be perceived negatively in memory; however, some research suggests that
forgetting can aid remembering. Retrieval induced forgetting is a paradigm in
the memory theory that came to light by Anderson, Bjork & Bjork (1994)’s study.
It is an idea that inhibition can help retrieve a target item from memory and
while the inhibition may aid the retrieval of target items it may also hinder
the retrieval of non-target items. Retrieval induced forgetting attempts to overpower
irrelevant information to retrieve a target item. Retrieval induced forgetting utilises three phases: study,
retrieval practice and test. The study phase consists of participants studying
a series of category-exemplar pairs, for an example, fruit: apple; with each
series consisting of six exemplars within eight categories. The retrieval
practice phase follows the study phase; it entails the participants directly
retrieving half of the items from half of the categories. Retrieval is encouraged
by presenting a category name along with the first two letters from the
exemplar, for an example, fruit; ap___; each one will repeat a few times. The
final phase is the test phase; it consists of a category cued-recall test.
Participants are given a cue
with each category name and are asked to free recall any exemplars they can
remember within that category (Anderson, Bjork, & Bjork, 1994).
Retrieval-practice paradigm it
is constructed by three types of items; Rp+ items, Rp- items and NRP items.
Exemplars which are in the retrieval practice phase are referred to as Rp+
items; the non-practiced exemplars are from practiced categories are Rp-; and
the non-practiced exemplars from non-practiced categories are NRP. Storm et al., (2015) states that Rp+ items are recalled
better than RP- and NRP items.
of studies investigating retrieval induced forgetting have used words to explore
and examine retrieval induced forgetting; however, various of real world tasks
involve individuals to store a selection of objects in long-term memory (Maxcey
& Woodman, 2014). A study by Maxcey & Woodman (2014), studied forgetting
induced by visual images. The study used images of everyday objects too test
forgetting induced memory. In the study phase, participants were presented with
a series of real world objects which belonged to a range diverse semantic
categories for an example, cars, muffins, baskets. In the recognition practice
phase the participants were required to recognise half of the objects from half
of the studied categorises by identifying two of the objects which were the
familiar object rather than the a semantically related bait. During the test
phase Maxcey & Woodman (2014), utilised the old versus new judgement to
test the participants’ memory for the items shown in the study phase; in which
some were practised in the recognition practice phase, as well as rejection
rates to novel objects not previously seen. Maxcey & Woodman (2014),
utilised real world objects to explore whether this memory impairment spread to
representations in the same semantic category as the non-practiced item or
whether the benefit of recognition practice spread to representations in the
same semantic category as the presented items. They found no evidence of the
interaction between new exemplars within the same category.