HEALTH ISSUES AND RISK OF GREY WATER
The health issue of greywater has been a major concern among researcher which motivated the studies on the safety of reusing grey water, while some argued that grey water is safe, some believe that the safety of grey water depends on how the grey water is kept and soak in pipes to prevent ingestion. (Alma & Weaver, 2013) Reveal that the quality of greywater might contain some micro-organism such as fecal contaminant that contains higher risk to health. Micro-organism disease such as bacteria, protozoa, and chemicals containing mouthwash, toothpaste and disinfectants products. It is therefore imperative to examine the imminent risks associated with the usage of grey water such as insecure water, sewer overflow associated and its usage.
The definition of greywater has been a subject of debate among many researchers, reviewers, educators, and regulators involved in the areas of greywater reuse. Houshia, et al (2012) refers to greywater as the wastewater generated from laundries, kitchens, and bathrooms containing human excrement. (Chaillou, Gerente, Andre, & Wolbert, 2011) Reveal that grey water can be found in a washbasin, laundry, a shower which contains untreated wastewater (Mccormack, 2011). The argument such as the composition of grey water from kitchen source, which is made up of fat and grease raise palpitating questions on how the composition can affect the health of people. As a result of this, countries are now enacting regulating on the reuse of grey water. The misuse of water and the growing threat to human health cannot be over-emphasized. Human health and welfare depends on the eco-system and can be at risk if they are not effectively managed (Al-Jayyousi, 2003). The increasing trend on the usage of grey water for irrigation purposes for the household is due to the fact that some scholars believe that grey water is of better quality than wastewater which may not necessarily need an extensive treatment. An argument such as this needs extensive evaluations of the health implication of its usage in a household. According to Aislabie, Mcleod, Ryburn, & Thornburrow (2011) separating greywater from showers, sinks, toilet, and the kitchen is becoming a potential water management. Users should have an understanding that the environmental effect of grey water mostly occurs due to poor design, installations, and maintenance system. The use of grey water over a long period of time without much cognizance about the sources of contamination can lead to negative impacts as a result of runoff.
As explained previously, it can be seen that grey water consists of a significant level of disease organism resulting into gastrointestinal illness. Some of the disease caused by organism can be transferred through
Infected or contaminated hands
Broken skin (contact with it)
Benami, Gillor, & Gross (2016) found out that micro-pollutant are the main cause of grey water Risk to public health. Grey water re-use has the ability to reduce domestic water demand in many areas CITATION Don10 l 1033 (Donner, Eriksson, Revitt, Scholes, Lutzhoft, & Ledin, 2010), but we must be careful about the risk associated with it if not managed effectively.
RISK ASSOCIATED WITH EACH SOURCES OF GREY WATER
Grey water from the kitchen is easily polluted, grey water from the following sources food particles, oils, fats, and different noticeably waste that are regularly more pollutant than uncooked sewage. The sources identified easily promote and supports the increase of micro-organisms which is a huge risk to human health. Because of the particles present in it and the composition of fat, it many a time solidifies kitchen grey water and results into blockages except when treated or removed from greywater. Microbiologically, normally possess a high concentration of thermotolerant coliforms which are majorly found in kitchen greywater. Such contamination is very excessive and an indication of lingering danger. The excessive thermotolerant coliform concentrations observed in kitchen greywater have to be controlled efficaciously to save disorder or mental health challenges. Kitchen greywater is chemically polluted because it additionally incorporates detergents in which dishwashers are used, the greywater could be very alkaline from the detergent. Kitchen greywater can be dangerous to soils resulting in alteration of its traits in the long run. NSWHealth (2000).
Bathroom Grey water
The toilet (hand basin, shower, and bath) generates about 38%-55% greywater flow and many scholars consider it to be the least contaminated type of greywater. Microbiologically, thermotolerant coliform concentrations (like the one generated from the kitchen) is also heavily present in bathroom grey water. As human beings frequently urinate in showers and baths, the challenges are often expressed in the consideration of the elevated fitness of the irrelevant disposal. While urine in a wholesome man or woman is sterile, some bladder infections can also pass microorganisms in urine. However, the capacity of those organisms to survive and cause infection is taken into consideration. The ammonia in urine is useful to flora but might also harm the surroundings if no longer adequately dispersed. Wastewater from hand basins is more pollutant than bathtub or shower greywater. Soap is the most unusual chemical contaminant discovered in bathroom greywater with an unusual similarity with the contaminants from shampoo, hair dyes, toothpaste and cleansing chemical substances. All of those contaminants are believed to adversely risky to human health.
Laundry Grey Water
Laundry wastewater represents approximately 23%-34% of household greywater. Greywater from the laundry improves in exceptional from wash water to water rinsed from washing. The grey water from this source contains higher chemical concentrations from cleaning soap powders and dirty garments (sodium, surfactants, ammonia, nitrogen, phosphate, boron) and is high in suspended solids. If carried out to land untreated, can pose an environmental harm as well as posing a risk to public health. The rinsing in the laundry greywater nevertheless includes a pollutant that poses a threat to public health, even though substantially reduced. Also, the laundry tub is sometimes used irresponsibly that is, putting off dangerous materials together with paints, solvents, and pesticide and herbicide residues by increasing the pollutant capacity unknowingly. (Aboal, Lechte, & Shipson, 1995) Found out that the composition of chemical parameters such as pH, sodium, salinity, and aluminum content reached unacceptably excessive stages whilst in comparison with general wastewater irrigation. These tiers had been found particularly inside the laundry greywater samples and had been really related to the compounds in the laundry detergents (Peterson, 2006). Patterson (2006) also found the industry standards suitable for using Phosphorous, Sodium, and pH in laundry detergents are missing. Patterson (2006) evaluated about 54 powder and 41 liquid laundry detergents, it highlighted the variability in Sodium and Phosphorus concentrations in laundry detergents, in particular in powder form.
Every greywater should be effectively treated because of the risk associated with it. It is a well-known fact that treated greywater possesses lower health risks or challenges depending on the type of treatment adopted for it. The usage of Greywater is multifaceted due to the fact that it can be used for a range of purposes such as toilet flushing, garden watering, and laundry. Because of the composition of micro-organism present in it, it is also expensive to set up a personal treatment plant which makes it risky if a cheap method is adopted. However, anyone considering having a treatment plant must possess an approved certificate by the necessary statutory body to avoid health risk to the public.