Hospital Leadership and Management
Any business in the present fast-moving condition that is searching for the pace of progress to slow is likely to be profoundly frustrated. Indeed, organizations should embrace change. Change is essential for any association because, without change, organizations would likely lose their focused edge and fail to address the issues of what most want to be a developing base of loyal clients. With the financial sector of an organisation tend to adapt to regulatory and financial uncertainty, organisations will be forced to prioritize and change. CITATION Lei18 l 2057 (Richards, 2018)1.1. Case study
The hospital under discussion is a multi-speciality hospital based in a South Asian Country where a lot of patients undergo treatment daily, since 2000. This hospital was started with an aim of providing quality treatment for patient at low rates. The hospital is equipped with more than 3000 beds, all types of laboratories, administrated blocks, blood bank, huge parking space, etc. More than 10000 staffs are employed in this hospital. The quality of healthcare provided by this hospital makes it one of the bests among the hospitals all over the world. But, the main problem faced by this hospital is the uneducated and unqualified managers of various departments. The managers in this hospital sticks to traditional clinical methods which provide minimal diagnostic potentialities. In addition to this several staffs of these departments are relatives and well-wishers of these managers and are recruited by them without any educational qualifications or knowledge on various diagnostic techniques and procedures. As the managers of various departments lack qualifications, they don’t want to recruit any qualified or well educated personal to their respective departments. In addition, the lack of knowledge in leadership and management make poor relationship between employees and the employer. Lack of knowledge on various clinical procedure have resulted in multiple errors which could have even caused the death of the patients. Despite being professional, the managers try to keep back these errors to save themselves.
This study evaluate situation in this hospital to identify problems that needs to be solved to bring about quality service with reference to political, environmental, or socio-political factors.
A system of determinedly coordinated activities or effort by two or more persons forms an organization CITATION Mat09 l 2057 (Matthew R. Fairholm, 2009). Proper understanding between the employees and the employer is a very important factor in the development of an organisation.
In this hospital, one of the main problem is the autocratic leadership shown by the supervisors. Autocratic leadership is a leadership style where the manager or person in charge has the control over the complete authority and decision making. And this is a most considerable issue as it detains creativity and reduce productivity which can finally result in the complete destruction of the company CITATION Nad12 l 2057 (Nadeem Bhatti, 2012). Therefore, the management and leadership issues can be referred to as the stem of issues which will progressively result in many other issues in a dysfunctional organisation CITATION Peg02 l 2057 (Brønn, 2002). Furthermore, another major issue of this hospital is the over use of resterilised clinical equipments and surgical instruments to reduce the use of newly purchased materials.
When considering the social organisation of health-related arrangement most of them are operated in a global thriftiness which suggests of an expanded potential of customers and competition. This hospital operates within a politically stable economy with funds guaranteed by both previous and current governments to the service for advance in health care and pay for faculty. The social environment profiles beliefs, values etc. Belief is the core value for healthcare sector and the services offered by this hospital was high on the public lists of concern. To achieve the goal efficiently the managers and the workers should work as a team along with associates and suppliers. But in the case of this organisation rather than focusing on the advancement of the organisation, the managers focuses mainly on individual goals. The supervisor of this organisation should be more of an adviser or mentor who encourage and directs the workers in the development of the organisation. Moreover, managers should manage various laboratories and departments which can lead to errors if left unchecked. Also, the managers ignore personal aspects of management and assumes that all the staffs have similar levels of technical skills and abilities, due to the lack of knowledge.
Usually in an organisation the executives look for educated and qualified personals to fulfil the vacancies in the organisation and select the most suitable skilled and experienced person for the position. In contrast, the managers in this hospital fails to face primary requirements and disagrees to select qualified staffs as they have limited knowledge in clinical procedures. In addition, communication skills and attitude are important qualities for a supervisor which will ultimately result in the team productivity. Uncontrolled emotions and too jovial are some of the attitude issues which can influence the relationship between the managers and the staffs. Also, improper understanding of ability and personalities of staff members can result in arguments and can lead to discouragement of the employers. In case of this hospital, the managers tend to have less communication skills and extreme attitude issues which let the workers down and can result in multiple errors in various clinical procedures. These issues made several staffs to leave the hospital, which resulted in overtime work for the remaining staffs. Finally, the managers won’t listen to ideas and suggestions made by the employees as they want to show their attitude.
These issues are all due to poor leadership and management skills. Therefore, proper management is required for the development of a health and science organisation. It is mandatory that the managers should be able to organise and direct co-workers effectively, to create an effective communication among the staffs and fulfil the objectives efficiently.
3.Implementations and Action plans
3.1 Management and leadership: The ability or practical skill of an individual to lead or guide the employees, or a team, or an individual, or an entire association to achieve various organisational objectives. According to Katz, management is an exercising direction of an organization or a group through administrative, supervisory and executive positions. The leader has the responsibility and authority to make decisions and guide the employees to achieve the organisational objectives CITATION ÁMe13 l 2057 (Medinilla, 2013).
Laboratory management can be divided into four various classifications, such as, planning, organising, leadership and controlling. Planning is an important cognitive process in which the laboratory manager (supervisor) inform the public and the human resources of the current organisation about the vision and organisational objectives. Efficient planning will help the workers to set their own guidelines to achieve the primary objectives. Finally, it is just the management quality of the supervisor where he leads the employees in evaluating and job designing. Next important classification is organising and it’s an important task of a laboratory manager to decide which employee will be perfect for a specific job. Leadership is an important quality as it sets the environment of the laboratory and it possibly motivates the co-workers to work energetically and achieve the organisational objectives. Evaluating the skills and abilities of the employees and providing them feedback about their skills is also considered as an important management quality. Perfect guiding and management in a hospital will provide persistent examination of progress and help to correct any possible deviation from the expected outcome. a well-qualified laboratory manager will provide effective results and successful completion of organisational objectives CITATION Fre11 l 2057 (Lunenburg, 2011).
Regarding this hospital the department managers are autocratic and they always make decisions over employees. Autocratic leadership can be beneficial if the decision is taken by the managers instantly, but it can be problematic. Considering problematic autocratic leadership, the main issue is that the manager fails to discuss with the employees before deciding, which will inversely affect the overall outcome of the organisation. Furthermore, autocratic leadership can affect the moral values of the employees where they will be muffled and dissatisfied. Managerial competences and good leadership qualities are essential for a manager for the prosperity of the organisation. In this case, managerial training is important for the manager, as it provide managemental knowledge and may result in the increased level in healthcare. In addition, the managers should have sufficient knowledge in up-to-date clinical techniques and limitations in various clinical procedures. In the case study above, it is recommended to appoint new managers for different departments, while the current managers will work along with new managers to achieve the organisational objective.
Once the managers are qualified enough, they will have the ability to listen carefully, study an issue, act on it accordingly and encourage the staffs to achieve the best outcome. Before concluding on various issues, the behavioural skills of a manager will help him/her to understand the situation and help and support the employee to give their best. Also, it is important for managers to have a clear idea about the costs of various clinical procedures and things used for each procedure. This will help them to improve their quality of service. The manger should also be aware of the local laws and legislations involved with the working conditions of the staffs.
Finally, managers should be able to find and solve complaints and negative feedbacks without worsening it. Therefore, it is important to collect feedbacks from patients and employees to identify issues related to the specific sector and act upon it accordingly to overcome these issues and thereby provide efficient service to the patients and successfully achieving the objectives of the organisation.
3.2 Business plans: Establishment of the intension in a plan is the initial step of a hospital, which is also referred to as business plan. There are various elements that should be taken in concern in a business plan such as aims of the hospital, the clinical needs of the locality, specialised wings inside the hospital, various departments, skilled and experienced doctors and mangers and a financial graph. The major success factor of a hospital depends on several factors such as most modern technologies, qualified staffs, government and legislation, etc. Having a business plan helps to create opportunities to try innovative ideas, handle the business through demanding situations, analysis of threats and opportunities, strategies in competing, service description that will be provided, cost and project profits. With proper business plans the hospital discussed above will be able to become one of the bests successful organisations CITATION Les10 l 2057 (Nunn, 2010).
3.3 Staffs: The staffs in a hospital is valued as the major assets. Skilled, well-educated, motivated and qualified staffs are important and plays a key role in the success of the organisation. When staffs are proud of their work place, they will be happy to work hard for the development and success of the organisation CITATION Mar10 l 2057 (Markos, 2010).
In the above-mentioned hospital, the staffs should undergo yearly training and classes on the newly introduced techniques and methods, which will help to improve their skills and abilities. Also, it is important to pay a reasonable wage for every staffs, which will result in the outcomes. Moreover, it is important to recruit well-educated and qualified employees. It is also important to motivate the staffs by giving them responsibilities and assigning them to different departments. Therefore, the workload of the manager will be reduced and makes easier to look after each department by acting on the issues instantly.
3.4 Quality management: In almost all developed countries hospitals are completely automatized. The standard of equipments, advanced robotics, good networking facilities, qualified staffs, etc are some of the major factor that involve in deciding the quality of a hospital. Therefore, quality management is important in a hospital to provide quality service to the patients. Quality management in this hospital will improve the quality of test results given and the diagnoses made CITATION Luc07 l 2057 (Berte, 2007).
3.5 Accreditation: Accreditation is the term referred to as being believable or credible. An accredited organisation is considered as a trustworthy organisation by its customers. Accreditation is one of the cognitive processes where an organisation can be accredited by an independent quality institute, for following all the quality requirements provided by the quality institute. The quality accreditation signals self-assurance in an organisation’s performance. The quality authorities mainly look on the technical views of that organisation where they ensure that the hospital meeting its quality criteria. Accreditation of the hospital ensure that the clinical procedures carried out are safe and accurate which can assure the quality functioning of the hospital CITATION Abd11 l 2057 (Abdullah Alkhenizan, 2011).
3.6 Cost: The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnoses made in this hospital depends upon the most modern technologies used in the healthcare sector. In most developing countries, healthcare sector is completely free of cost, where its primarily funded by the government revenue without charging from patients. The general health expenditure is very low, therefore government healthcare service provided to the patients are not as efficient as expected. Small and medium sized hospitals provide primary treatments at low cost, where the patients should pay for the rest of their clinical diagnoses CITATION Rou11 l 2057 (Rousseau Gama, 2011). One of the major drawback of this hospital is that, the employees are not highly trained professionals to cut down the salary expenses. Hence, the reports and diagnoses made by this hospital remain highly debatable. Hence it is mandatory to have training sessions for all the staffs without leaving an impact on the financial sector of the organisation.
Moreover, the mangers should have an idea about the expenses per procedure. An application based on costing can be set up as managerial tool where regulating costs can be included. In addition, conducting different internal and external audits can be useful for maintaining the quality of the hospital CITATION Rou11 l 2057 (Rousseau Gama, 2011).
3.7 Reduced use of resterilised instruments: According to the sterilisation guidelines, it is mandatory that, clinical and surgical instruments shouldn’t be used repeatedly. Various instruments supplying companies have mentioned, the maximum number of resterlisations each instrument can undergo, on the outer covering of the instrument. This should be followed by the manager and each staff working in the hospital. In this hospital, instruments are resterilised more than the allowed limit, which can cause harm to the patient using it. Therefore, resterilised instruments should have a restricted use which can help to improve the quality of service and are safe to the patients using it.
4. Short-term, medium-term, and long-term goals
Establishment of short-term, medium-term, and long-term goals/objectives are essential in business management. Organisational vision, aims and objectives which were addressed in the business plan, comes under long term objectives. Long term plans are therefore the objectives which are set for five to six years by an organisation. Medium goals are set in such a way that the organisation expect the outcome in the next few years. Short term objectives are set to accomplishes within one year.
4.1 Short term
Considering this report, the relevant hospital should initially work on the managemental development and leadership qualities of the managers, followed by employment of skilled and well-educated managers, who can take the responsibilities to achieve company’s objective. Development of the quality management, equipment maintenance, and employee training courses are some of the objectives which should be achieved initially. These are some of the short-term objectives that will result in the quality functioning of the hospital and improve the morality of the staffs.
4.2 Medium term
Training courses for the staffs should be scheduled annually, thus educating them in the new advanced clinical diagnostic techniques. The quality control of the hospital equipments should be given importance and should consider investing on modern diagnostic machineries. Advertising about the hospital and the services provided will ensure more patients and profit. In addition, to avoid short term issues, its important to have implementation of policies and procedures and contract with machinery companies.
4.3 Long term
Long term objectives will ensure that the hospital will achieve its objectives and to preserve achievements along with continued progress. Some factors that involve in achieving long term objectives are, economic, social, political, environmental and strategies. Main expenditures such as purchasing new equipment, investment on modern facilities and implementation of procedures and policies comes under these factors, which will shape the hospital to match highly rated hospitals all around the world.
To conclude, objectives at various terms are essential in achieving future success of the hospital. Focus of every healthcare organisations should be the quality of treatment and the resources they provide to each patient approaching them. They should also concentrate on the leadership and management skills of the manager along with strategic business plan will ensure the achievement of the organisational objectives. Proper training should be given to the staffs to be familiar with the most modern diagnostic techniques. Florence Nightingale once said, “Badly constructed houses do for the healthy what badly constructed hospitals do for the sick. Once insure that the air in a house is stagnant, and sickness is certain to follow”. Therefore, it is important improve the quality of the hospital and achieve the primary objectives efficiently.
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