, our language does not have a good term to call these games.
Terms like table games, society games, tournament games are too narrow. In my
opinion, the best term would be “rule games” = “games with
rules”. Grammar may be defined as the rules of language,
governing the way in which word are we put together to convey meaning in
different contexts. An utterance (in speech) or sentences (in writing) is
grammatical if it doesn’t. Grammar is the whole system and structure of a language or of languages in general,
usually taken as consisting of syntax and morphology (including inflexions) and
sometimes also phonology and semantics. Knowledge of grammar enables language
users to put words together in the correct order to communicate ideas and
intentions efficiently. It is possible that someone who can produce perfectly
correct sentences and communicate efficiently may not to be able to explain the
rules of grammar. This is true of many speakers of English language. knowledge
of grammar to be able to describe and explain the rules. This
chapter shall explain the Methodologies that will be employed in this research.
The chapter shall first explain the research design followed by the population
concerned. Following that, the samples and the sample selection methods will be
described in detail. The instrumentation shall then be discussed upon and also
issues of validity and reliability. After that, the chapter explicitly
describes the procedures for data collection that the researcher intends to
practice together with the methods of analysis. This chapter shall then be
closed with a conclusion. For this study, a quantitative approach was used to
collect the data. This quantitative survey is a formal and objective type. A
Pre-Test and Post-Test has been used for this survey. The test method was used
to find the research on how the usage of games in teaching grammar is working among
the 30 standard 4 students from Sekolah Kebangsaan (2) Petaling Jaya. For this
study, the data was collected by the researcher through the self-administrative
pre-test and post-test in a test paper form that the students have to answer on
their own. These tests were very time-consume. This also proved that the
questions are answered properly by the students. The population of this study will be year 4 upper
primary students from Sekolah Kebangsaan (2) Petaling Jaya. These students will
be sitting for their entrance exam for the secondary level which we called “UPSR”.
This population also concerns the gender and their age. It estimated that the
total of number almost 30 students in the classroom. Based
on the population year 4 students, the samples of this study will be upper
primary students from a public school in Petaling Jaya. Based on the Morgan
table for sample size determination a total of 30 students from each year 4
will be selected as respondents for the survey exam (quantitative). The methods
of selecting these samples will be explained in the following. 30 students will be my respondents (quantitative).
My respondents will be in Petaling Jaya Area. Upper Primary student’s which
Year 4 is. Sample selection: randomly select. The
instruments for collecting data in this research consisted of pre-test in
grammar, mainly on verbs and preposition. Validity
is the degree to which the test actually measures what it is intended to
measure, Brown (2000). Brown states two types of validation. Before any
instruments are used in any research, the instruments must be tested out first
to know the instruments’ validity and reliability.  Content validity of the instruments used in this research paper was determined
based on the materials given to the samples. Instruments used in this research
were constructed based on the samples’ status and level which are standard 4
students with intermediate level. Construct
denotes to any underlying skill or trait which is hypothesized in a theory of
language ability. The tools in this research paper reflect that in a way those
test given are suitable for analysis pre-test and post-test. Reliability
is explained as measurement consistency from one measurement consistency from
one measurement or another. A pre-test will be done in order to measure the
reliability of the instrument. The reliability analysis consistency will be
applied to test the reliability of pre-test items for the survey exam. One
common one method to check reliability is to Test-Retest which to give the
test. For
complete this research year 4 students will be chosen as the responded in
Petaling Jaya area. Following the research proposal, the researcher will ask
permissions to any of the principal to complete this survey at any public
school in Petaling Jaya area. Year 4 students will be identified to be tested.
These students will be approached by the researcher during the practicum time.
Once the class is confirmed to be tested, a date, time and place will be
informed. After that, collect data on the particular date by testing the year 4
students. Firstly I will conduct a pre-test to check Year 4
students knowledge in grammar particularly on verb and preposition. This was
because “pre-test” measure students understanding of a subject area. Students
will be given 20 verbs and preposition questions and they were supposed to
answer the question correctly. Usage of games in teaching grammar for year 4 students.
The result from the pre-test and post-test are able to measure the
effectiveness of using games in teaching grammar. The usage of games in
teaching grammar can increase the student’s attention and interest to learn the
subject. The study elaborates on
the analysis of the data of the findings. 
The findings shall be analyzed in accordance with the pre-test and
post-test questions with the findings of the demographic data preceding it. The
chapter concludes with a summary. This
section elaborates the data analysis of the research. The data analysis will be
elaborated by quantitative data. The data has been tabulated in table form then
converted in to bar chat and graph chat. Every finding from the data collected
has been collected by students pre-test and post-test marks.

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