Culture has both visible and invisible practices components. The invisible value- belief system of a culture is often the major driving force behind visible practice. Cultural assessment is a systematic and comprehensive examination of the culture care values, belief, and practices of individuals, families, and communities. Culture is the context for interpreting human experiences such as health and illness and provides direction to decisions and actions.
The United States of America and Canada are home to many cultural groups. Nurses need to become informed about and sensitive to culturally diverse. Healthcare provided awareness of diverse culturally competent care for diverse population. District of Columbia is the most diverse city in the United State. The patient population diversity and nurse meet inpatient care Hispanic. The Spanish language is a primary of the Hispanics population. Hispanics share a strong heritage and have district culture beliefs, family and religious each subgroup. The population profile of the United States is changing dramatically because of immigration patterns and a significant increase in culturally diverse populations. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, about 33% of the population now belongs to a racial or ethnic minority group (Perry, H. & Potter, S.,2013). Any important decisions are preferring the whole family not each decision. During the patient care, Hispanic required privacy while discussed with a patient.
Hispanic religion, languages as well as variations, but some difficulty with understanding among those who have differences. The youngest patient born in United State of from Hispanic that commonly uses a mix of language Spanish and English. Reading and writing are not a common means of communication among those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Hispanics population communicate with verbal and nonverbal that also characterized usually make with respectful. During a hospital or clinical visit, sometimes use interpret communicate with their provider. The great majority of Hispanics are Roman Catholic follower. The religious and spiritual belief influence in healthcare, illness, and daily life.
In Hispanics culture direct eye contact is less and usually respond is silence and non-compliance. Personalismo is an essential quality for providers to have when caring for this population. An older person should be addressed by their last name. Most latinos pray every day, most have a religious object in their home and most attend a religious service. Food plays an important role in the Hispanic culture. In some Hispanic cultures, a good meal will be balanced in food herbs by “hot” and “cold” types. The care at the end of life Hispanic population is the patients who are terminally ill are family involvement, religion, and stoicism. Family involvement during end life is many of relatives take part in physical and spiritual care. It is not uncommon for family members to come from other locales to give care and stay in the home of the person who is sick. Relatives are often event for extended periods of time in a hospital room and may also go with patients on the clinic or office visits. Relatives participate in physical and spiritual care. It is not uncommon for family members to come from other locales to provide care and stay in the home of the person who is sick
The cultural Healer Hispanic parteras includes combination of prayers, herbs, and other rituals to treat traditional illnesses, especially in children. Lay midwives help for women in childbirth and newborn care. Herbalists consultation for herbal treatment of traditional illnesses. Massage and manipulation of bones and joints used to treat a variety of ailments, including musculoskeletal conditions. Spiritualist forestelling of future and interpretation of dreams, a combination of prayers, herbs, potions, amulets, and prayers for curing illnesses, including witchcraft. Combination of prayers, symbolic offerings, herbs, potions, and amulets against witchcraft and curses. Prayer and ritual are integral parts of the dying process. Family members and friends off e r prayers at the bedside, at a home altar, and in church.
Traditional cultural beliefs and practices for childbearing and parenting. Based primarily on knowledge of Mexican- Americans, members of the Hispanic community have their origins in Spain, Cuba, Central and South America, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and other Spanish – speaking countries. During pregnancy Hispanic mother desired soon after marriage and labor are used of partera or lay midwife preferred in some places, may prefer the presence of a mother and not a husband. Newborn Hispanic mother mostly breastfeeding begun after the third day, colostrum may be considered “filthy” or just not enough nourishment (Wilson, L. & Hockenberry, P. 2014). The postpartum of Hispanic mother her diet may be restricted after birth and she ate the first two days boiled milk and toasted tortillas as well as she is bedrest three or four days.
Pain is a universal human experiencePain response is a differing ethical group about coping and way of processing. Hispanic Pain expression may vary among different populations. Pain is a complex phenomenon and undertreated or inadequately treated pain can have negative physical and physiologic consequences for patients of all ages and races. Findings suggest that culture, family beliefs, and religion contribute much to management and expression of pain by the patient and caregiver. When providing care to Hispanic patients, it is imperative to be nonjudgmental, sensitive and respectful. Hispanics are more likely to be undertreated for pain than Caucasian patients. This may be due to communication barriers, the patient being stoic and not asking for pain medicines, patient afraid to take the medicines.
Research has demonstrated that beliefs about and responses to pain vary among ethnic group. Client responses to pain should be assessed within the context of their culture, including ethnicity, age, gender, and previous pain experiences ( Blais, K. & Hayes, J.,2016). All culture has past, present, and future time dimensions. This information is useful in planning a day of care, setting up appointments for procedures, and helping a patient plan self-care activates in the home.