Home Research PapersCritiquing to be categorized under that term if not

Critiquing to be categorized under that term if not

Critiquing Jake
Lynch + Anabelle’s book and reporting the world series.

 

In Dave Loyn’s
critique of Jake Lynch and Anabelle dfdf’s book, ………., he shows discontent to
Lynch’s wording of “War Journalism”, refusing to be categorized under that term
if not under “Peace Journalism”.

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Before
understanding what ‘peace journalism’ is, one must understand what the word ‘peace’
is. ‘Peace’ can be relative. In the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict,
people who are pro-Israel can see that reaching peace would mean stopping

Opposite of Peace journalism is not “war journalism”, it’s
good journalism.

Using Objjectivity: to get a version of the truth. (Perfect
truth is unattainable)

Peace-reporting is less objective.

 

Peace journalism is meaningless. Unhelpful, misleading.

 

“Peace Journalism is when editors and reporters make choices
– of what stories to cover and about how to report them – that create
opportunities for society at large to consider and value non-violent responses
to conflict. ” – Lynch’s definition. Meaning all other of doing journalism are “war
journalism, biased in favour of war.” 
Loyn: opposite of peace journalism is good journalism.

 

 

 

–      
Not the role of a
journalist.

–      
Flawed: the world would be
a better place if wars were reported in a certain prescribed way, encouraging
peace makers rather than reporting warriors.

–      
Reporters don’t only look
for violence.

–      
There are certain
rules/framework that journalists should follow. Ie: gender stereotypes, racial
origins reporting unless relevant to story.

–      
Peace Journalists use
methods and analysis developed by academics in conflict resolution.

–      
Peace studies expert Johan
Galtung: “war journalists” of reporting war with no context, making war “secret”.

·     
Loyn response: reporting
history, why, who, how and what of war are all key parts of reporting.

 

–      
Galtung: blames journalists
for creating bad politicians.

 

·     
Loyn: creating peace-making
politicians is not the job of a reporter.

 

–      
Reporters are observers not
players. Galtung’s wrong to think that reporters are part of what makes the
conflict.

 

Emotions and Trauma.

–      
Peace Journalists say there
is not enough focus on psychology. Loyn: too much coverage of ‘trauma’.  Darfur crisis: pscholofy is center of most
coverage.

 

–      
Giving equality to both
sides is more important in journalism than “objectivity” or “truth”.

 

–      
Loyn agrees that we must be
more “emotionally literate” – and reports emotions better, but not throw away
established journalistic tools.

 

 

 

Truth and Objectivity

Baggini.

–      
Cannot be a ‘single truth’.

–      
You can try and seek truth
but it is unattainable.

–      
There are many true
accounts, they describe true descriptions of what happened. Many versions of
the truth.

 

–      
 Politicians > speak in a way which may be ‘true’,
not a lie, but still misleading because it’s not the whole truth.

 

–      
Objjectivity can be a tool,
Taliban: finding out what they were about, not promoting ‘non-violent responses
to conflict’.

 

Objectivity or Attachment.

–      
Objectivity can be
redefined but not rejected.

–      
Reporting can be
passionate, and require emotional engagement. But it’s not about how I feel.

 

Neutrality: Journalism of Attachment:

 

 

Case studies: examples.

–      
The world is not a noble
place. Believing the best in people.

–      
War berween Iran and Iraq
did not end because of complex journalism or peace plan, but because the US
shot down an Iranian airliner by accident. Iran offered cease fire because they
couldn’t fight the US aswell.  Iraq
accepted. This ended a war.

 

 

Bob Jobbins: Conflict resolution is something on which I
report, not something in which I engage.

 

 

 

Pro Peace Journalism.

 

Jake Lynch:

 

–      
Most important stories are
being distorted.

–      
US president is pro war,
always on TV. Gets more coverage, even when he has nothing new to say.

 

A lot is happening in anti-war, direct actions, public meetings,
proposals for governments and UN to apply democracy in Iraq.

Mainstream UK media, mentioned in newspaper articles, but
not enough coverage.

 

–      
Think tanks,

Objectivity: a speech by a governer/president being reported
can be reported objectively without the newspaper necessarly agreeing with it,
only because of their position.

 

Example: if a suicide bombing happens by Palestinians, or
Muslim Brotherhood, and only this news is reported “objectively” regardless of
the long years of illegal occupation and torturing of Muslim Brotherood.

 

–      
Pro Palestine, Pro Israel.
Who really are the settlers?

 

 

 

 

What is Peace Journalism?

Peace journalism is a way in which reporting can be done
that is different to how the ,majority of mainstream media operates. ‘War
Journalism’

 

–      
Structural violence as part
of the explanation for direct violence.

–      
“Ancient hatred” of Arabs
to Israelis, instead of looking at structure and context set in place.

–      
Diversity of perspective… positive
awareness . Many reports of conflicts are like a game, victory or defeat.

–      
A way to divery of
perspective: peace initiatives. Even if they are by a minority within the
conflict .

 

 

What is peace?

Palestine conflict.

Two sides of peace:

Israelis can see peace as Palestinians being non-violent.
Palestinians see peace as justice and fairness, ending occupation, solutions,
returning, freedom of movement.

 

 

Peace,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.   
Peace journalism can be understood as a
further adaptation, so War Journalism is

•                    
Violence/war-orientated ?

•                    
Propaganda-orientated ?

•                    
Elite-orientated ?

•                    
Victory-orientated ?

 

And peace journalism itself is therefore:

•                    
Peace/conflict-orientated ?

•                    
Truth-orientated ?

•                    
People-orientated ?

•                    
Solution-orientated ?

 

 

 

who, what, where, when, why and how. When
covering conflicts, these correspond roughly to what peace researchers call
‘conflict dynamics’. According to one of them, Diana Francis, any statement of
the dynamics of a conflict must identify “its history, recent causes and internal
com- position – the different parties, the nature of their involvement, their
perspectives, positions and motivations, and the dif- ferent relationships
between them in terms of power, allegiance and interest” (Francis, 2002, p 28).

 

Another prominent peace researcher, John Paul
Lederach, has commented:

“I have not experienced any
situation of conflict, no matter how protracted or severe, from Central America
to the Philippines to the Horn of Africa, where there have not been people who
had a vision for peace, emerging often from their own experience of pain. Far
too often, however, these same people are overlooked and disempowered either
because they do not represent ‘official’ power, whether on the side of
government or the various militias, or because they are written off as biased
and too personally affected by the conflict” (1997: 94).

Despite what Loyn says,
they are often overlooked by journalists, too, because they do not represent
official sources.

 

Media activism

It means that peace journalism is possible,
and realistic, here and now, for professional journalists, and it can become
the focus of media activism.

 

 

 

–      
Power, pressure on
journalists

 

War Journalism:

 

Divides the world into
good and evil.

Focus on military
leaders.

Tug of war, who will win.
Victory oriented.

Elite oriented.

 

 

Peace Journalism:

Started with an empirical
study, in Oslo… what is the criteria that an “event” has to have in order to
become “news”? There are a lot of things happening in the world today, many
wars and conflicts, but not everything can or is reported. There are four
criteria:

Firstly “Events” in
countries that are more developed, secondly about the upper class, thirdly
about actors not processes and structures, and fourthly an event that is
negative.

 

 

Seek the causes of
conflict. What is the conflict about? And where is the problem to be found?

“Looking at good and bad
in all parties.”

People from grassroots of
conflict.

Solution oriented.

Truth. Not relative
truth, but talking about what actually happened on the ground, and answering the
questions of Who? What? Where? How? Why? When reporting.

 

Examples:

The struggle for context.

911: Newsweek
publication, “Why they hate us” with a picture of a Muslim.

Richard Perke: “We need
to decontextualize terror… any attempt to discuss the roots of terrorism is an
attempt to justify it. It is simply needs to be fought and destroyed.”

In a nutshell, is the
ideology of the ‘war on terrorism.’

Framing:

“To frame is to select
some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a
communicating text in such a way as to promote a particular problem,
definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and/or treatment
recommendation”

 

Johan Gultang. “What you
say is rather interesting, but what is more interesting is what you do not say”.
– reporting.

 

How can journalists
report wars and conflicts around the world without playing a role in violence
and being an invitation to hatred.

 

 

References: Reporting
Conflict: New Directions in Peace Journalism

 

–      
Many professionals
debated the role of journalism in creating peace in the world.

 

·     
Peace Journalism can play a
rol

“War is” (quote) British Philosopher, Arnold Thoembi, in our
modern days, wars seem like they are a fuel for reporters. Newspapers and TVs
around the world are filled with images of blood, killings, and destructed
cities. Viewers today, spend a big amount of their time watching and learning
about too many violent acts.

 

The psychology of the viewer and the psychology of the media
outlets portray, the majority of the times, the negative news, throughout
history.

What controls news rooms is news that is a “hot topic”, or interesting,
or more entertaining to the viewers. Just like watching a football match, the
concept of having two teams playing against each other, one team will win and
one will lose. The same concept is being used in media reporting today, and is
what is understood as ‘War Journalism’ according to ‘Peace Journalists’. In reporting
conflicts, war journalists see the conflict as though it is a competition, one
side against the other, making it “more appealing” to the viewers, without considering
what the consequences of such reporting could be. This “us” vs “them” mentality
only focuses on what the negatives are. “Us” being “the truth” and “them” being
the false news, and the enemy.

 

‘Peace Journalism’s core is to change this kind of rhetoric.
It is more people oriented; focusing more on the context of the conflict, what
caused it, and seeking the “truth” behind it. Peace journalism also seeks
solutions to these conflicts, not necessarily directly planning out the process
of fixing the conflict but providing a push towards a direction of reaching
peace unlike ‘war journalism’ where the direction it takes is

•                    
Peace/conflict-orientated ?

•                    
Truth-orientated ?

•                    
People-orientated ?

•                    
Solution-orientated ?

 

 

“War Journalism”

 

The difference between Western media and Middle Eastern
media, media in the Middle East might be more of a cause of violence and biased
forms of reporting, due to many factors including the contexts of these war
torn countries and lack of freedom of press and speech.

 

By the end of World War two, there was a lot of European cities
that were destructed, communities that were torn apart, economic problems,
psychological issues, with the rise of the use the television in the 1950s. It
started becoming a debate that it journalists should have a positive social responsibility
in covering conflicts rather than being part of the conflict itself.

 

Galtung and Jake Lynch, Peace Journalism focuses more on the
conflict itself and its structures and contexts, through using the right wording,
framing the conflicts, not only who “wins” and who “loses”, or who “dies” and
who “lives” in the conflict like it’s a sort of video game, but more about
putting emphasis on giving showing different voices. By giving different voices
and putting more focus on those seeking different solutions, and proposing
different new solutions to conflicts.

 

Peace Journalism is a fairly new concept, and specifically
in the Arab world, it is not very commonly practiced. Even in the West,
although courses and workshops in ‘Peace Journalism’ are taught, the majority
of the news reported is not.

 

“Peace Journalism” or “Ethical Journalism”, one in the same,
needs to also show the reality of what is going on in the ground and also be
reliable and ethical. Peace Journalism is against showing imagery of blood, or
normalizing death.

 

The Middle East today is a hub of conflicts, from uprisings
and ‘revolutions’ in Egypt, Tunisia, to years of the Palestinian-Israeli
conflict, as well as the long running internal Syrian conflict and much more. Because
of all the ongoing conflicts in the region, it is a misconception that for
reality to be reported reliably, there is no room for peace. It is unfortunate
that the Arab world today does experience many wars and conflicts that make it
a complex area of journalistic reporting, and causes many journalists and media
outlets become part of the actual struggle therefore making the real role of
journalism in favour of the political agendas and gains.

 

 

Journalism doesn’t necessarily mean the ability to report
reality as it is but it also has the ability to cause change. This authority is
a double-edged sword. It can cause both positive and negative impacts.
Journalism depicts the audience’s points of view, it can decide how people
think, and how they perceive others.

 

Lebanon: May 7th, 
2008:

It’s not to say these events are trivial, but this exaggeration
puts people on edge, causes people to hate each other, causes people to not
live in peace, which according to those in favour of “peace journalism” should
not be the role of a journalist.

Peace Journalism centres upon analysing the conflict, and
transforming it. It shows the common grounds between two conflicting parties.

It is not a reporter’s direct duty to present solutions, but
a reporter can certainly pave the way toward finding a solution by creating the
foundation. War journalism, however, is concerned with who won, who lost, who
was the victor, who is strong, and who is weak.

 

Example: Lebanese mainstream media

In efforts to start spreading the idea of ‘Peace Journalism’
in Lebanon, Lebanese Journalist, Vanessa Bassil, decided to start changing the
narrative and put ‘peace journalism’ into practice herself. Lebanese mainstream
war journalism focuses on sectarian divisions in Lebanon in a “us” against “them”
way, depending on which media outlet it is, and which sect is dominant.
Vanessa, decided to look into, “Youth Transcend Religion”, which is an
initiative which united 20 young Lebanese women and men from different sects
and religions. The group stayed together for 10 days. When she told her chief
editor that she would like to report this event and shed more light on this
initiative, he didn’t believe her that this initiative took place in Lebanon
and was waiting for her to document that this group did not manage to get along
together. This is just a sheer example that as a result of ‘War Journalism’s’ successful
constant portrayal and conflict between different medias in Lebanon and how
each sect chooses to portray itself and the ‘others’ and how their wordings shape
their internal conflicts, is what shapes the public’s view and understanding.
This is why she felt the need to cover more stories like this initiative and
show how some groups are building bridges. The mere action of just reporting
events like that in a different kind of way than mainstream media in itself is
part of a change. David Loyn pointed out in his article, that a reporter’s job
is not to seek changes or solutions to conflicts, but is only to ‘objectively’
report what happens on the ground as it is. However, a reporter can certainly
pave the way towards finding a solution by creating the foundation. Different
methods of reporting events, those of ‘peace journalism’ and what we choose to
give coverage to, is in fact a foundation, and a responsibility.

 

 

 

 

 

·     
Discuss how David Loyn sees
Peace Journalism.

·     
“War journalism”

·     
What is truth? Relative.

·     
Egypt – Muslim brotherhood.

·     
Lebanon

·     
Palestine/Israel

 

 

 

 

 

Framing:

 

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