Impact from the surrounding area of this landfill

Impact of Municipal Solid waste and Ground Water Quality assessment: A
Case study at landfill site near Rajendra Nagar, Patna, Bihar, India

Roshni Jahan 1, Sushil Kumar Singh 1, Prabhat Shankar 2, Kumar Bhaskar 2, Aftab Alam 2, and
Ashok Kumar Ghosh 3
1. Department of Botany, A.N. College, Patna, Bihar, India.
2. Department of E.W.M, A.N. College, Patna, Bihar, India
3. State Pollution Control Board, Patna, Bihar, India
Ground Water contamination is serious global issue now a day. In several part of India ground water
is largely affected by the improper disposal of municipal solid waste, which deteriorate the ground
water quality. In our country more than 60 percent of th e irrigation requirement and 25 percent of
drinking water supplies are dependent on ground water (Harendar Raj Gautam 2010). According to
UNSECO report, a majority of Indian population has no access to safe drinking water and that about
66 million people r ely on unsafe ground water for consumption (swahney,2006)
The present work is aimed to assessing the impact of Municipal solid waste on water quality near
landfill, Rajendra Nagar, Patna. The ground water samples were collected from the surrounding area
of this landfill site in the month of March to May 2017 . All the samples were analyzed following
different pa rameter have been considered viz; PH, EC, TDS, TH , Alkalinity, calcium, Phosphate,
Sulphate, Nitrate, chloride, fluoride and bacteriologic al test. Al l these parameters were analysed
using APHA(2016) and the obtained results were compared with the Indian standard drinking water
specification BIS : 10500 -2012.
Key words: – Solid waste , Municipal Land fill , Contamination, Water Quality.
Water is one of the essential most requisite for sustaining the life on Planet Earth. It is an essential
component for human existence and survival of mankind. In the past few decades, there is
tremendous increase in the demand for fresh water d ue to rapid growth of population , urbanization
and Industrializ ation. The consequence of this population explosion and over extraction of ground
water leads to deterioration and declination of water. The rapid growth of urban areas has further
affected the groundwater quality due to over exploitation of resources and improper waste disposal
practices(G.Raja & P.Venkateban 2010). In many developing cities, ground water is mainly
contaminated by the improper disposal of municipal solid waste. According to Ind ian MSW Rule
2000. “Municipal solid waste” includes commercial and residential wastes generated in a municipal
or notified area in either solid or semi solid form excluding industrial hazardous wastes but including
treated bio -medical wastes (Sahu, 2009).

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In majority of urban areas, Municipal solid waste is disposal o f in a n op en landfill, which causes
leach ate formation and contaminated the ground water. The most commonly reported danger to
human health from these landfills is from the use of groundwater that has been contaminated by
leachate (Rajkumar et al.;2010). The water percolates through the landfill and contaminants are
leached from the solid wast e, as a consequence of the contact of water with disposed solid waste
and causes contamination to ground water. Leachate also causes high mineralization to the ground
water and changes its quality to the maximum extent. Formation of leachate and rate of
contamination to ground water varies in different landfill area and it also depend on the biological
activity occurs in a landfill. The depth of water table i.e; static water level (Swl), below ground level
(Bgl) is also a governing factor in determining p ollution because as the water approaches the ground
surface, the greater is the risk of its contamination (Mariappan et al.;2000). Thus, the quality of water
can be assessed by monitoring the physico -chemical properties of water or by analyzing inhabiting
microrganism. The physico -chemical means are useful in detecting effects of pollution on the water
quality, while microbiological population studies may be helpful in determining the disease causing
potential of waters. The assessment of groundwater near R ajendra Nagar, landfill site is aimed to
study the levels of physico –chemical and biological constituents of the water are affected due to
solid waste. Hence, this study serve as an impact as well as an indication of groundwater
contamination. All dissolv ed solid and organic matter formed in a leachate migrate to surrounding
as well as underlying soil and leads to ground water contamination. The present study is associated
with the impact of Municipal solid waste on ground water quality. Since the adjoinin g area is densely
populated any deterioration or changes in water quality may leads to Lazarus effect to the health of
surrounding population.

2.1 Study area: – The present study was conducted near the landfill, Rajendra Nagar, in the Patna,
Capital city of Bihar. The experimental study site is low lying dumping area located at 25,6063 –
degree North and longitude 85,161 -degree East. This dumping site is present between Moinual
Haque Stadium a nd Premchand Ranga sha lay The re sidential area around the dump site having bore
wells, hand pumps as well as few wells. The depth of these sources varies from 250 -450feet. The
water samples were collected from different surrounding site to study the impact of Municipal solid
on ground wa ter quality, near Rajendra Nagar, landfill, Patna. In the present study work attempts
have been made to detect ground water quality by preparing the contour maps of the randomly
selected sampling site by using Arc GIS Software.

2.2 Sampling: – The water samples were collected from different area distributed near dumping site
in the month of April and May of “2017”. We have divided sampling site into four zones depending
on the distance from landfill site. These four zones are: –
2.2.1 Upto 200 meter from l andfill site
2.2.2 200 -400 meter from landfill site
2.2.3 400 – 600 meter from landfill site
2.2.4 Above 600 meter from landfill site
Total 32 sampling site were selected out of this 7 were collated upto 200 meter, 8 samples from
200 -400 meter, 9 samples f rom 400 -600 meter and 8 samples were collected form above 600 meter
of landfill site to assess the status of water quality all samples were collected carefully in Pyrex
bottles for Physico -chemical analysis whereas different water samples were collected in sterilized
bottles for microbial test. All necessary precautions were undertaken during sampling and analysis
of water.

2.3 Phy sico-Chemical analysis: – Various physical and chemical parameters like; – pH, TDS, EC,
Alkalinity, Chloride, Hardness, Calcium, Fluoride, Phosphate, Sulphate were analyze d and
compared with Bureau Indian standard (BIS:500 -2012
2.4 Microbial analysis: – All the samples were analyzed to determine the sanitary quality of drinking
water samples were tested by preparing culture media and estimated activity in water samples
through MPN (Most probable Number) Value. All samples were processed by using all safety
measures and used media were autoclaved before discarding.

As we have divided our study in four zone so we will discussed it accordingly.
a. Upto 200 Meter of Landfill site
The present study reflects the result the PH of different area around landfill sites were ranges
between 63 -85. It indicate s that the ground water becomes slightly alkaline. The ranges of
conductivity of different sampling site varies from 280 -1680. Highest value of conductivity (1680
ms/cm) was found at sampling site RN24 and while the minimum value recorded at RN32. TDS of
the study area varies from 162 -1575. The value of TDS in all the samples are above the desirable
limit (500mg/l) of BIS, which may be due to higher that affected taste and quality of water. Highest
value of TDS (1575 mg/l) was found at the sampling site RN2 4 while the minimum value of TDS
(162mg/l) was reported at sampling site RN. High concentration of TDS decrease the palatability
of water and may also cause gastro -intestinal irritation upon transits (WHO,1997). The other
parameter like total hardness was found in range 198 -612mg/l. The minimum value of hardness
was recorded at the sampling site RN8 (612 mg/l) While the minimum value was recorded at RN26
(164 mg/l). The value of value of alkalinity (170mgl was recorded at RN8 sampling site) alkalinity

was f ound at sampling site RN4 (632 mg/l) While the minimum value of alkalinity (170 mg/l) was
recorded at RN8 sampling site.
The value of calcium in sampling site varies from 24 -194 mg/l of BIS. The higher concentration
was found at RN7 (194mg/l) While the min imum value was recorded at RN7 (194mg/l) While the
minimum value was recorded at RN12 (24mg/l). The concentration of phosphate at sampling site
ranges from .038 -2.660 mg/l. The highest value pf phosphate 0.292 mg/l. The highest value of
phosphate 0.292 ml/ l was deleted at RN17 while the minimum value of phosphate (0.038mg/l) at
sampling site RN14. The concentration of sulphate ranged from 38 -120 mg/l. The maximum value
of sulphate (38mg/l) was found at sampling site RN7 (120 mg/l) while the minimum value of
sulphate (38mg/l) was found at sampling site RN4. In the present study, the concentration of
chloride in water sample was ranged between 68 -280 mg/l. The minimum value of chloride
(68mg/l) was found at RN20 sampling site while the highest site RN15. Pathn aik et at (2002) had
observed that the chloride concentration was varied between 66mg/l 1250 mg/l. The concentration
of fluoride in the present sample were ranged between 0.14 -0.84 mg/l and it was recorded within
the desirable limit (1.00mg/l) of drinking water standards of BIS at all the sampling site. The highest
concentration of fluoride (0.84mg/l) was found at sampling site RN24 while the minimum value
(0.14mg/l) was recorded at sampling site RN2.
The result of bacteriological analysis indicated that mi crobial contamination were observed at few
sites like RN3,RN4,RN5,Rn6,RN20,RN25. This inspection revealed that the ground water quality
does not fit for drinking purpose as per because of Indian standard. The possible measures should
be taken for bettermen t of human health and hygiene.

b. 200 -400 Meter of landfill site
c. 400 – 800 Meter of landfill site
d. Above 800 meter of landfill site

The conclusion that has been delineated via this research that the landfill site, near Rajendra Nagar
was found prone to the ground water contamination through leaching action. The concentration of
various parameters is within permissible limits yet it is significant and promoting the ground water
contamination at greater extent.
Thus, there is a ne ed of proper solid wa ste disposal at landfill site and the regular monitoring of the
ground water near adjoining areas of landfill dumping site to avoid this severe contamination of
ground water.

Authors are highly thankful to the Head , Water Management Department , Head, Biotech
Department, A.N. College, Patna for providing laboratory facilities and all the cooperation during


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