In All these rights are to be

In the post-Cold War era, millions of people, mainly
in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe, were suffered from both intra- and
inter-state conflicts such as genocide, ethnic cleansing, refugee flows (Dorn, 2003). Given those
conflicts, many scholars highlighted the need to emphasize not only on states’
security and on the human-centric security i.e. individuals’ lives and
well-beings. In order to response these challenges, many conventions and
declarations which address human security, were eventually developed. The most
obvious ones are UN Declarations of Human Rights, conventions
for crime e.g. Conventions for the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of
Genocide, the Geneva conventions and conventions to enhance rights for
particular  groups e.g. the Declaration
on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and armed conflicts and
so on.

was adopted by UN General Assembly on 10 December 1948. It includes 30 Articles
which cover all fundamental human rights. Articles are classified as follow; Article
1 and 2 as foundation principles, Article 3 to 21 as political rights and
Article 22 to 30 as economic, social and cultural rights (Universal Declararion of Human Right, 1948). All these rights
are to be universally protected. Can different cultures or backgrounds go to a
universal standard? If I have to answer this question, I will definitely say
‘no’. I want to explain this answer referring to Article 25 which describes
‘Everyone has the right to standard of living adequate….. including food,
clothing, housing….’.  In my opinion,
this means a person who may work for his life or not, a person who may be able
to work or not should have equal access to those rights. Let person A who is able to work but does
not work and person B who is also be
able to work and really work. If both of them get access equal right, it would
not fair for person B. Person B’s effort for work may reward him like more
wages. But he can’t enjoy this right more than person A. In other words, the
declaration does give equality but not justice. So person A and B with different
working background should not go to the same standard. In the case of rich and
poor countries, most of the poor countries could not fulfill this right when it
tries to develop their country; it may try to re-build its sovereignty or it
may try to make economic or political reforms. But rich countries can fulfill
this right because of their strong economics. So, both of them can’t go to the
standard which is universally proclaimed by UDHR.

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convention I would like to discuss is Convention for the Prevention and
Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. It is adopted by UN General Assembly in 1948.
The convention describes what is genocide, what constitute genocide and about
the punishment (Convention for the Prevention and
Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, 1948). Genocide, of
course, must be protected for human security and adoption of this convention is
essential. But in the case of Rwanda, UN failed to involve. The anticipated
genocide in Rwanda was ignored to prevent because of lacking clear evidence.
After the outbreak of genocide, the taken actions by UN had many limitations.
Their actions for punishment were also ineffective. The cease-fire agreement
was also breached. The use of military was not allowed for investigating
breaches, enhancing capital’s security. Although Rwanda had already ratified
the convention in 1975, UN can’t take any effective action on Rwanda genocide. As
a consequence, it becomes a contradiction that formal procedural steps make the
actions delayed or ineffective and what if we take actions without formal

a conclusion, there is no denying that UDHR was a milestone from which other
conventions associated with human rights were developed. The conventions are
adopted for ensuring for security and well-bring. But there are also many
contradictions and weakness in the declarations and conventions as mentioned
above. So, not only international community but also individual states should
give a remedy by compromising these declarations and conventions in more clear
and justice ways.


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