CORROSION ANALYSIS OF SOLVENTS USED FOR CO2 ABSORPTION
17335509525
By
1. Muhammad Zeeshan Malik (GL) 15CH56
2. Shah Nawaz Somro (AGL) 15CH24
3. Shah Nawaz Abro 15CH08
4. Fayaz Ahmed Mangi 15CH149
5. Abdul Qadir khan Mahar 15CH160
Supervised by
Dr. Muhammad Shuaib Shaikh
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of the Bachelor of Chemical Engineering
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING
MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
JAMSHORO
October, 2018
DEDICATIONThis great work is dedicated to our loving parents without their support, knowledge and guidance we would not be able to achieve these goals. Our parents have always remained a true inspiration for us and constant support for us in the most difficult times and they hold the real credit for efforts. Without their sacrifices and prayers nothing would have been possible. Our all efforts are in vain without our parent’s prayers. They never let us feel alone and became our right hand in our every achievement. Our great parents deserve all the appreciation for this thesis.

CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that the work presented in this thesis presented on “CORROSION ANALYSIS OF SOLVENTS USED FOR CO2 ABSORPTION” is entirely designed, developed and written by the following students themselves under the excellent supervision of Professor, Dr. Muhammad Shuaib Shaikh.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

NAME OF STUDENT ROLL NUMBER
1. Muhammad Zeeshan Malik (GL) 15CH56
2. Shah Nawaz Somro (AGL) 15CH24
3. Shah Nawaz Abro 15CH08
4. Fayaz Ahmed Mangi 15CH149
5. Abdul Qadir Mahar 15CH160
3667125946150054292510922000
(Supervisor)(Chairman)
Dr. Muhammad Shuaib ShaikhDr. Farman Ali Shah

center31369000

(External)
Dated: October 2018
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTWe always pray to ALLAH Almighty for His blessing and guidance and our deepest gratitude are to Him for opening new horizons in pursuit for knowledge. With ALLAH’s benevolence difficult tasks started becoming easy and finally we have been able to complete this thesis.

The task would never have been accomplished that easily without teaching and direction of our learned teacher and supervisor Mr. Muhammad Shuaib Shaikh.

We also thank to all technical and laboratory staff who helped us in completing this task.

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u DEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc523973054 h iiCERTIFICATE PAGEREF _Toc523973055 h iiiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc523973056 h ivList of tables PAGEREF _Toc523973057 h xiList of figures PAGEREF _Toc523973058 h xiiList of abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc523973059 h xiiiAbstract PAGEREF _Toc523973060 h xivChapter 1 PAGEREF _Toc523973061 h 1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc523973062 h 11.1Background PAGEREF _Toc523973063 h 11.2Problem statement PAGEREF _Toc523973064 h 21.3Research objectives PAGEREF _Toc523973065 h 31.4Scope of study PAGEREF _Toc523973066 h 31.4Thesis structure PAGEREF _Toc523973067 h 4Chapter 2 PAGEREF _Toc523973068 h 5Literature review PAGEREF _Toc523973069 h 52.1Carbon dioxide emissions PAGEREF _Toc523973070 h 52.2Carbon dioxide capture PAGEREF _Toc523973071 h 62.3Corrosion in CO2 absorption plants PAGEREF _Toc523973072 h 72.4Consequences of corrosion in CO2 absorption process PAGEREF _Toc523973073 h 82.5Types of corrosion PAGEREF _Toc523973074 h 122.6Solvents and their selection in CO2 absorption PAGEREF _Toc523973075 h 132.7Parameters affecting corrosion rate PAGEREF _Toc523973076 h 142.7.1Concentration of solvent PAGEREF _Toc523973077 h 142.7.2Effect of iron concentration PAGEREF _Toc523973078 h 142.7.3Temperature PAGEREF _Toc523973079 h 152.7.4PH of solvent PAGEREF _Toc523973080 h 152.7.5CO2 loading PAGEREF _Toc523973081 h 152.7.6Presence of O2 PAGEREF _Toc523973082 h 152.7.7Heat-stable salts PAGEREF _Toc523973083 h 152.7.8Effect of makeup water PAGEREF _Toc523973084 h 152.7.9Effect of corrosion Inhibitors PAGEREF _Toc523973085 h 16Chapter 3 PAGEREF _Toc523973086 h 18Material and Methodology PAGEREF _Toc523973087 h 183.1Installation of corrosion studies kit (CSK) PAGEREF _Toc523973088 h 183.2Materials PAGEREF _Toc523973089 h 193.2.1Metal coupons PAGEREF _Toc523973090 h 193.2.2Materials for test solutions PAGEREF _Toc523973091 h 213.3Methodology PAGEREF _Toc523973092 h 213.3.1Preparation of test solutions PAGEREF _Toc523973093 h 213.3.2Preparation of MEA solutions PAGEREF _Toc523973094 h 213.3.3Preparation of Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523973095 h 213.3.4Preparation of metal coupons PAGEREF _Toc523973096 h 223.3.5Measurement of metal coupons PAGEREF _Toc523973097 h 223.4.6Immersion of samples in test vessels PAGEREF _Toc523973099 h 243.5Procedure PAGEREF _Toc523973100 h 25Chapter 4 PAGEREF _Toc523973101 h 26Results and Discussions PAGEREF _Toc523973102 h 264.1WEIGHT LOSS IN SAMPLES PAGEREF _Toc523973103 h 264.2Experimental conditions PAGEREF _Toc523973104 h 274.3Weight loss of CS1017 in MEA solution percentage PAGEREF _Toc523973105 h 284.4Weight loss of CS1017 in Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523973107 h 314.5Comparison of weight loss of CS1017 in MEA ad Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523973110 h 344.6Effect of solution concentration on weight loss PAGEREF _Toc523973111 h 354.7Determining corrosion rate PAGEREF _Toc523973112 h 374.8Corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA Solution PAGEREF _Toc523973113 h 384.9Corrosion rate of CS1017 in Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523973115 h 404.10Comparison of corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523973117 h 424.12Corrosion analysis of CS1017 MEA and Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523973118 h 44Chapter 6 PAGEREF _Toc523973119 h 45Conclusions and Future work PAGEREF _Toc523973120 h 455.1Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc523973121 h 455.2Future Work PAGEREF _Toc523973122 h 45References PAGEREF _Toc523973123 h 46
List of tablesTable No.DescriptionPage No.

TOC c “Table 2.” Table 2. 1: Date table from research articles on corrosion by amino acid based solvents PAGEREF _Toc523969185 h 24
TOC c “Table 3.” Table 3. 1: Density and composition of carbon steel 1017……………………………………… PAGEREF _Toc523969344 h 29
Table 3. 2: Dimensions, area and weight of CS1017 coupons. PAGEREF _Toc523969345 h 31
TOC c “Table 4.” Table 4. 1: Tested parameters and conditions for corrosion experiments………………………. PAGEREF _Toc523969235 h 35
Table 4. 2: Weight loss measured after 7 days in MEA solution PAGEREF _Toc523969236 h 36
Table 4. 3: Weight loss measured after 7 days in Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523969237 h 39
Table 4. 4: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA Solution PAGEREF _Toc523969238 h 46
Table 4. 5: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523969239 h 48
Table 4. 6: Comparison of average corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523969240 h 51

List of figuresFigure No.DescriptionPage No.

TOC c “Figure 2.” Figure 2. 1: Share of global CO2 emissions from fuel combustion PAGEREF _Toc523969572 h 15
TOC c “Figure 3.” Figure 3. 1: Corrosion Studies Kit (CSK) PAGEREF _Toc523969616 h 27
Figure 3. 2: CS1017 metal strips PAGEREF _Toc523969617 h 28
Figure 3. 3: CS1017 strips after cutting. PAGEREF _Toc523969618 h 28
Figure 3. 4: CS1017 coupons after finishing. PAGEREF _Toc523969619 h 29
Figure 3. 5: CS1017 coupons after number punching. PAGEREF _Toc523969620 h 29
Figure 3. 6: Immersion of samples in test vessels PAGEREF _Toc523969621 h 33
TOC c “Figure 4.” Figure 4. 1: Weight loss measured after 7 days in MEA solution………………………………. PAGEREF _Toc523969642 h 37
Figure 4. 2: CS1017 coupons in MEA solution after 7 days (Before post-cleaning) PAGEREF _Toc523969643 h 38
Figure 4. 3: CS1017 coupons in MEA solution after 7 days (After post-cleaning) PAGEREF _Toc523969644 h 38
Figure 4. 4: Weight loss measured after 7 days in Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523969645 h 40
Figure 4. 5: CS1017 coupons in Glycine solution after 7 days (Before post-cleaning) PAGEREF _Toc523969646 h 41
Figure 4. 6: Comparison of weight loss of CS1017 in MEA ad Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523969647 h 42
Figure 4. 7: Effect of solution concentration on weight loss PAGEREF _Toc523969648 h 44
Figure 4. 8: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA Solution PAGEREF _Toc523969649 h 47
Figure 4. 9: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523969650 h 49
Figure 4. 10: Comparison of average corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solution PAGEREF _Toc523969651 h 50
Figure 4. 11: Color of Glycine solution after 7 days. PAGEREF _Toc523969652 h 52

List of abbreviationsCSK Corrosion Studies Kit
CR Corrosion Rate
EA Exposed Area
ET Exposure Time
ML Metal Loss
Mmpy Milimetre per year
N Normality
MpyMils per year
MEAMonoethanolamine
CS1017Carbon steel 1017

AbstractThe effect of weight loss and corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solution, using three concentrations (10%, 20% and 30%), at ambient temperature for a period of 7 days. It was seen that weight loss increased with the increase in concentration of solution. This affects the corrosion rate, which varies directly with the corrosion rate. Furthermore, weight loss and consequently corrosion rate of CS1017 was observed more in glycine solution than MEA solution. This applies that glycine solution is more corrosive than MEA solution.

Chapter 1Introduction1.1BackgroundCO2, which is one of the major greenhouse gas, is released to the atmosphere by many human activities and many chemical process industries. CO2 along with other greenhouse gases, increasingly gather in the atmosphere. Due to these gases many environmental issues, such as global warming and climate change take place, due to the fact that act as heat barrier in the atmosphere, which reflects heat back to the earth surface after absorbing it. Because of this phenomena a rapid increase in global average temperature of earth happens.

Apart of many other sources, combustion of fossil fuels for different energy generation purposes, emits a lot of carbon dioxide. About 92% of total CO2 emissions are due to fossil fuels combustion ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Krzemie?</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>1</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659525″>1</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Krzemie?, Alicja</author><author>Wi?ckol-Ryk, Angelika</author><author>Smoli?ski, Adam</author><author>Koteras, Aleksandra</author><author>Wi?c?aw-Solny, Lucyna</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Assessing the risk of corrosion in amine-based CO 2 capture process</title><secondary-title>Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries</full-title></periodical><pages>189-197</pages><volume>43</volume><section>189</section><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>09504230</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jlp.2016.05.020</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>1. Alternative energy sources like renewable energy resources, are not as much effective as non-renewable energy resources. So, we are only left with the option of non-renewable energy resources, like fossil fuels.
As CO2 emission is a big global issue, and it causes global warming. This CO2 can be captured using CO2 absorption processes by solvents. Among the commercially available technologies for chemical absorption of CO2 the following five should be mentioned: Fluor’s Econamine FG Plus, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries KS solvent, Cansolv Technologies, Aker Clean Carbon, and Alstom’s Chilled Ammonia Process ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Krzemie?</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>1</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659525″>1</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Krzemie?, Alicja</author><author>Wi?ckol-Ryk, Angelika</author><author>Smoli?ski, Adam</author><author>Koteras, Aleksandra</author><author>Wi?c?aw-Solny, Lucyna</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Assessing the risk of corrosion in amine-based CO 2 capture process</title><secondary-title>Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries</full-title></periodical><pages>189-197</pages><volume>43</volume><section>189</section><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>09504230</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jlp.2016.05.020</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>1. All of these technologies mostly uses either aqueous amines or their blends.
Chemical absorption processes for CO2 based on organic solvents such as amines, are now a days most preferred options for post capture process of CO2. But, this CO2 capture has some side effects. And one of the main side effect is that it causes corrosion to the metals. Corrosion has very serious consequences, not only on performance and economics of equipment also on safety and environment of our society. Corrosion consumes metals and deteriorate them.

In most of the chemical process industries, CO2 capturing process becomes a fatigue due to corrosion. It affects the economics of CO2 absorption plant badly. Not only metals get deteriorates but also the degradation of solvents and chemicals used for CO2 absorption. Solvent degradation not only complicate the corrosion and increases its rate but also it causes toxicity in the rivers and to marine life, because when it’s of no use, it is drawn into the rivers.

Corrosion of carbon steel and stainless steel is of great practical interest as these are widely used in the oil, gas and offshore environments for pipelines, flow-lines, platforms, down-hole tubular equipment’s, well heads, industrial vessels etc.

1.2Problem statementThe CO2 absorption process using aqueous amine solution always get affected by corrosion related problems. These corrosion problems get more complicated by the introduction of oxygen rich environment and contaminants from the products of combustion (Nitrogen oxides, Supper oxides, Particulates, etc…). Corrosion rate of metals increases, and solvents degradation also increases. This solvent degradation further increases corrosion rate, and solvent degradation also affects marine life, as it causes toxicity in the rivers when thrown to water.

Corrosion of elements and metals is a major issue in industries that has encouraged researchers in recent decades to work on corrosion related problems. Huge financial losses are faced by industrialist by the replacement of corroded parts, due to corrosion of metals.

Metals constitutes a major part of construction material in industries, agricultural equipment, petrochemical and allied industries. In these industries metals lose their durability over a period of time due to phenomena of corrosion. Corrosion of metals in industries is not a new problem, but it has challenged the industrial world for years, and is studied variously. This corrosion problem results in the destruction of metal through an electrochemical or chemical process due to the environment.

This corrosion of metals eventually leads to additional expenses to the process cost, which badly affects the economics of the industry. It also has an adverse effect on the safety of plant personnel. In the past many incidents of injuries and deaths has happened due to collapsing of equipment or other parts of plant due to corrosion. According to the CC Technologies & NACE International, in 1998, the additional expenses of plant due to corrosion, in the United States was calculated at US$276 billion, while that for petroleum refining alone was US$3.7 billion. Of this total expenditure, the expenses for maintenance were estimated at $1.8 billion, the vessel turnaround expenses were at $1.4 billion, and the fouling-related costs were approximately $0.5 billion annually.
This reflects a significant impact of corrosion problems in plant operations. Plants are sometimes shut down for maintenance, because of damaging of parts of equipment due to corrosion, which also affects the reliability of the plant. Other than these, there are many other problem because of corrosion, and need to cured or at least minimized. Due to the damages discussed above, the research on corrosion becomes so vital, and need to be studied.

Therefore, this work will explore the corrosion analysis of CS1017 in the solutions of MEA and Glycine, using Weight Loss Coupon method.

1.3Research objectivesThe main objectives of our work are:
To investigate the corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine.

To study effect of different concentrations of solvents on corrosion rate.

To compare the results of weight loss and corrosion rate of CS1017.

To compare the corrosion rates on CS1017 by MEA and Glycine with standard values in the literature
1.4Scope of studyThis study focuses on laboratory scale corrosion testing of amino acid based solvents used for CO2 capturing. Laboratory equipment, namely corrosion studies kit (CSK), is used for corrosion rate of sample.

Solvents used for this research work are MEA and glycine. Selection of these solvents is due to their use in CO2 capturing plants, for CO2 absorption. These different concentrations of these solvents are used.

Weight Loss Coupon method is used for the measurement of corrosion rates. It is still one of the most accurate method for determining corrosion rate. It gives more accurate results for corrosion rate as compared to other electrochemical methods, like potentio-dynamics technique. This is because it takes enough time to get corrosion on sample, and errors affects the corrosion rate least. Detailed study of corrosion product, and its analysis can be made by using this method. While, a minor mistake in electrochemical method can made a big difference on corrosion rate.

Two parameters of solvents are used for this study. These are concentration and temperature of solvents. Concentration and temperature of solvents are obtained from literature.

CS1017 is used as specimen for investigation of corrosion rates of solvents. This is because in most CO2 capturing plants, different grades of carbon steel are used. While, stainless steel is not used, as it is resistive to corrosion.

This study does not account for the prevention of corrosion. It only deals with the weight loss and corrosion rate of specimen in solvents.

Specimen and solvents are purchased from local vendor.

1.4Thesis structureFirst chapter is about introduction of the topic. It answer these questions: How CO2 emission takes place, why these are dangerous, how climate of world has disturbed due to CO2 emissions, how to capture CO2, how corrosion takes place, how it affects the equipment and metals, what are the consequences of solvents on metals used for this process and which solvent is more corrosive. First it describes the problem, then tells about the objectives of the research work and finally about the scope of the study.

Second chapter deals with the relevant literature that is studied to know about the problem and its solution. It tells about the, CO2 emissions, capturing technologies for CO2, solvents used for CO2 absorption, their selection criteria, corrosivity of these solvents, consequences of corrosion and different parameters affecting rate of corrosion of metals due to solvents. It include research papers and articles related to the topic.

Chapter three deals about the methodology, in which detailed procedure about equipment on which we have performed the practical work (Corrosion Studies Kit), and the materials including solvents (MEA and Glycine) and metal (CS1017) are discussed. Sample preparation, solution preparation and procedure for the weight loss method is also discussed in this chapter.

Chapter four is about the result of our experiments, which includes mathematical and graph work of thesis. It is comprised of comparison of weight loss percentage and corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA solution and glycine solution at different concentrations.

Second last chapter deals with the conclusion of our research work. It is basically summary of our thesis, and the suggestion for future work.

Last chapter have references of the literature that we have reviewed for our thesis.

Chapter 2Literature review2.1Carbon dioxide emissionsWe all know that global warming and climate change is due to the greenhouse gases, such as CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and other chlorofluorocarbons ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gao</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><DisplayText>2</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659540″>3</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gao, Jubao</author><author>Wang, Shujuan</author><author>Zhou, Shan</author><author>Zhao, Bo</author><author>Chen, Changhe</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Corrosion and degradation performance of novel absorbent for CO2 capture in pilot-scale</title><secondary-title>Energy Procedia</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Energy Procedia</full-title></periodical><pages>1534-1541</pages><volume>4</volume><section>1534</section><dates><year>2011</year></dates><isbn>18766102</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.022</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>2.

Among these greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide gas from the combustion of fossil fuel is most dangerous one. The main sources of carbon dioxide emissions are cement plant, power plant, steel plant and refinery plant. CO2 emission from fossil fuel power plant constitutes 30% of the total emissions, whereas overall combustion of fossil fuel yields 92% of the total emissions in the world ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Krzemie?</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>1</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659525″>1</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Krzemie?, Alicja</author><author>Wi?ckol-Ryk, Angelika</author><author>Smoli?ski, Adam</author><author>Koteras, Aleksandra</author><author>Wi?c?aw-Solny, Lucyna</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Assessing the risk of corrosion in amine-based CO 2 capture process</title><secondary-title>Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries</full-title></periodical><pages>189-197</pages><volume>43</volume><section>189</section><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>09504230</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.jlp.2016.05.020</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>1.

This CO2 stays long enough in the atmosphere to become well mixed. Earth gets warmer by its presence as it thickens the earth blanket. It absorbs infrared radiations which insulate the earth and helps to keep the lower atmosphere warm for life to exist. Over the last hundred years or so humans have been artificially adding a significantly higher amount of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The main sources of CO2 in the atmosphere artificially are mentioned in the above paragraph. Its increasing level in the atmosphere is causing the earth temperature to rise, as happened with earth’s sister planet Venus, where CO2 level rose too much. As a result of these high levels of carbon dioxide in Venus is that much of the Sun’s heat has been trapped on the planet, driving the temperature on the surface up to hundreds of degrees. Much too hot for life.

Due to the alarming situation of CO2 emissions and its effects, international community has taken immediate steps to protect our environment. Many chemicals which are hazardous to our environment and health and safety of people are prohibited to use. Industries are restricted to not emit greenhouse gases to the open environment. Laws have been made to control emission of untreated flue gases.

Nowadays, use of renewable energy sources, such as hydro, nuclear, biomass and solar energy are among the steps that have taken to overcome or reduce CO2 emissions. But, these renewable energy sources are still not up-to the mark in term of cost effectiveness and safety. So, we only left with the option to continue with the fossil fuel, as an energy source.

Many of the developed countries of the world emit immensely different amounts of carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere. The table below shows data given by the International energy agency, which approximate carbon dioxide release from the combustion of coal, natural gas, oil and other fuels and it also includes industrial waste and non-renewable waste of municipal.

Figure 2. SEQ Figure_2. * ARABIC 1: Share of global CO2 emissions from fuel combustion2.2Carbon dioxide captureFossil fuels are still the most valuable energy source with no other alternate, as discussed earlier. But, these emits too much CO2 in the atmosphere. A lot of work has been done to take measures to control CO2 emissions.

Many researchers and scientists have presented their work, to draw their attention toward the post-combustion CO2 capture. It involves the recovering of CO2 as an industrial flue gas, before releasing it into the environment and the combustion process continue as it is without any disturbance. And then this CO2 can be used in enhanced oil recovery operations or stored in reservoirs ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Soosaiprakasam</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><DisplayText>3</DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659548″>4</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Soosaiprakasam, Immanuel Raj</author><author>Veawab, Amornvadee</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Corrosion and polarization behavior of carbon steel in MEA-based CO2 capture process</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control</full-title></periodical><pages>553-562</pages><volume>2</volume><number>4</number><section>553</section><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>17505836</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.02.009</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>3.

With reference to increasing emissions of CO2 from industrial processes over the last few decades, more research is being centered on pragmatic ways of trimming the amount released to the atmosphere. CO2 absorption and storage is the most reliable and easily accessible technology, and it can be implemented rapidly, so as to meet required needs. Among the alternatives being supposed to use for CO2 capture from flue gases, Post Combustion Capture (PCC) using amino acid based solvents, is the most recent technology. The process includes the reversible reaction of CO2 to one or more amino acid based solvent in aqueous solution, which allow selective removal of CO2 from the flue gas stream ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Pearson</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>10</RecNum><DisplayText>4</DisplayText><record><rec-number>10</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659594″>10</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Pearson, Pauline</author><author>Hollenkamp, Anthony F.</author><author>Meuleman, Erik</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Electrochemical investigation of corrosion in CO2 capture plants—Influence of amines</title><secondary-title>Electrochimica Acta</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Electrochimica Acta</full-title></periodical><pages>511-516</pages><volume>110</volume><section>511</section><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>00134686</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.electacta.2013.02.036</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>4.

There are many technologies introduced for CO2 capturing, some important technologies are mentioned below:
Fluor’s Econamine FG Plus
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries KS solvent
Cansolv Technologies,
Aker Clean Carbon, and
Alstom’s Chilled Ammonia Process
And the most effective one is the one involving amine treating process. This process was previously used only for the removal of acidic impurities for the last 6-7 decades ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Soosaiprakasam</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><DisplayText>3</DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659548″>4</key><key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””>0</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Soosaiprakasam, Immanuel Raj</author><author>Veawab, Amornvadee</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Corrosion and polarization behavior of carbon steel in MEA-based CO2 capture process</title><secondary-title>International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control</full-title></periodical><pages>553-562</pages><volume>2</volume><number>4</number><section>553</section><dates><year>2008</year></dates><isbn>17505836</isbn><urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.02.009</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>3. Most amine treating plants uses amino acid based solvents, which are capable of reacting preferentially with CO2. In this process reverse chemical reaction between CO2 and aqueous amine takes place.

2.3Corrosion in CO2 absorption plantsCorrosion is deterioration of the substance and its properties because of the reaction with its environment, which may be chemical or electrochemical. Normally, corrosion is associated with metals, but non-metals and plastics can also corrode. Corrosion commonly happens due to metallic reaction with oxygen and water. But, it’s not only limited to oxygen and water, as it can be due to any liquid or solvent. It can occur in many forms, ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Soosaiprakasam;/Author;;Year;2008;/Year;;RecNum;4;/RecNum;;DisplayText;3;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;4;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659548″;4;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Soosaiprakasam, Immanuel Raj;/author;;author;Veawab, Amornvadee;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Corrosion and polarization behavior of carbon steel in MEA-based CO2 capture process;/title;;secondary-title;International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;553-562;/pages;;volume;2;/volume;;number;4;/number;;section;553;/section;;dates;;year;2008;/year;;/dates;;isbn;17505836;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.ijggc.2008.02.009;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;3 like general, galvanic, crevice, pitting, intergranular, selective leaching, erosion and stress corrosion cracking.

Material resources are very important to preserve, as their destruction will someday lead to acute shortage of these materials. Some metals like iron are very precious because our planet earth don’t have this naturally, as it’s a foreign element. All we have to do is to either get rid of corrosion or find a way overcome this problem or at least reduce it.

CO2 capturing plants use different solvents for CO2 absorptions. In amine treating plant, amino acid based solvents like MEA, MDEA, PZ, AMP and DEA are used for CO2 absorption. However, depending on the operating conditions, in some parts of the plant phenomena of corrosion happens which results in reduced efficiency and increased cost of the process.

Generally, amines are not corrosive with respect to its inherent nature, since these have high pH and also have low conductivity. But, these become corrosive when absorb CO2 and H2S. In addition to this, the amine solution may become enriched with degradation products, since the process takes place in the treatment units which operate in semi-closed circuit.

There are various opinion regarding the mechanism of corrosion by amine solution. Different models presented for the corrosion of solvents differ from each other depending on the type of amine (primary, secondary or tertiary), the ratio of H2S and CO2 in the gas to be treated and the presence of oxygen in the gas which may be present as a contaminant in the circuit or as a constituent of the input gas.

2.4Consequences of corrosion in CO2 absorption processCorrosion of solvents during CO2 absorption process on metal has a number of consequences which are well documented with worldwide significance. Corrosion affects the plant and machinery in many ways. It has many serious effects on performance, economics, safety and environmental consequences on our society. Study of factors, which causes or effect the solution to these problems will give information about the development of new materials and performance enhancement, so that corrosion can be minimized.

Corrosion severely effects the following functions of metals, plant, and consequently affects the efficiency and economics of the plant:
i. Impermeability
Impermeability is the property of pipes, process equipment, food container, tanks, etc. to control liquids and environmental constituents from entering into the system, which minimizes the corrosion. Dangerous chemicals can’t pour out of the container, due to this property and safety of the environment and personnel can be assured. When corrosion occurs, then the foreign particles pervade into the system and effect the process and health and safety of the plant.

ii. Mechanical strength
Capability to withstand specific loads, comes from the mechanical strength. Mechanical strength helps in best working of the machine or equipment. Corrosion in CO2 absorption process effects this strength.

iii. Dimensional integrity
Corrosion results in losing dimensions, which are very essential in engineering design and consequently the process get affected. Every equipment is supposed to give best results, if its design and dimensions are accurate. But, if these get affected by corrosion, then efficiency of equipment also get affected.

iv. Physical properties
The physical properties of plants, materials and equipment, such as electrical properties and thermal conductivity, keeps the equipment in good condition to perform work with good accuracy and performance. But when corrosion occurs, then resultantly the operational efficiency reduced and severely affected by it.

v. Contamination
If corrosion is not controlled, it can contaminate the processing equipment, metals and solvents. In industries and particularly CO2 capturing plants, solvent degradation takes place due to corrosion, which not only enhance the corrosion of metals but also becomes toxic to marine life when thrown to rivers. This subsequently leads to the problems of health and safety.

vi. Damage to equipment
Corrosion may cause equipment to damage, and its adjustment causes many problems. Economics of the plant get disturbed. Sometimes, plant may have to shut down due to severe corrosion of the equipment.

vii. Safety
Sudden failure due to corrosion can results in explosion and fire, release of toxic products or structure’s collapse. In past several incidents of fire have been reported due to leakage of pipelines caused by corrosion. It not only adversely affects the structural dimension of the components which makes them vulnerable to failure and accidents, but also more deaths are caused by accidents due to the weakening of components by corrosion damage. It has also a role in civil and military aircrafts and other transportation vehicle’s accidents.In CO2 absorption plants, the safety of different equipment are at the risk of corrosion.

viii. Health
Corroded structures severely effects the health, such as a plumbing system affects the water quality and helps in product escape into the environment from the structure.

ix. Depletion of resources
Natural resources of a country are very precious as these are non-renewable, but corrosion puts a heavy loss to these because of their wastage. In case of CO2 absorption process metals like carbon steel, mild steel or stainless steel get damaged. Their depletion may cause a future metal crisis.

x. Appearance and cleanliness
A product appearance, design and aesthetics give a kind of sense of beauty. A product must have an aesthetic attraction. Corrosion behaves like a savage to the beauty of the product or equipment. It destroys the beauty and cleanliness of the product and damages its image.
Many methods are used to maintain or regain the beauty of the product, like surface finishing processes, coating, painting, etc… But, when it affects the appearance of product, the original shape or beauty can’t be recovered.

xi. Product life
Every product have some durability, which means that the product will be operating effectively at that time. Corrosion decreases the product life or durability of the product. Some products have short life while others have long life. Cars have usually twelve years of life but these may survive after the specified time span. Eiffel tower in Paris had a time period of two years, but it is still in good condition. Imaginative designs, environmental resistant materials and induction of corrosion free maintenance measures are the reasons behind their long lasting survivals. Corrosion deteriorates the design which eventually leads to the lesser durability.

xii. Restoration of corroded objects
Preservation of objects of significance to mankind and human history is very much important. Due to corrosion many historical objects are lost. Revolutionary iron-hulled steamships Great Britain built in 1843, is one of the recent example, which deteriorated due to corrosion. It is known as the mother of all modern ships. A request for £100 000 has been made for its restoration.

2.5Types of corrosionBasic principle of corrosion involves presence of corrosion cells, and there are many types or forms of corrosion that can occur. It should however be kept in mind that for corrosion to occur, there is no need for Distinct anodes and cathodes. Countless micro level anodic and cathodic areas can be generated at the same surface on which anodic reactions, which are fundamentally corrosion reactions and cathodic reactions, also known as reduction, occur.
Each type of corrosion has a particular system of anodes and cathodes and specific form and locations contingent on the type can exist. Every type of corrosion can deteriorate the metal in a different mechanism. Some form of corrosion corrode the metals severely, while some has a little effect on material or equipment.
The most Significant forms are:
Uniform corrosion.
Galvanic corrosion,
Concentration cells,
Water line attack Pitting.
Dezincification,
De-alloying (selective leaching),
Atmospheric corrosion.
Erosion corrosion Fretting
Crevice corrosion,
Cavitation Stress corrosion,
Intergranular and trans-granular corrosion,
Hydrogen cracking and embrittlement
Corrosion fatigue.

Localized biological corrosion
Molten salt corrosion
Erosion corrosion
2.6Solvents and their selection in CO2 absorptionDevelopment of more effective solvent for carbon dioxide absorption from combustion exhaust gases is important in reducing the cost of the process. A number of solvents have been proposed for CO2 absorption like monothanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), di-isopropanol amine (DIPA) and methyl-di-ethanolamine (MDEA). But the above mentioned still lack the efficiency for carbon dioxide absorption due to their problems such as corrosion on metals.

There are different factors which affect the efficiency of the solvent for carbo dioxide absorption. Some of the factors are listed below:
High capture efficiency
High selectivity
Solubility
Vapor pressure
Molecular weight
Foaming tendency
Degradation
Corrosion properties
Reaction kinetics
Heat of reaction
Regeneration energy requirements
Environmental effects
Cost factors
While a number of different solvents are used for CO2 absorption, a systematic comparison of these solvents has been done, keeping in mind the different physical and chemical properties, thermodynamics properties, reaction kinetics and other related properties. On the basis of research conducted by various scholars, amine based solvents have problems of high regeneration cost, heat stable salts formation, corrosion, degradation, low capacity and low absorption rate.

Following are the list of some of the solvents used for CO2 absorption:
Ethanolamine (MEA)
N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)
2-Amino-2-methyl-1-propanol (AMP)
Piperazine (PZ)
1,3-Diamino-2-propanol (DAP)
1-(2-Aminoethylo)piperazine (AEP)
N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (AEEA)
N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)
Glycerol
Blended MEA/AMP
Blended MEA/PZ
Blended MDEA/PZ
Blended AMP/MDEA
2.7Parameters affecting corrosion rateIn the absorption process of CO2 using carbon capture technology, different solvents or their blends are used. Solvents get degraded by contaminants in the plant or equipment. This degradation of solvent results in affecting process efficiency. These degraded solvent also cause corrosion on the metals. Furthermore, there are other factors too, which causes corrosion on the metals and equipment.

Some important parameters affecting corrosion rate in CO2 absorption process are described below:
2.7.1Concentration of solventConcentration of solution is the number of moles of solutes dissolved in solvent. In CO2 absorption process, we usually take concentration as number of moles of solvent per m3. In most research papers concentration ranges from 5-10 kmol/m3 of the solvent.

Corrosion of metals due to solvent is directly related with their concentration. As the concentration increases, corrosion rate also increases and vice versa. This is due to presence of a large number of oxidizing agents including dissolved CO2 and protonated ions of amines, inducing a greater rate of iron dissolution. At lower concentration the oxide formation is not very high so corrosion rate is also less.

2.7.2Effect of iron concentrationThe FE2+ ions concentration has an effect on the corrosion rate, as it is part of the anode reaction. When Fe2+ concentration is reduced, the reaction equilibrium is shifted to the product side and the rate of corrosion increases.

2.7.3TemperatureCorrosion rate increases with the increase of solution temperature. Temperature being one of the essential factor of reaction kinetics, plays an important role in corrosion which is an electrochemical reaction. When temperature increases, it increases the metal dissolution and oxidizer reduction. By this way, the corrosion process increases.
At lower temperature oxides formation is slow, and hence the corrosion rate too. When temperature is increased to higher degree, many types of oxides form and react with metals to eventually form acidic oxides, which results in further corrosion.

2.7.4PH of solventPH is measure alkalinity or acidity. Its values ranges from 1-14. Lower the pH, more acidic is the solution and more corrosive it is. When pH is less than 7 solution is acidic, and by the time and temperature increase, oxides of different metals form, which leads to corrosion.

2.7.5CO2 loadingHigh CO2 capturing capability of an amine solvent is ideal. This CO2 loading capacity should lead to a decrement in in operating costs in carbon capture plants, but by doing this an increase of ions takes place in solution, which results to increased corrosion.
High CO2 in solution results in increase of both H+ /RNH+ and bicarbonate HCO3 concentration. It effects the corrosion directly. Corrosion rate increases with CO2 loading. CO2 loading is more impressive at higher solvent concentration.

2.7.6Presence of O2Oxygen increases the corrosion rate. This is due to the presence of an additional oxidizing agent. It reacts with un-dissociated water to form hydroxyl ion. This additional reduction results in increase of corrosion rate.

2.7.7Heat-stable saltsPresence of heat stable salts increase the corrosion rate of the system, in the presence or absence of O2. The common sources of presence of HSS are oxidative degradation of amine, thermal degradation of amine, and acid in the feed gas and reaction products of oxidation of Sulphur species (SO2) present in the unit.

2.7.8Effect of makeup waterThe existence of different chlorides and other type of ions in solution results to corrosion, so the type and generator of process make-up water is essential to prevent the above mentioned ions. Many times, it is suggested that deionized water be used in CCS plants.

2.7.9Effect of corrosion InhibitorsIf the possible CCS plant treatment apply the usage of corrosion inhibitors, study has shown that the earlier propagation of heavy metal originated inhibitors, such as arsenic and vanadium are dangerous to health and to the environment. In addition to this newer inhibitors, which are based on amine film are not much resistive and can results in more corrosion.

Table 2. SEQ Table_2. * ARABIC 1: Date table from research articles on corrosion by amino acid based solventsSr. No
Name of author
Year
Country
Solvent
Concentration
Compounds
1 Bo Zhao etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Zhao;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;21;/RecNum;;DisplayText;5;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;21;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659670″;21;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Zhao, Bo;/author;;author;Sun, Yuekun;/author;;author;Yuan, Yang;/author;;author;Gao, Jubao;/author;;author;Wang, Shujuan;/author;;author;Zhuo, Yuqun;/author;;author;Chen, Changhe;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Study on corrosion in CO2 chemical absorption process using amine solution;/title;;secondary-title;Energy Procedia;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Energy Procedia;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;93-100;/pages;;volume;4;/volume;;section;93;/section;;dates;;year;2011;/year;;/dates;;isbn;18766102;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.egypro.2011.01.028;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;5 2011
China
MDEA
PZ 4.94 kmol/m3
CS, SS
2 Prakashpathi Gunasekaran etal 2017 Canada
MEA
DEA
MDEA AMP
PZ 5 kmol/m3
CS1018
3 Pauline Pearson etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Pearson;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;10;/RecNum;;DisplayText;4;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;10;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659594″;10;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Pearson, Pauline;/author;;author;Hollenkamp, Anthony F.;/author;;author;Meuleman, Erik;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Electrochemical investigation of corrosion in CO2 capture plants—Influence of amines;/title;;secondary-title;Electrochimica Acta;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Electrochimica Acta;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;511-516;/pages;;volume;110;/volume;;section;511;/section;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;isbn;00134686;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.electacta.2013.02.036;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;4 2013 Australia
MEA
AMP
PZ
3-PM 0.5 mol CO2/mol MEA
CS1018
4 Kyra L etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Campbell;/Author;;Year;2016;/Year;;RecNum;22;/RecNum;;DisplayText;6;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;22;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659676″;22;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Campbell, Kyra L. Sedransk;/author;;author;Zhao, Yici;/author;;author;Hall, James J.;/author;;author;Williams, Daryl R.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;The effect of CO 2 -loaded amine solvents on the corrosion of a carbon steel stripper;/title;;secondary-title;International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;376-385;/pages;;volume;47;/volume;;section;376;/section;;dates;;year;2016;/year;;/dates;;isbn;17505836;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.02.011;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;6 2016 UK MDEA AMP
K2CO3 MEA
AEPZ 5M MEA5M AEPZ5M MDEA5M AMP0.5M K2CO3
CS1018
5 Sureshkumar Srinivasan etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Srinivasan;/Author;;Year;2013;/Year;;RecNum;14;/RecNum;;DisplayText;7;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;14;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659616″;14;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Srinivasan, Sureshkumar;/author;;author;Veawab, Amornvadee;/author;;author;Aroonwilas, Adisorn;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Low Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Amine-based CO2 Capture Process;/title;;secondary-title;Energy Procedia;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Energy Procedia;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;890-895;/pages;;volume;37;/volume;;section;890;/section;;dates;;year;2013;/year;;/dates;;isbn;18766102;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.egypro.2013.05.182;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;7 2013 Canada
MEA 5.0 kmol/m3
CS1018
6 Immanuel Raj Soosaiprakasam etal 2008 Canada
MEA 5, 7 and 9 Kmol/m3
CS
7 Manjula Nainar etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Nainar;/Author;;Year;2009;/Year;;RecNum;6;/RecNum;;DisplayText;8;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;6;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659567″;6;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Nainar, Manjula;/author;;author;Veawab, Amornvadee;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Corrosion in CO2 capture unit using MEA-piperazine blends;/title;;secondary-title;Energy Procedia;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Energy Procedia;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;231-235;/pages;;volume;1;/volume;;number;1;/number;;section;231;/section;;dates;;year;2009;/year;;/dates;;isbn;18766102;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.egypro.2009.01.033;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;8 2009 Canada
Blended solution of MEA/PZ 5.0, 6.2, 7.0, 8.7 lmol/m3
CS1018
8 Silje Hjelmaas etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Hjelmaas;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;16;/RecNum;;DisplayText;9;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;16;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659632″;16;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Hjelmaas, Silje;/author;;author;Storheim, Erlend;/author;;author;Flø, Nina Enaasen;/author;;author;Thorjussen, Eva Svela;/author;;author;Morken, Anne Kolstad;/author;;author;Faramarzi, Leila;/author;;author;de Cazenove, Thomas;/author;;author;Hamborg, Espen Steinseth;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Results from MEA Amine Plant Corrosion Processes at the CO 2 Technology Centre Mongstad;/title;;secondary-title;Energy Procedia;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Energy Procedia;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;1166-1178;/pages;;volume;114;/volume;;section;1166;/section;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;18766102;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1280;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;9 2017 Norway
MEA 30% by Weight
SS304LSS304LS235Inconel Duplex
9 Alicja Krzemiena etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Krzemie?;/Author;;Year;2016;/Year;;RecNum;1;/RecNum;;DisplayText;1;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;1;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659525″;1;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Krzemie?, Alicja;/author;;author;Wi?ckol-Ryk, Angelika;/author;;author;Smoli?ski, Adam;/author;;author;Koteras, Aleksandra;/author;;author;Wi?c?aw-Solny, Lucyna;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Assessing the risk of corrosion in amine-based CO 2 capture process;/title;;secondary-title;Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;189-197;/pages;;volume;43;/volume;;section;189;/section;;dates;;year;2016;/year;;/dates;;isbn;09504230;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.jlp.2016.05.020;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;1 2016 Poland MEA 20% wt.

Monel302 and 304 SS316 SS410 SSCarbon steel
10 Jubao Gao etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Gao;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;3;/RecNum;;DisplayText;2;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;3;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659540″;3;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Gao, Jubao;/author;;author;Wang, Shujuan;/author;;author;Zhou, Shan;/author;;author;Zhao, Bo;/author;;author;Chen, Changhe;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Corrosion and degradation performance of novel absorbent for CO2 capture in pilot-scale;/title;;secondary-title;Energy Procedia;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Energy Procedia;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;1534-1541;/pages;;volume;4;/volume;;section;1534;/section;;dates;;year;2011;/year;;/dates;;isbn;18766102;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.022;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;2 2011 China Amine absorbent 4.6mol/L
CSSS304SS316
11 Deli Duan etal 2013 USA MDEA 50 % wt.

CS A36
12 Nattawan Kladkaew etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Kladkaew;/Author;;Year;2011;/Year;;RecNum;20;/RecNum;;DisplayText;10;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;20;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659660″;20;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Kladkaew, Nattawan;/author;;author;Idem, Raphael;/author;;author;Tontiwachwuthikul, Paitoon;/author;;author;Saiwan, Chintana;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;Studies on corrosion and corrosion inhibitors for amine based solvents for CO2 absorption from power plant flue gases containing CO2, O2 and SO2;/title;;secondary-title;Energy Procedia;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Energy Procedia;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;1761-1768;/pages;;volume;4;/volume;;section;1761;/section;;dates;;year;2011;/year;;/dates;;isbn;18766102;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.egypro.2011.02.051;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;10 2011 Canada
MEA 7 kmol/m3
CS1020
13 Immanuel Raj Soosaiprakasam etal 2009 Canada
MEA 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 kmol/m3
CS
14 Georgios Fytianos etal 2016 USA MEA 30 % wt.(4.9 mol/kg)
316SS
15 Kent B. Fischer etal ADDIN EN.CITE ;EndNote;;Cite;;Author;Fischer;/Author;;Year;2017;/Year;;RecNum;15;/RecNum;;DisplayText;11;/DisplayText;;record;;rec-number;15;/rec-number;;foreign-keys;;key app=”EN” db-id=”0r9wzfsxjzz2fzeepazpzwwftfaa0005rtrz” timestamp=”1535659624″;15;/key;;key app=”ENWeb” db-id=””;0;/key;;/foreign-keys;;ref-type name=”Journal Article”;17;/ref-type;;contributors;;authors;;author;Fischer, Kent B.;/author;;author;Daga, Akshay;/author;;author;Hatchell, Daniel;/author;;author;Rochelle, Gary T.;/author;;/authors;;/contributors;;titles;;title;MEA and Piperazine Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel;/title;;secondary-title;Energy Procedia;/secondary-title;;/titles;;periodical;;full-title;Energy Procedia;/full-title;;/periodical;;pages;1751-1764;/pages;;volume;114;/volume;;section;1751;/section;;dates;;year;2017;/year;;/dates;;isbn;18766102;/isbn;;urls;;/urls;;electronic-resource-num;10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1303;/electronic-resource-num;;/record;;/Cite;;/EndNote;11 2017 MEA
PZ
PDA MPA EDA 8 m PZ9 m MEA12 m EDA10 m MPA10 m PDA
CS1010, 316L SS

Chapter 3Material and Methodology3.1Installation of corrosion studies kit (CSK)The equipment can be used for the study of up to ten corrosion cells simultaneously, of any type is selected according to the literature being followed. Each test cell allows for the immersion of six test specimens of any material in the test liquid at any one time, to eliminate ‘unreliable’ results from untypical metal samples. Each sample is immersed in a manner that insignificant secondary effects and the metal surface of known dimensions and area is exposed to the test liquid. Corrosion rates are measured by visual observation and as well as by the direct weighing after a certain period of immersion.
Stirring is done by air or inert gas agitation. Air is suppled through the motor pump attached at the back side of the CSK. All connecting glass and plastic tubing is provided, as are the appropriate supports for the specimens and glass test cells.

Figure 3. SEQ Figure_3. * ARABIC 1: Corrosion Studies Kit (CSK)3.2Materials3.2.1Metal couponsMetal strips of carbon steel 1017 (CS1017) were purchased from local vendor.

Figure 3. SEQ Figure_3. * ARABIC 2: CS1017 metal strips
Each metal strip were cut into three pieces of equal size.

Figure 3. SEQ Figure_3. * ARABIC 3: CS1017 strips after cutting.

After this, these were holed by drill machine and their finishing were done.

Figure 3. SEQ Figure_3. * ARABIC 4: CS1017 coupons after finishing.At the end letter and number punching of these coupons were performed.

Figure 3. SEQ Figure_3. * ARABIC 5: CS1017 coupons after number punching.

Table 3. SEQ Table_3. * ARABIC 1: Density and composition of carbon steel 1017Serial number Property Value
1 Density 7.87 g/cm3
2 Iron, Fe 99.11-99.56 %
3 Manganese, Mn 0.30-0.60 %
4 Carbon, C 0.14-0.20 %
5 Sulfur, S ? 0.050 %
6 Phosphorous, P ? 0.040 %
3.2.2Materials for test solutionsMEA
Glycine
Distilled water
3.3Methodology3.3.1Preparation of test solutions3.3.2Preparation of MEA solutionsMEA solutions was prepared in three concentrations, 10%, 20% and 30% in volume/volume.

For 10% MEA solution 675ml of distilled water was mixed with 75ml of MEA.

For 10% MEA solution 600ml of distilled water was mixed with 150ml of MEA.

For 10% MEA solution 525ml of distilled water was mixed with 225ml of MEA.

3.3.3Preparation of Glycine solutionGlycine solutions was prepared in three concentrations, 10%, 20% and 30% in wt. /vol.

For 10% Glycine solution 750ml of distilled water was mixed with 75g of Glycine.

For 10% Glycine solution 750ml of distilled water was mixed with 150g of Glycine.

For 10% Glycine solution 750ml of distilled water was mixed with 225g of Glycine.

3.3.4Preparation of metal couponsCS1017 coupons were first grind with silicon-carbide paper of grit-600 with polyethylene gloves on hands.

Then these were rinsed with distilled water.

After that, these were cleaned with ethanol.

At last these were again rinsed with water thoroughly.

Once their cleaning were done, these were dried and placed in air inhibited bags.

3.3.5Measurement of metal couponsMetal coupons of CS1017 were weighed and their dimensions were also measured, to ensure accuracy each sample was weighed and measured thrice.

Table 3. SEQ Table_3. * ARABIC 2: Dimensions, area and weight of CS1017 coupons.

3.4.6Immersion of samples in test vesselsAs shown in experiment figure, each coupon was immersed with its support through the nylon fishing cord and individually clamped by means of the nylon screws. All of the metal test area was below the liquid, surface inside the test vessel, in order to avoid oxygen effects at the liquid.

Figure 3. SEQ Figure_3. * ARABIC 6: Immersion of samples in test vessels
In our experiment 1, 3 beakers were used, one was filled with MEA solution labelled as 10% concentrated MEA, other was filled with another MEA solution labeled as 20% concentrated MEA and remaining one was filled with third MEA solution labeled as 30% concentrated MEA. In each beaker three sample coupons of CS1017 were used.In our experiment 2, 3 beakers were used, one was filled with Glycine solution labelled as 10% concentrated Glycine, other was filled with another Glycine solution labeled as 20% concentrated Glycine and remaining one was filled with third Glycine solution labeled as 30% concentrated Glycine. In each beaker three sample coupons of CS1017 were used.

3.5ProcedureFirst of all wash the beakers of Corrosion Studies Kit and dry them.

Then put the prepared solutions of specific concentrations in the beakers.

Weigh the prepared samples before dipping in the beaker.

Check the time and date of immersing.

After 7 days take out the samples from the beaker, clean the samples by following the same procedure as done before immersing in the solution, and dry them in the oven.

Alter drying, re-weight them on electronic balance.

Chapter 4Results and Discussions4.1WEIGHT LOSS IN SAMPLESAll results are taken using Weight loss coupon method. Weight loss coupon method is used to check how fast and how much corrosion affects the sample coupons of carbon steel at different conditions. Each sample kept in varying concentrations and undergo some material loss which shows the severity of corrosion.

After removing the samples from the solutions, these were weighted after cleaning. And the post cleaning of coupons were performed in the same way as it was done before immersing i.e. these were initially rinsed with water and acetone and ground with silicon carbide paper of grit 600,400, 220 and 150. Weight loss was measured using formula for weight loss.

Weight loss method requires careful measurement of sample strips before keeping under experiment and after the experiment has been performed.

Weight loss is simply calculated by subtracting final and initial weight of sample and is given by:
?W = W2 – W1
Where,?W = Weight loss in gram
W1 = Initial weight
W2 = Final weight
Whereas, the formula used to calculate the weight loss percentage is:
?????? ???? ??????? = ?1??2/?1 × 100%
Where, W1 is weight before experiment,
W2 is weight after experiment.

From weight loss corrosion rate can easily be measured using corrosion rate formula for Weight loss method.

4.2Experimental conditionsThese samples were immersed in MEA and Glycine solutions of different concentrations. These concentrations were:
10% MEA solution
20% MEA solution
30% MEA solution
10% Glycine solution
20% Glycine solution
30% Glycine solution
Solutions temperature were ambient. And the samples were immersed in solutions for a period of 7 days. Air were supplied through motor pump.

Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 1: Tested parameters and conditions for corrosion experimentsParameter Test Condition
Specimen Carbon steel 1017
Absorption solvents Monoethanolamine (MEA)
Glycine
Solvent concentration (%) 10,20,30
Solution temperature (°C) Ambient

4.3Weight loss of CS1017 in MEA solution percentageTable 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 2: Weight loss measured after 7 days in MEA solutionSolution concentration (%) Coupon No. Initial weight (g) Final weight (g) Weight loss (g) Weight loss (%) Average Weight loss (%)
10% MEA 19 9.014 8.981 0.033 0.37% 0.37%
20 8.849 8.817 0.032 0.36% 21 8.870 8.836 0.034 0.38% 20% MEA 22 8.981 8.934 0.047 0.52% 0.49%
23 8.903 8.868 0.035 0.39% 24 8.886 8.836 0.050 0.56% 30% MEA 25 8.858 8.815 0.043 0.49% 0.50%
26 8.926 8.870 0.056 0.63% 27 8.853 8.819 0.034 0.38%
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 1: Weight loss measured after 7 days in MEA solutionIt is observed from the Table 4.2 that weight loss percentage of CS1017 in MEA solution is different at different concentration. Minimum weight loss percentage is shown at 10% concentrated MEA solution while, maximum weight percentage is observed at 30% concentration of MEA.

An average of 0.37% weight loss is measured in 10% concentrated MEA solution. 0.49% average weight loss is observed at 20% concentration of MEA in water. And at 30% concentrated MEA solution 0.50% average weight loss is measured.

So, at higher concentration of MEA solution, higher weight loss is observed. All the experiments were performed at ambient temperature.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 2: CS1017 coupons in MEA solution after 7 days (Before post-cleaning)Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 3: CS1017 coupons in MEA solution after 7 days (After post-cleaning)
4.4Weight loss of CS1017 in Glycine solutionTable 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 3: Weight loss measured after 7 days in Glycine solutionSolution concentration (% by weight)Coupon No.Initial weight (g) Final weight (g) Weight loss (g) Weight loss (%) Average Weight loss (%)
10% Glycine 10 9.106 8.442 0.664 7.30% 7.46%
11 9.047 8.356 0.691 7.64% 12 9.093 8.416 0.677 7.45% 20% Glycine 16 8.910 8.156 0.754 8.46% 8.08%
17 9.093 8.372 0.721 7.93% 18 8.945 8.237 0.708 7.85% 30% Glycine 13 8.964 6.547 2.417 26.94% 31.20%
14 9.913 6.105 3.808 38.36% 15 8.813 6.320 2.493 28.29%
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 4: Weight loss measured after 7 days in Glycine solutionIt is observed from the Table 4.3 that weight loss percentage of CS1017 in Glycine solution is different at different concentration. Minimum weight loss percentage is shown at 10% concentrated Glycine solution while, maximum weight percentage is observed at 30% concentration of Glycine.

An average of 7.46% weight loss is measured in 10% concentrated MEA solution. 8.08% average weight loss is observed at 20% concentration of MEA in water. And at 30% concentrated MEA solution 31.20% average weight loss is measured.

So, at higher concentration of MEA solution, higher weight loss is observed. All the experiments were performed at ambient temperature.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 5: CS1017 coupons in Glycine solution after 7 days (Before post-cleaning)
4.5Comparison of weight loss of CS1017 in MEA ad Glycine solution
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 6: Comparison of weight loss of CS1017 in MEA ad Glycine solutionIt is shown in the figure 4.3 that weight loss of CS1017 is higher in glycine solution at all three concentrations. While weight loss in MEA solution is negligible.

4.6Effect of solution concentration on weight lossIt is clearly observed that by varying the concentration of solution, the weight loss also varied. At lower concentration, weight loss is less, and when the concentration is increased, consequently weight loss is also increased.

We can easily see, by looking at the respective tables of weight of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solution that at concentration of 10% weight loss is minimum, while at 20% concentration weight loss is increased. Similarly, when concentration is increased to 30%, the respective weight loss is also increased.

An average of 7.46% weight loss is measured in 10% concentrated MEA solution. 8.08% average weight loss is observed at 20% concentration of MEA in water. And at 30% concentrated MEA solution 31.20% average weight loss is measured.

Following pie chart shows the weight loss percentage of CS1017 at different concentrations of MEA and Glycine solution.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 7: Effect of solution concentration on weight loss
4.7Determining corrosion rateCorrosion rate were calculated using following formula:
Corrosion rate = (K × ?W) / (A × T × D)
Where,
K = 3.45 × 106 (when unit for corrosion rate is mpy)
?W = Weight loss in grams
A = Area in cm2
T = Time of exposure in hours
D = Density in g/cm3
Weight loss was calculated using final and initial weights of coupons. Area for each coupon was already calculated before immersion. Time of exposure was 168 hours (7 days). Density of CS1017 is 7.87 g/cm3.

In each solution three coupons of CS1017 were immersed, so that accuracy of result can be obtained.

Using above values corrosion rate was calculated and is shown in tables below.

4.8Corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA SolutionTable 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 4: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA SolutionMEA concentration (%) CS1017 Coupon No. Density (gram/cm3) Area exposed (cm2) Weight loss (g) Corrosion Rate (mpy) Average Corrosion Rate (mpy)
10% MEA 19 7.87 20.6214 0.014 753.3230623
1398.161
20 7.87 19.9814 0.032 1668.441459
21 7.87 19.9814 0.034 1772.719051
20% MEA 22 7.87 20.7604 0.040 2166.859684
2241.998132
23 7.87 20.4614 0.035 1868.695203
24 7.87 20.6214 0.050 2690.439508
30; MEA 25 7.87 20.489 0.043 2298.922332
2375.968748
26 7.87 20.4614 0.056 2989.912325
27 7.87 20.7293 0.034 1839.071587

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 8: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA SolutionRate of corrosion of CS1017 due to MEA solution increased with the concentration. At 10% concentrated MEA average corrosion is 1398.161 mpy. At 20% concentration of MEA, average corrosion rate increased to 2241.998132 mpy. And average corrosion rate at 30% concentration of MEA, is 2375.968148 mpy.
So, it is cleared from the above statistics that average corrosion rate is increased by increasing concentration, which is obvious. All the samples were immersed in solution for a period of 7 days (168 hours), at ambient temperature.

4.9Corrosion rate of CS1017 in Glycine solutionTable 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 5: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in Glycine solutionGlycine concentration (% by weight) CS1017 Coupon No. Density (gram/cm3) Area exposed (cm2) Weight loss (g) Corrosion Rate (mpy) Average Corrosion Rate (mpy)
10% Glycine 10 7.87 20.8094
0.664
36054.76911
36700.12
11 7.87 20.8716
0.691
37633.00268
12 7.87 20.9214
0.667
36412.59727
20% Glycine 16 7.87 20.3862
0.754
40109.08064
153671.6
17 7.87 20.4614
0.721
38495.12119
18 7.87 20.6214
0.708
38096.62343
30; Glycine 13 7.87 20.677
2.417
130406.5061
38900.28
14 7.87 19.9814
3.808
198544.5337
15 7.87 20.3014
2.493
132063.6657

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 9: Corrosion rate of CS1017 in Glycine solutionRate of corrosion of CS1017 due to Glycine solution increased with the concentration. At 10% concentrated Glycine average corrosion is 36700.12 mpy. At 20% concentration of Glycine, average corrosion rate increased to 38900.28 mpy. And average corrosion rate at 30% concentration of Glycine, is 153671.6 mpy.
So, it is cleared from the above statistics that average corrosion rate is increased by increasing concentration, which is obvious. All the samples were immersed in solution for a period of 7 days (168 hours), at ambient temperature.

4.10Comparison of corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solution
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 10: Comparison of average corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solutionAbove chart shows the average corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solutions, at three different concentrations (10%, 20%, 30%), after 7 days at ambient temperature.
It can be seen that corrosion rate of CS1017 is higher in Glycine solution as compared to MEA solution. Average corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA solution, is 1398.16 mpy, 2241.998132 mpy, and 2375.968748 mpy at 10%, 20% and 30% concentrated MEA respectively.

Similarly, average corrosion rate of CS1017 in Glycine solution, is 36700.12 mpy, 38900.28 mpy, and 153671.6 mpy at 10%, 20% and 30% concentrated Glycine respectively.

Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 6: Comparison of average corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and Glycine solutionSolvent Concentration
10% 20% 30%
MEA 1398.161
2241.9981
2375.968748
Glycine 36700.12
38900.28
153671.6
Average corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA and glycine is taken in mpy.

4.12Corrosion analysis of CS1017 MEA and Glycine solutionAfter immersion of CS1017 corrosion coupon in MEA and Glycine solution for 7 days at ambient temperature, it is observed that Glycine solution is more corrosive at all the three different concentrations i.e. 10%, 20% and 30%. Weight loss of CS1017 was also more in glycine solution than MEA solution.

Color of glycine solutions was turned dark brownish, and it was due to formation of iron-oxides. This oxide formation helped in increased corrosion rate of CS1017.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 11: Color of Glycine solution after 7 days.While color of MEA solution after 7 days was almost same as at the time of immersion of samples in the solution. MEA solution degradation was less as compared to Glycine solution. And corrosion rate of CS1017 in MEA solution was also less as compared to glycine solution.

Chapter 6Conclusions and Future work5.1ConclusionsWe concluded following results from this work:
Weight loss of CS1017 is higher in glycine solution, proving MEA more passive than glycine.

By increasing concentration of MEA and glycine solutions, weight loss of CS1017 also increased and vice versa.

Corrosion rate of CS1017 is higher in glycine solution, proving MEA more passive than glycine.

By increasing concentration of MEA and glycine solutions, corrosion rate of CS1017 also increased and vice versa.

5.2Future WorkWeight loss method can be used for the corrosion analysis of corrosion rates of various other metals, such as CS1018, CS1020, Zinc, Aluminum, and other grades of carbon steel, mild steel and stainless steel.

The same approach can be used for corrosion analysis of solvents used for CO2 absorption at different temperatures.

The same approach can be used for corrosion analysis of solvents used for CO2 absorption at different pH.

Corrosion analysis of solvents can also be performed at different other concentrations.

The same work can also done using CO2 loading.

References ADDIN EN.REFLIST 1.Krzemie?, A., et al., Assessing the risk of corrosion in amine-based CO 2 capture process. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 2016. 43: p. 189-197.

2.Gao, J., et al., Corrosion and degradation performance of novel absorbent for CO2 capture in pilot-scale. Energy Procedia, 2011. 4: p. 1534-1541.

3.Soosaiprakasam, I.R. and A. Veawab, Corrosion and polarization behavior of carbon steel in MEA-based CO2 capture process. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2008. 2(4): p. 553-562.

4.Pearson, P., A.F. Hollenkamp, and E. Meuleman, Electrochemical investigation of corrosion in CO2 capture plants—Influence of amines. Electrochimica Acta, 2013. 110: p. 511-516.

5.Zhao, B., et al., Study on corrosion in CO2 chemical absorption process using amine solution. Energy Procedia, 2011. 4: p. 93-100.

6.Campbell, K.L.S., et al., The effect of CO 2 -loaded amine solvents on the corrosion of a carbon steel stripper. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2016. 47: p. 376-385.

7.Srinivasan, S., A. Veawab, and A. Aroonwilas, Low Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Amine-based CO2 Capture Process. Energy Procedia, 2013. 37: p. 890-895.

8.Nainar, M. and A. Veawab, Corrosion in CO2 capture unit using MEA-piperazine blends. Energy Procedia, 2009. 1(1): p. 231-235.

9.Hjelmaas, S., et al., Results from MEA Amine Plant Corrosion Processes at the CO 2 Technology Centre Mongstad. Energy Procedia, 2017. 114: p. 1166-1178.

10.Kladkaew, N., et al., Studies on corrosion and corrosion inhibitors for amine based solvents for CO2 absorption from power plant flue gases containing CO2, O2 and SO2. Energy Procedia, 2011. 4: p. 1761-1768.

11.Fischer, K.B., et al., MEA and Piperazine Corrosion of Carbon Steel and Stainless Steel. Energy Procedia, 2017. 114: p. 1751-1764.

12Umberto Ddsideri , Alberto Paolucci. Performance modelling of a carbon dioxide removal system for power plants J. Energy Conversion ;Management, 1999, 40:1899-1915.
13Anand B. Rao and Edward S. Rubin. A Technical, Economic, and Environmental Assessment of Amine-Based CO2 Capture Technology for Power Plant Greenhouse Gas Control J. Environmental Science ; Technology, 2002, 36:4467- 4475.
14D. Singh, E. Croiset, P.L. Douglas, M.A. Douglas. Techno-economic study of CO2 capture from an existing coal-fired 1540 J. Gao et al. / Energy Procedia 4 (2011) 1534–1541 J.Gao et al./ Energy Procedia 00 (2010) 000–000 power plant: MEA scrubbing vs. O2/CO2 recycle combustion J. Energy Conversion ;Management, 2003, 44:3073-3091.
15Philipp Kolbitsch, Tobias Pröll, Johannes Bolhar-Nordenkampf, Hermann Hofbauer. Operating experience with chemical looping combustion in a 120kW dual circulating fluidized bed (DCFB) unit J. Energy procedia, 2009, Energy Procedia 1:1465-1472.
16Prashanti B. Konduru, P rakish D. Vaidya and Eugeny Y. Kenig. Kinetics of Removal of Carbon Dioxide by Aqueous Solutions of N, N-Diethylethanolamine and PiperazineJ. Environmental Science ; Technology, 2010, 44:2138-2143.
17Victor Darde, Kaj Thomsen, Willy J.M. van Well, Erling H. Stenby. Chilled ammonia process for CO2 capture J. Energy procedia, 2009, Energy Procedia 1:1035-1042.
18Gary T. Rochelle. Amine Scrubbing for CO2 CaptureJ. Science, 2009, 325:1652-1654.
19Itoro J. Uyanga and Raphael O. Idem. Studies of SO2- and O2-Induced Degradation of Aqueous MEA during CO2 Capture from Power Plant Flue Gas StreamsJ. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2007, 46:2558-2566.
20Teeradet Supap, Raphael Idem, Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul, Chintana Saiwan. Kinetics of sulfur dioxide- and oxygeninduced degradation of aqueous monoethanolamine solution during CO2 absorption from power plant flue gas streamsJ. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 2009,3:133-142.
21David Wappel, Ash Khan, David Shallcross, Sebastian Joswig, Sandra Kentish, et al. The effect of SO2 on CO2 absorption in an aqueous potassium carbonate solvent J. Energy procedia, 2009, Energy Procedia 1:125-131.
22Nattawan Kladkaew, Raphael Idem, Paitoon Tontiwachwuthikul, et al. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in the Monoethanolamine-H2O-CO2-O2-SO2 System J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 2009, 48: 8913-8919.
23Manjula Nainar, Amornvadee Veawab. Corrosion in CO2 Capture Process Using Blended Monoethanolamine and Piperazine J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 2009, 48: 9299-9306.
24Winyu Tanthapanichakoon?Amornvadee Veawab. Electrochemical Investigation on the Effect of Heat-stable Salts on Corrosion in CO2 Capture Plants Using Aqueous Solution of MEAJ. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res, 2006, 45:2586-2593.
25Immanuel Raj Soosaiprakasam, Amornvadee Veawab.Corrosion and polarization behavior of carbon steel in MEA-based CO2 capture process J.International journal of greenhouse gas control,2008,2:553-562.
26Donghong Zheng, Defu Che, Yinhe Liu. Experimental investigation on gas–liquid two-phase slug flow enhanced carbon dioxide corrosion in vertical upward pipeline J.Corrosion Science?2008,50:3005-3020.

27Kohl, A., Nielsen, R. Gas Purification. Gulf Publishing Company, 1997.
28J. Kittel and S.Gonzalez. Corrosion in CO2 post combustion capture with alkanolamines-A review. Oil ; Gas Science and Technology- Rev. IFP Energies nouvelles, 2013, France.
29 Little B.J., Lee, J.S. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion, John Wiley ; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2007, pp. 28-34.
30Andreas Grimstvedt, Eirik Falck da Silva and Karl Anders Hoff. Thermal degradation of MEA, effect of temperature and CO2 loading. TCCS7, SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, 7465 Trondheim.
31Purvil Khakharia, Jan Mertens, Arjen Huizinga, Séverine De Vroey, Eva Sanchez Fernandez, Sridhar Srinivasan, Thijs J.H. Vlugt, and Earl Goetheer. Online Corrosion Monitoring in a Postcombustion CO2 Capture Pilot Plant and its Relation to Solvent Degradation and Ammonia Emissions. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2015, 54 (19), pp 5336–5344.
32Sureshkumar Srinivasan, Amornvadee Veawab, Adisorn Aroonwilas. Low Toxic Corrosion Inhibitors for Amine-based CO2. Energy Procedia. Volume 37, 2013, Pages 890-895
33Yong Xiang, Maocheng Yan, Yoon-Seok Choi, David Young, Srdjan Nesic. Time-dependent electrochemical behavior of carbon steel in MEA-based CO2 capture process. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 30 (2014) 125–132.
34Fytianos G., Grimstvedt A., Knuutila H., Hallvard F. S. Effect of MEA’s Degradation Products on Corrosion at CO2 Capture Plants. Energy Procedia, Volume 63, 2014, Pages 1869-1875.
35Vevelstad S.J., Grimstvedt A., Knuutila H. and Svendsen H.F., “Thermal degradation on already oxidatively degraded solutions.”, Energy Procedia, 37(2013), 2109-2117.
36Nešic´ S, Lee K-LJ. A mechanistic model for carbon dioxide corrosion of mild steel in the presence of protective iron carbonate films—part 3: film growth model. Corrosion 2003; 59:616–28
37H. Dang and G.T. Rochelle, Separation Science and Technology, 38(2) (2003) 337-357.

38 ASTM standard G1-90 (Re-approved 1999), Standard Practice for Preparing, Cleaning and Evaluating Corrosion Test Specimens, 1999.
39P. Roberge, Corrosion basics – An introduction, 2nd edition, NACE International, Texas, 2006.

40A.L. Cummings, S.W. Waite, D.K. Nelsen, “Corrosion and Corrosion Enhancers in Amine Systems,” The Brimstone Sulfur Conference (Banff, Alberta, 2005).
41M.R. Khorrami, K. Raeissi, H. Shahban, M.A. Torkan, A. Saatchi, “Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Carbon Dioxide-Loaded Activated Methyl Diethanol Amine Solution,” Corrosion 64 (2008): p. 124.
42A. Veawab, P. Tontiwachwuthikul, A. Chakma, “Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in the CO2 Absorption Process Using Aqueous Amine Solutions,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 38 (1999): p. 3917.
43M.S. DuPart, T.R. Bacon, D.J. Edwards, Understanding Corrosion in Alkanolamine Gas Treating Plants: Part 1,” Hydrocarbon Processing (1993): p. 75.
44Herzog H, Vukmirovic N. CO2 sequestration: opportunities and challenges. Presented at the Seventh Clean Coal Technology Conference; Knoxville, Tennessee; 1999.
45Danckwerts PV. The reaction of CO2 with ethanolamines, Chem Eng Sci. 1979; 34: 443–446.
46Lin JC, Jou SP, Jehng WD, Lee SL. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in H2S/NH3/CN- /Cl- environment by ethanolamine derivatives, International Corrosion Council, 15th International Corrosion Congress, Granada Spain; 2002.
47Garcia-Arriaga V, Alvarez-Ramirez J, Amaya M, Sosa E. H2S and O2 influence on the corrosion of carbon steel immersed in a solution containing 3 M diethanolamine, Corros. Sci. 2010; 52: 2268–2279.
48Gao G, Liang, CH. 1, 3-Bis-diethylamino-propan-2-ol as volatile corrosion inhibitor for brass. Corros. Sci. 2007; 49: 3479-3493.
49Morad MS. An electrochemical study on the inhibiting action of some organic phosphonium compounds on the corrosion of mild steel in aerated acid solutions, Corros. Sci. 2002; 42: 1307 – 1326.
50Noor EA, Al-Moubaraki AH. Thermodynamic study of metal corrosion and inhibitor adsorption processes in mild steel/1-methyl-44′(-X)- styryl pyridinium iodides /hydrochloric acid systems, Mater. Chem. Phys. 2008; 110: 145–154.
51Mayanglambam RS, Sharma V, Singh G. Musa Paradisiaca extract as a green inhibitor for corrosion of mild steel in 0.5 M sulphuric acid solution, Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta, 2011; 29(6): 405-417
52A. Veawab, P. Tontiwachwuthikul, A. Chakma, Influence of process parameters on corrosion behavior in a sterically hindered amine-CO2 system, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 38 (1999) 310.
53A.Veawab, P. Tontiwachwuthikul, S.D. Bhole, Studies of corrosion and corrosion control in a CO2-2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol(AMP) environment, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 36 (1997) 264.
54G. Puxty, R. Rowland, A. Allport, Q. Yang, M. Bown, R. Burns, M. Maeder, M. Attalla, Carbon Dioxide Postcombustion Capture: A Novel Screening Study of the Carbon Dioxide Absorption Performance of 76 Amines, Environmental Science and Technology 43 (2009) 6427.
55F. Khalili, A. Henni, A.L.L. East, pK(a) Values of Some Piperazines at (298, 303, 313, and 323) K, Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data 54 (2009) 2914.