Home Research PapersI. right of belligerency of the state will not

I. right of belligerency of the state will not

       I.           
Background

Since Postwar Japan foreign policy has change which
Japan’s leader consider to change the foreign policy to increasing the
capability of security and economic environment (Jain, 2000). The security policy
of Japan was influenced by the United State. Then Japan was imposed pacifist
constitution which is Article IX published in 1947. This article IX consist of
point as below (Jain, 2000):

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1.     
“Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on
justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign
right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling
international disputes”.

2.     
  “In order to achieve the aim of the preceding
paragraph, land, sea and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never
be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized”.

This
Constitution made has purpose for Japan to no longer have the potential to
start a war with the crippling forces against the Japanese both land, sea and
air as well as the potential of other wars that existed after the war, and to
reduce the use of military force in international settlement or conflict
resolution. Then US step-up provides security as well as a
security umbrella against Japan from outside attacks coming and will exert its
strength to counterattack, as stated in the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and
Security in 1960 (Ministry Foreign Affair of Japan,
2014),
which is a revision of the Mutual Security Assistance Pact Agreement signed on
in 1952, in which Japan allowed the United States to build bases and place
troops inside Japanese territory.

Otherwise,
unlike other defense agreements, the agreements made are no longer balanced
which are placed in a more passive position, where Japan is no longer the same
if attacked by other forces. The contents of chapter IX are contested the
latter shows the strengthening of the Japanese defense capability and some of the
things that are meant is something contrary to what is meant in the article.
This is even more significant, when Japan in May 2008 passed a law to use space
for defense purposes. This is the opposite of Japan’s defense law. Given the
existing East Asian regional conditions, the Japanese government needs to be
implemented on its political security program. The National Defense Guideline
(NDPG) which guides Japan’s defense in 2010 with the concept of Dynamic Defense
Force (DDF) concept. This concept enabled the Japanese to form a more
aggressive and mobilitative SDF army. The 2010 NDPG also contains the task of
strengthening Japan’s maritime and air force to deal with conflicts that are
attacks from outside Japan. Here the author would to examine the security
policy of Japan under Shinzo Abe administration. First by review the security
policy since Postwar until the administration of Shinzo Abe, what faced by
Japan and how Shinzo Abe resolve it.

 

   
II.           
Content

Shinzo
Abe was started his second administration as the Prime Minister of Japan on
2012. In this administration Japan security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):
1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2. the alliance with the US,
and 3. cooperation with other countries”. Abe Shinzo was succeed to reorient
his country’s security policy, which approve for the first time in a decade by
the increased Defense Budget.  The
security policy become urgency for Japan because of tense situation faced from due
to its neighboring china and North Korea which was threatening Japan Security. Factors
make Japan change the security policy are: 1. Increased Japanese economic
capability. 2. Nationalism. 3. Nuclear and Missile North Korea as a threat. 4.
China’s military increase. While US interests in encouraging Japan’s defense
and security policy are: a) East Asian Regional Stability b) Extended US
Deterrence against China and North Korea Military Strength c) Security of US
Trade Lines in East Asia. Opposition to Dynamic Defense Force is China’s first
China, which protests if Japan’s military capabilities increase or the closer
US-Japan security cooperation. The second is North Korea, basically Japan’s
strong defense growth is affected by the threat coming from North Korea.

In
North Korea’s missile and nuclear technology advances posed a major threat to
Japanese security. Over the past few years the regime in Pyongyang has managed
to increase the range and accuracy of its ballistic missiles in successive
tests. With each test in 2006, 2009, and 2013, North
Korea has consolidated its status as a nuclear state along with gradually expanding
its nuclear weapons yield (Singh, 2015).

 Recently
on 15th September North Korea launched the Hwasong-12 medium-range
missile that crosses the Japanese spacecraft, triggering an emergency siren
before it falls into the Pacific Ocean (James Griffiths, 2017). The missiles cover
a distance of around 3,700 kilometers and reach height of 770 kilometers. This
means that this missile can reach Guam, the largest US military base in the
Pacific Ocean that is about 3,400 kilometers from North Korea. This latest
launch is the first time it promised to be higher than North Korea. On Friday United Nations, held the emergency meeting
of the Security Council.
The sanctions are tested on a nuclear test on September 3, which Pyongyang says
is the most powerful and a hydrogen bomb. North Korea exchanged with advances
in weapon technology under the leadership of Kim Jong-un.

China
threatening because the aggressive stance on the East China Sea, especially
regarding the disputed Senkaku / Diaoyu islands. Beside that China sent a naval
submarine close to the Senkaku Islands in June, 2016. Therefore, Abe’s policies
such as a review of the Constitutional peace clause, the establishment of the
National Security Council, and the increase of the defense budget with a
five-year development plan, are solely taken to cope with Japan’s defense
needs, as well as to address the changing geopolitical and security conditions
at Northeast Asia. With these initiatives, the objective of Abe’s government
policy, namely to maintain a credible defense capability in the midst of China’s
increasingly aggressive, not to “return to militarism”. In addition
respond the China, Japan permanently increased the number of F-15 fighters in
Okinawa and also prepares to mobilize the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force
vessel to support the Japanese Coast Guard if needed (Cooper, 2016). Shinzo Abe also
plans to acquire three Global Hawk reconnaissance drones in fiscal which drones
will help Japan to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance of Chinese
activities around the Senkaku Islands. Then Japan will also continue to
strengthen bilateral (Japan-Australia, Japan-UK, Japan-Indonesia,
Japan-Philippines) and trilateral (US-Japan-Australia, US-Japan-India,
US-Japan-ROK) and relationships.

Meanwhile,
Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defense are divided into 3, are: 1.
in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influence in the region, Prime
Minister Shinzo Abe is making efforts to strengthen Asian diplomacy by first
visiting Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia. The diplomatic efforts undertaken by
Japan in Southeast Asia and Australia are illustrating the economic and
strategic importance of the new government in Tokyo. Japan wants to dampen the
rise of the marked China by the rise of the military and its economic influence
in Southeast Asia. 2. Re-Interpretation of Article IX, In July, the Abe cabinet
approved the reinterpretation of a pacifist treaty called Article IX. Shinzo
Abe as the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party seeks to campaign in Japanese
politics and society that Japan needs to build adequate defense force to deal
with changing security conditions in the Region. The effort was succeed on July
1, 2014 the Japanese Cabinet ratified the re-interpretation of Article 9. For
example, Tokyo has for years reframed cases of collective self-defense as individual
self-defense, such as the deployment of Japanese armed forces in the Indian
Ocean as part of the “war on terrorism” (Sakaki, 2015). Increasing the
openness of the Asian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growth
of the Region. Several countries such as Australia, India, the Philippines and
Vietnam have started to cooperate in the field of Japanese defense industry. As
a follow-up of the visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Australia in July
2014, the two countries agreed to cooperate on the construction of a
Japanese-made Soryu submarine called one of the best diesel-powered submarines
in the world. On 1 April 2014 Shinzo Abe was revision the arms exports rules
which permitted to exports arms for providing Japan’s security.  In this new rules Japan has succeed expanded
its arms exports in the East Asian region and already taken advantage which is
currently negotiating with India to the delivery of US-2 amphibious airplanes.
However in other side majority of Japan’s citizens reject it. According to the
survey percentage, 17 percent pro the relaxation of rules proposed by Abe, with
77 percent cons (Sakaki, 2015).

 

 III.           
Conclusion

Since
the postwar the security policy of Japan was influenced by the United State.
Then Japan was imposed by the constitution which is Article IX published in
1947. Because of it United State give the security guarantee for Japan which
has military basis in Okinawa Japan. Since the administration of Shinzo Abe on
2012 more focus to increasing the security capability.  The Security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):
1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2. the alliance with the US,
and 3. cooperation with other countries”.  The factor make Shinzo abe more focus to the
security capability because the threat come from the neighboring North Korea
with the missile program and China dispute in Senkaku Island.  Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defense
are divided into 3 are: in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influence
in the region, Re-Interpretation of Article IX, Increasing the openness of the
Asian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growth of the Region.
Also revised arms exports to make Japan involved in Defense Military. Shinzo Abe’s
reign is Japan’s policy to participate in increasing its military to protect
its national security, so this Japanese effort spawned a Japan is expected to
achieve its national interests and security.

 

 

                                                                                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

        I.           
Background

Since Postwar Japan foreign policy has change which
Japan’s leader consider to change the foreign policy to increasing the
capability of security and economic environment (Jain, 2000). The security policy
of Japan was influenced by the United State. Then Japan was imposed pacifist
constitution which is Article IX published in 1947. This article IX consist of
point as below (Jain, 2000):

1.     
“Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on
justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign
right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a means of settling
international disputes”.

2.     
  “In order to achieve the aim of the preceding
paragraph, land, sea and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never
be maintained. The right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized”.

This
Constitution made has purpose for Japan to no longer have the potential to
start a war with the crippling forces against the Japanese both land, sea and
air as well as the potential of other wars that existed after the war, and to
reduce the use of military force in international settlement or conflict
resolution. Then US step-up provides security as well as a
security umbrella against Japan from outside attacks coming and will exert its
strength to counterattack, as stated in the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and
Security in 1960 (Ministry Foreign Affair of Japan,
2014),
which is a revision of the Mutual Security Assistance Pact Agreement signed on
in 1952, in which Japan allowed the United States to build bases and place
troops inside Japanese territory.

Otherwise,
unlike other defense agreements, the agreements made are no longer balanced
which are placed in a more passive position, where Japan is no longer the same
if attacked by other forces. The contents of chapter IX are contested the
latter shows the strengthening of the Japanese defense capability and some of the
things that are meant is something contrary to what is meant in the article.
This is even more significant, when Japan in May 2008 passed a law to use space
for defense purposes. This is the opposite of Japan’s defense law. Given the
existing East Asian regional conditions, the Japanese government needs to be
implemented on its political security program. The National Defense Guideline
(NDPG) which guides Japan’s defense in 2010 with the concept of Dynamic Defense
Force (DDF) concept. This concept enabled the Japanese to form a more
aggressive and mobilitative SDF army. The 2010 NDPG also contains the task of
strengthening Japan’s maritime and air force to deal with conflicts that are
attacks from outside Japan. Here the author would to examine the security
policy of Japan under Shinzo Abe administration. First by review the security
policy since Postwar until the administration of Shinzo Abe, what faced by
Japan and how Shinzo Abe resolve it.

 

   
II.           
Content

Shinzo
Abe was started his second administration as the Prime Minister of Japan on
2012. In this administration Japan security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):
1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2. the alliance with the US,
and 3. cooperation with other countries”. Abe Shinzo was succeed to reorient
his country’s security policy, which approve for the first time in a decade by
the increased Defense Budget.  The
security policy become urgency for Japan because of tense situation faced from due
to its neighboring china and North Korea which was threatening Japan Security. Factors
make Japan change the security policy are: 1. Increased Japanese economic
capability. 2. Nationalism. 3. Nuclear and Missile North Korea as a threat. 4.
China’s military increase. While US interests in encouraging Japan’s defense
and security policy are: a) East Asian Regional Stability b) Extended US
Deterrence against China and North Korea Military Strength c) Security of US
Trade Lines in East Asia. Opposition to Dynamic Defense Force is China’s first
China, which protests if Japan’s military capabilities increase or the closer
US-Japan security cooperation. The second is North Korea, basically Japan’s
strong defense growth is affected by the threat coming from North Korea.

In
North Korea’s missile and nuclear technology advances posed a major threat to
Japanese security. Over the past few years the regime in Pyongyang has managed
to increase the range and accuracy of its ballistic missiles in successive
tests. With each test in 2006, 2009, and 2013, North
Korea has consolidated its status as a nuclear state along with gradually expanding
its nuclear weapons yield (Singh, 2015).

 Recently
on 15th September North Korea launched the Hwasong-12 medium-range
missile that crosses the Japanese spacecraft, triggering an emergency siren
before it falls into the Pacific Ocean (James Griffiths, 2017). The missiles cover
a distance of around 3,700 kilometers and reach height of 770 kilometers. This
means that this missile can reach Guam, the largest US military base in the
Pacific Ocean that is about 3,400 kilometers from North Korea. This latest
launch is the first time it promised to be higher than North Korea. On Friday United Nations, held the emergency meeting
of the Security Council.
The sanctions are tested on a nuclear test on September 3, which Pyongyang says
is the most powerful and a hydrogen bomb. North Korea exchanged with advances
in weapon technology under the leadership of Kim Jong-un.

China
threatening because the aggressive stance on the East China Sea, especially
regarding the disputed Senkaku / Diaoyu islands. Beside that China sent a naval
submarine close to the Senkaku Islands in June, 2016. Therefore, Abe’s policies
such as a review of the Constitutional peace clause, the establishment of the
National Security Council, and the increase of the defense budget with a
five-year development plan, are solely taken to cope with Japan’s defense
needs, as well as to address the changing geopolitical and security conditions
at Northeast Asia. With these initiatives, the objective of Abe’s government
policy, namely to maintain a credible defense capability in the midst of China’s
increasingly aggressive, not to “return to militarism”. In addition
respond the China, Japan permanently increased the number of F-15 fighters in
Okinawa and also prepares to mobilize the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force
vessel to support the Japanese Coast Guard if needed (Cooper, 2016). Shinzo Abe also
plans to acquire three Global Hawk reconnaissance drones in fiscal which drones
will help Japan to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance of Chinese
activities around the Senkaku Islands. Then Japan will also continue to
strengthen bilateral (Japan-Australia, Japan-UK, Japan-Indonesia,
Japan-Philippines) and trilateral (US-Japan-Australia, US-Japan-India,
US-Japan-ROK) and relationships.

Meanwhile,
Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defense are divided into 3, are: 1.
in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influence in the region, Prime
Minister Shinzo Abe is making efforts to strengthen Asian diplomacy by first
visiting Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia. The diplomatic efforts undertaken by
Japan in Southeast Asia and Australia are illustrating the economic and
strategic importance of the new government in Tokyo. Japan wants to dampen the
rise of the marked China by the rise of the military and its economic influence
in Southeast Asia. 2. Re-Interpretation of Article IX, In July, the Abe cabinet
approved the reinterpretation of a pacifist treaty called Article IX. Shinzo
Abe as the leader of the Liberal Democratic Party seeks to campaign in Japanese
politics and society that Japan needs to build adequate defense force to deal
with changing security conditions in the Region. The effort was succeed on July
1, 2014 the Japanese Cabinet ratified the re-interpretation of Article 9. For
example, Tokyo has for years reframed cases of collective self-defense as individual
self-defense, such as the deployment of Japanese armed forces in the Indian
Ocean as part of the “war on terrorism” (Sakaki, 2015). Increasing the
openness of the Asian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growth
of the Region. Several countries such as Australia, India, the Philippines and
Vietnam have started to cooperate in the field of Japanese defense industry. As
a follow-up of the visit of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe in Australia in July
2014, the two countries agreed to cooperate on the construction of a
Japanese-made Soryu submarine called one of the best diesel-powered submarines
in the world. On 1 April 2014 Shinzo Abe was revision the arms exports rules
which permitted to exports arms for providing Japan’s security.  In this new rules Japan has succeed expanded
its arms exports in the East Asian region and already taken advantage which is
currently negotiating with India to the delivery of US-2 amphibious airplanes.
However in other side majority of Japan’s citizens reject it. According to the
survey percentage, 17 percent pro the relaxation of rules proposed by Abe, with
77 percent cons (Sakaki, 2015).

 

 III.           
Conclusion

Since
the postwar the security policy of Japan was influenced by the United State.
Then Japan was imposed by the constitution which is Article IX published in
1947. Because of it United State give the security guarantee for Japan which
has military basis in Okinawa Japan. Since the administration of Shinzo Abe on
2012 more focus to increasing the security capability.  The Security policy has three pillar are (Sakaki, 2015):
1. “Japan’s own capabilities and defense measures, 2. the alliance with the US,
and 3. cooperation with other countries”.  The factor make Shinzo abe more focus to the
security capability because the threat come from the neighboring North Korea
with the missile program and China dispute in Senkaku Island.  Shinzo Abe’s efforts in improving Japan’s defense
are divided into 3 are: in cooperation with ASEAN to reduce China’s influence
in the region, Re-Interpretation of Article IX, Increasing the openness of the
Asian economy Pacific in order to encourage the economic growth of the Region.
Also revised arms exports to make Japan involved in Defense Military. Shinzo Abe’s
reign is Japan’s policy to participate in increasing its military to protect
its national security, so this Japanese effort spawned a Japan is expected to
achieve its national interests and security.

 

 

                                                                                                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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