COMPARISON AND ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF QUETTA CITY WITH OTHER CAPITAL CITIES OF PAKISTAN
By
MEMBERS CMS-ID
Badar Alam 29805
Shah Husain 28549
Asif Nawaz 29814
Rahim Ullah Khan 31270
A THESIS SUBMITTED FOR THE COMPLETE FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (BS)
IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING
We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard.

__________________________________________
(Engr. Nawaz Ali Kakar, Supervisor)
__________________________________________
(Engr. Marjan Gul, Co – Supervisor)
__________________________________________
(Chairman)
Department of Civil Engineering
BALOCHISTAN UNIVERSITY OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES (BUITEMS), QUETTA
August 2018
DEDICATIONDedicated to Allah Almighty who has provided knowledge and conscious to reason and our parents without whom our success is impossible. Also dedicated to our teachers and those who understood, helped, and provided support, and to my friends for their reliability and courage.

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u LIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc521542590 h vLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc521542591 h viiACKNOWLEDGEMENT PAGEREF _Toc521542592 h viiiABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………………………….. PAGEREF _Toc521542593 h ixCHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc521542594 h 101.1Aim and Objective: PAGEREF _Toc521542595 h 111.2Scope of the project: PAGEREF _Toc521542596 h 121.3Outline of Research PAGEREF _Toc521542597 h 12CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc521542598 h 132.1Introduction PAGEREF _Toc521542599 h 132.2Bus Transport System: PAGEREF _Toc521542600 h 132.3Public Transport Demand and Usage: PAGEREF _Toc521542601 h 132.4Public Transport Access: PAGEREF _Toc521542602 h 142.5Bus Public Transport Stops: PAGEREF _Toc521542603 h 142.6Adopting Public Transport: PAGEREF _Toc521542604 h 15CHAPTER 3RESEARCH METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc521542605 h 173.1Introduction: PAGEREF _Toc521542606 h 173.2Data Collection: PAGEREF _Toc521542607 h 173.3Data Compilation: PAGEREF _Toc521542608 h 193.4Graphs development: PAGEREF _Toc521542609 h 19CHAPTER 4RESULTS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc521542610 h 204.1Quetta Survey Data PAGEREF _Toc521542611 h 204.2Karachi Survey Data: PAGEREF _Toc521542612 h 274.3Lahore Survey Data: PAGEREF _Toc521542613 h 334.4Peshawar Survey Data: PAGEREF _Toc521542614 h 404.5Inter Cities Qualitative Comparison of Public Transport Systems: PAGEREF _Toc521542615 h 464.6Comparison of Minimum Data and Maximum Data: PAGEREF _Toc521542616 h 54CHAPTER 5CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc521542617 h 66REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc521542618 h 68

LIST OF FIGURES TOC h z c “Figure” Figure 4.1 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Quetta City PAGEREF _Toc521547991 h 23Figure 4.2 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Quetta City PAGEREF _Toc521547992 h 24Figure 4.3 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Quetta City PAGEREF _Toc521547993 h 25Figure 4.4 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route PAGEREF _Toc521547994 h 26Figure 4.5 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Karachi City PAGEREF _Toc521547995 h 29Figure 4.6 Total No. Of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Karachi City PAGEREF _Toc521547996 h 30Figure 4.7 Total No. Of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Karachi City PAGEREF _Toc521547997 h 31Figure 4.8 Total No. Of Trips Per Day Per Route of Karachi City PAGEREF _Toc521547998 h 32Figure 4.9 No. of Passengers in A Round Trip of Lahore City PAGEREF _Toc521547999 h 36Figure 4.10 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Lahore City PAGEREF _Toc521548000 h 37Figure 4.11 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Lahore City PAGEREF _Toc521548001 h 38Figure 4.12 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route of Lahore City PAGEREF _Toc521548002 h 39Figure 4.13 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Peshawar City PAGEREF _Toc521548003 h 42Figure 4.14 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Peshawar City PAGEREF _Toc521548004 h 43Figure 4.15 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Peshawar City PAGEREF _Toc521548005 h 44Figure 4.16 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route of Peshawar City PAGEREF _Toc521548006 h 45Figure 4.17 Average No. of Passengers Per Day (Inter-Cities) PAGEREF _Toc521548007 h 46Figure 4.18 Speed in km/h (Inter-Cities) PAGEREF _Toc521548008 h 47Figure 4.19 Buses Condition (Inter-Cities) PAGEREF _Toc521548009 h 49Figure 4.20 Inner View of Current Operational LTC Bus of Lahore City PAGEREF _Toc521548010 h 50Figure 4.21 Inner View of Current Operational Bus of Quetta City PAGEREF _Toc521548011 h 50Figure 4.22 Outer View of Current Operational LTC Bus of Lahore City PAGEREF _Toc521548012 h 50Figure 4.23 Outer View of Current Operational Bus of Quetta City PAGEREF _Toc521548013 h 50Figure 4.24 No. of Stops in Round Trip (Inter-Cities) PAGEREF _Toc521548014 h 51Figure 4.25 Fare in Rupees (Inter-Cities) PAGEREF _Toc521548015 h 52Figure 4.26 Travel Time in Round Trip (Inter-Cities) PAGEREF _Toc521548016 h 53Figure 4.27 No. of Passengers (Minimum) PAGEREF _Toc521548017 h 54Figure 4.28 No. of Passengers (Maximum) PAGEREF _Toc521548018 h 55Figure 4.29 Route Length in Km (Minimum) PAGEREF _Toc521548019 h 56Figure 4.30 Route Length in Km (Maximum) PAGEREF _Toc521548020 h 57Figure 4.31 Speed in km/h (Minimum) PAGEREF _Toc521548021 h 58Figure 4.32Speed in km/h (Maximum) PAGEREF _Toc521548022 h 59Figure 4.33 No. of Stops (Minimum) PAGEREF _Toc521548023 h 60Figure 4.34 No. of Stops (Maximum) PAGEREF _Toc521548024 h 61Figure 4.35 Travel Time (Minimum) PAGEREF _Toc521548025 h 62Figure 4.36 Travel Time (Maximum) PAGEREF _Toc521548026 h 63Figure 4.37 No. of Buses (Minimum) PAGEREF _Toc521548027 h 64Figure 4.38 No. of Buses (Maximum) PAGEREF _Toc521548028 h 65LIST OF TABLES TOC h z c “Table” Table 1 Quetta City Survey Data PAGEREF _Toc521548029 h 20Table 2 Quetta City Overall Calculated Data PAGEREF _Toc521548030 h 22Table 3 Karachi City Survey Data PAGEREF _Toc521548031 h 27Table 4 Karachi City Overall Calculated Data PAGEREF _Toc521548032 h 28Table 5 Lahore City Survey Data PAGEREF _Toc521548033 h 33Table 6 Lahore City Overall Calculated Data PAGEREF _Toc521548034 h 35Table 7 Peshawar City Survey Data PAGEREF _Toc521548035 h 40Table 8 Peshawar City Overall Calculated Data PAGEREF _Toc521548036 h 41Table 9 Buses Condition Evaluation Parameter PAGEREF _Toc521548037 h 48
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst and foremost, we would like to give our deepest, sincerest and heartfelt thanks to our supervisor, Engr. Nawaz Ali Kakar and co-supervisor Engr. Marjan Gul for their brilliant guidance, encouragement and support throughout the study. After an intensive period of one-year research, today is the day to give a final touch to our bachelor thesis. It was an exciting experience of learning of research work for us, not only in the field of scientific research, but also on personal level. Writing this thesis has had great impact on us. Lastly, we would like to thank any person who contributes to our final year project directly or indirectly. We would like to acknowledge their comments and suggestions, which was crucial for the successful completion of this study.

AbstractQuetta is rapidly transforming into a congested city. The growing number of private vehicles in the city requires expansion of the roads and is creating traffic management issues. The public transport plays a vital role in eradicating traffic congestion issues by providing the commuters an alternative transport mean. This research is aimed to study the current condition of public transport system in Quetta city, the number of passengers using bus transit system and compare it with other capital cities of Pakistan. For this purpose, primary data was collected by conducting surveys in the related bus routes in peak hours and manually calculating the number of passengers using this transport system. Some data like number of buses and bus timings were inquired from the bus drivers. The findings reveal that above than 100452 passengers travel daily in the eight surveyed routes of the city which is 4.7% of the total 2.1 million population of the city. The research suggests improvements in the current public transport system of the city to encourage more usage of the public transport system and control the influx of private vehicleINTRODUCTIONPublic transport plays a vital role in the development of a region. Quetta city has a population of 2.1 million (census 2017) where a huge number of people use local buses as public transport mean. The current public transport system of the city is not efficient to encourage the citizens to use this system. Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar have moved towards better transport systems by introducing Bus Rapid Transit Systems and Light Rail Transit.

A public transport system carries passengers on a scheduled time, on established routes and charges a fee for each trip. A better public transport system helps in improving the life standards of low income citizens in developing cities ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Pojani</Author><Year>2015</Year><RecNum>18</RecNum><DisplayText>Pojani and Stead (2015)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>18</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762801″>18</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Pojani, Dorina</author><author>Stead, Dominic %J Sustainability</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Sustainable urban transport in the developing world: beyond megacities</title></titles><pages>7784-7805</pages><volume>7</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>2015</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Pojani and Stead (2015). Seven criteria measure the usability of different types of public transport and its overall appeal. The criteria are speed, comfort, safety, cost, immediacy, timeliness and directness ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Eboli</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>4</RecNum><DisplayText>Eboli and Mazzulla (2012); Meyer and Miller (1984)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>4</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762197″>4</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Eboli, Laura</author><author>Mazzulla, Gabriella</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Performance indicators for an objective measure of public transport service quality</title></titles><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>1825-3997</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Meyer</Author><Year>1984</Year><RecNum>22</RecNum><record><rec-number>22</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762914″>22</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Meyer, Michael D</author><author>Miller, Eric J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Urban transportation planning: a decision-oriented approach</title></titles><dates><year>1984</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Eboli and Mazzulla (2012); Meyer and Miller (1984). Public transport bus services are generally based on regular operation of transit buses along a route calling at agreed bus stops according to a published public transport timetable (El-Geneidy, 2009). Within cities, buses provide a significant role in commuting many travelers from one point to another (Modak, 2010). Maintaining and enhancing public transit service is important, to meet rapidly growing mass mobility needs, and curb personal motor vehicle activity and its impacts at low cost ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Badami</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>5</RecNum><DisplayText>(Badami, Haider, &amp; Practice, 2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>5</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762273″>5</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Badami, Madhav G</author><author>Haider, Murtaza %J Transportation Research Part A: Policy</author><author>Practice</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>An analysis of public bus transit performance in Indian cities</title></titles><pages>961-981</pages><volume>41</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0965-8564</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Badami, Haider, & Practice, 2007).
A rail mode, such as light rail or heavy rail, may have a lower total cost only if it is able to run faster than bus rapid transit, and the difference in speed is enough to outweigh the bus advantage on operator cost and access and waiting times ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Tirachini</Author><Year>2010</Year><RecNum>23</RecNum><DisplayText>Tirachini, Hensher, and Jara-Díaz (2010)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>23</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762935″>23</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Tirachini, Alejandro</author><author>Hensher, David A</author><author>Jara-Díaz, Sergio R %J Research in transportation economics</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Comparing operator and users costs of light rail, heavy rail and bus rapid transit over a radial public transport network</title></titles><pages>231-242</pages><volume>29</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2010</year></dates><isbn>0739-8859</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Tirachini, Hensher, and Jara-Díaz (2010). The increased number of vehicles in absence of a public transport system results in fastest growing rate of global greenhouse effect ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Wright</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>19</RecNum><DisplayText>Wright and Fulton (2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>19</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762818″>19</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Wright, Lloyd</author><author>Fulton, Lewis %J Transport Reviews</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Climate change mitigation and transport in developing nations</title></titles><pages>691-717</pages><volume>25</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><isbn>0144-1647</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Wright and Fulton (2005). Commuters in large cities are faced with acute road congestion, rising air pollution, and a high level of accident risk due non-availability of an improved public transport mean. Policy should be designed in such a way as to reduce the need to travel by personalized modes and boost the public transport system ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Singh</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>11</RecNum><DisplayText>(Singh, 2005)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>11</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762562″>11</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Singh, Sanjay K %J Journal of public transportation</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Review of urban transportation in India</title></titles><pages>5</pages><volume>8</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2005</year></dates><isbn>1077-291X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Singh, 2005). Public Transport (PT) services have the potential to attract private car users by improving the quality of the service. Passengers who are served with less crowded buses, improved security, nicer stations and better user information may prefer the public transport system instead of cars ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Redman</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>15</RecNum><DisplayText>Redman, Friman, Gärling, and Hartig (2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>15</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762741″>15</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Redman, Lauren</author><author>Friman, Margareta</author><author>Gärling, Tommy</author><author>Hartig, Terry %J Transport Policy</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Quality attributes of public transport that attract car users: A research review</title></titles><pages>119-127</pages><volume>25</volume><dates><year>2013</year></dates><isbn>0967-070X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Redman, Friman, Gärling, and Hartig (2013). Stations or stops represent locations which passengers have access to the transit network. Depending on the type of operation, stations or stops may be designated on demand, on-call or fixed. Fare collection is also important as it is a major factor in attracting passengers and also in determining the efficiency of operations of a transit service ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Bachok</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>28</RecNum><DisplayText>Bachok et al. (2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>28</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533766106″>28</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bachok, Syahriah</author><author>Paiman, Tuminah</author><author>Maksid, Noor Hafiza Mohd</author><author>Yaacob, Noor Alyani</author><author>Razak, Sarah Abdul</author><author>Osman, Mariana Mohamed</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Comparative Evaluation of Public Transport Systems</title><secondary-title>Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies The 9th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2011</secondary-title></titles><pages>206-206</pages><dates><year>2011</year></dates><publisher>Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Bachok et al. (2011).

When buses are operated with a faster speed there are more chances of passenger mode shift. Travel time and cost significantly affect the mode shift to bus system from private vehicle ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Satiennam</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>1</RecNum><DisplayText>Satiennam, Jaensirisak, Satiennam, and Detdamrong (2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>1</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762096″>1</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Satiennam, Thaned</author><author>Jaensirisak, Sittha</author><author>Satiennam, Wichuda</author><author>Detdamrong, Sumet %J IATSS Research</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Potential for modal shift by passenger car and motorcycle users towards Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in an Asian developing city</title></titles><pages>121-129</pages><volume>39</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>0386-1112</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Satiennam, Jaensirisak, Satiennam, and Detdamrong (2016). Although, various factors including increasing population, rising income and shift to a market economy contribute to growing traffic in the city, the lack of a decent public transport has particularly led to increasing motorization / personal private cars ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Ali</Author><Year>2012</Year><RecNum>2</RecNum><DisplayText>Ali, Shah, and Hussain (2012)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>2</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762132″>2</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ali, Zulfiqar</author><author>Shah, S</author><author>Hussain, Anwar %J South Asian Studies</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Growing Traffic in Peshawar: An Analysis of Causes and Impacts</title></titles><volume>27</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2012</year></dates><isbn>1026-678X</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Ali, Shah, and Hussain (2012).
Lesser the rate of vehicle ownership increases the improvement rate in public transport system. But the system should be linked with the effective controlled strategy that resembles with the meaningful and user-friendly environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Rao</Author><Year>2014</Year><RecNum>3</RecNum><DisplayText>(Rao, Khan, Jafri, &amp; Sheeraz, 2014)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>3</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762172″>3</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rao, Zubair Iqbal</author><author>Khan, Kamran</author><author>Jafri, Syed Faraz</author><author>Sheeraz, Khawaja %J Engineering Journal</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Public transportation improvement validation model for metropolitan city Karachi</title></titles><pages>55-64</pages><volume>18</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2014</year></dates><isbn>0125-8281</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Rao, Khan, Jafri, & Sheeraz, 2014). Tokyo, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Seoul have significant rail systems and extensive bus priority systems that can handle a substantial proportion of total peak demand for passenger travel. Therefore, even if motorization and congestion increase further, their public transport systems will not enter a vicious downward cycle, but rather are likely to be the solution and the subject of concerted policy attention to rectify any inadequacies ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Barter</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>6</RecNum><DisplayText>Barter (1999)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>6</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762333″>6</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Thesis”>32</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Barter, Paul</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>An international comparative perspective on urban transport and urban form in Pacific Asia: the challenge of rapid motorisation in dense cities</title></titles><dates><year>1999</year></dates><publisher>Murdoch University</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Barter (1999). The imbalance between supply and demand causes problems and overcrowding ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Allen</Author><Year>2013</Year><RecNum>8</RecNum><DisplayText>Allen (2013)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>8</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762405″>8</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Allen, Heather %J Global Report on Human Settlements</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>An Integrated Approach to Public Transport, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran</title></titles><dates><year>2013</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Allen (2013). An efficient and effectively functioning transport in the city is important for residents and enterprises. As a part of the production and consumption, it is an integral part of the modern economy and society ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Hajduk</Author><Year>2016</Year><RecNum>9</RecNum><DisplayText>Hajduk (2016)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>9</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762431″>9</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Hajduk, S?awomira %J Ekonomia i Zarzadzanie</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Assessment of urban transport–a comparative analysis of selected cities by taxonomic methods</title></titles><pages>67-74</pages><volume>8</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2016</year></dates><isbn>2300-0813</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Hajduk (2016).

In this study, different parameters like Speed, Route Length, Number of Passengers per Day, Number of Buses, Travel Time and Number of Stops in each of the selected routes of Quetta, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar were compared.

Aim and Objective:The overall aim of the project is to conduct surveys, collect and analyze data of major bus transit routes of Quetta City.

The objective of the project is to compare different parameters of public transport system of Quetta with Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar.
Scope of the project:Project covers major routes used by public in Quetta for transportation within the city that includes Saryab Road, Zarghoon Road, Airport Road, Brewery Road, Quetta-Kuchlak Road, Sirki Road and Samungali Road.

In Lahore major routes for public transport were surveyed that include Bus stand to Airport, Railway Station to Valencia town, Green Town to Airprort, Pakka Mill to Jallomor, Green Town to Niazi Chowk and Green Town to Railway Station.

In Karachi Limarket Chowk to Malir Kala Board, Johar Chorangi to Saddar and Saddar to Sachal Goth routes were surveyed as these routes cover major hubs of the city.

In Peshawar two major routes surveyed were Peshwar Bus Stand to Karkhana and Peshawar Bus Stand to Haji Camp.

Outline of ResearchFollowing this introduction, chapter 2 presents an overview public transport system of different cities, chapter 3 presents the methodology, chapter 4 presents the results and discussion, and chapter 5 presents conclusions and recommendation for future research.

LITERATURE REVIEWIntroductionIn this chapter, an overview of public transport systems and the different methods used for the comparison of public transport systems are defined.

Bus Transport System:Indian cities rely on bus systems since many years and will depend upon them in the upcoming years as well. Low income travelers prefer public transit as their mode of transport even if its uncomfortable. The impacts of public transport are lower on human health as well as there can be more road space on a passenger-kilometer basis than motorized modes. Public transport fulfills the demands of mass mobility at low cost. In India diesel costs have increased in secondary cities whereas, personal costs per passenger-kilometer has increased at the same rate as in metropolitan cities. As compared to 1990-91, in 2000-01 diesel costs have accounted for a higher share of total costs in secondary cities. These costs are controllable in theory but not in practice. Serious public transport issues are face by small and medium sized cities. If carefully designed, implemented, and regulated, privatization of urban bus transit has the potential to fulfill the demands as it has lower operating cost per passenger-kilometer ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Badami</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>5</RecNum><DisplayText>Badami et al. (2007)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>5</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762273″>5</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Badami, Madhav G</author><author>Haider, Murtaza %J Transportation Research Part A: Policy</author><author>Practice</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>An analysis of public bus transit performance in Indian cities</title></titles><pages>961-981</pages><volume>41</volume><number>10</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>0965-8564</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Badami et al. (2007).

Public Transport Demand and Usage:The travel demands in major hubs of the world have increased in the past two decades. The excessive use of motor vehicles to fulfill travel demands of people is becoming an alarming threat for the global environment ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Rose</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>24</RecNum><DisplayText>Rose, Ampt, and Environment (2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>24</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762957″>24</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rose, Geoffrey</author><author>Ampt, Elizabeth %J Transportation Research Part D: Transport</author><author>Environment</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Travel blending: an Australian travel awareness initiative</title></titles><pages>95-110</pages><volume>6</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>1361-9209</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Rose, Ampt, and Environment (2001). In the same way, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gardiner</Author><Year>1991</Year><RecNum>0</RecNum><DisplayText>(Gardiner, 1991)</DisplayText><record><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gardiner</author></authors></contributors><titles /><dates><year>1991</year></dates></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gardiner, 1991)also calls transport to be the cause of many of the worst sustainability threats. In modern cities, it is crucial to preserve the environment as well as fulfill the public transport needs of the citizens. The standards and services provided by the public transport modes must be improved to urge people to use the public transport modes. The commuters must also switch to public transport modes to increase its usage up 75% as well as the transport authorities must also be committed. However, government and transport authorities must also be concerned of the increased costs on adding up of features to the public transport mean as people will not be ready to share this cost and pay higher fares ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Ibrahim</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>10</RecNum><DisplayText>Ibrahim (2003)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>10</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762457″>10</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Ibrahim, Muhammad Faishal %J Cities</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Improvements and integration of a public transport system: the case of Singapore</title></titles><pages>205-216</pages><volume>20</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2003</year></dates><isbn>0264-2751</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Ibrahim (2003). (Holmgren, 2007) in his research Local Public Transport Demand studies the factors that affect local public transport demand. The main theme of his research is to study the two-way relationship between public transport demand and the service level as capacity and quality are joint products. From 1946 to 1983 in Linkoping, Sweden usage of public transport has increased due to participation of women labor force and rapid urbanization. He performed granger causality test to test if the level of service cause public transport demand or if demand cause service level, or if they cause each other. It was found that demand and service cause each other, which is to say that there is a two-way relationship between them ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Murray</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>12</RecNum><DisplayText>Murray (2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>12</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762665″>12</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Murray, Alan T %J Socio-Economic Planning Sciences</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Strategic analysis of public transport coverage</title></titles><pages>175-188</pages><volume>35</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>0038-0121</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Murray (2001).

Public Transport Access: ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Khaw</Author><Year>2002</Year><RecNum>0</RecNum><DisplayText>(Khaw, 2002)</DisplayText><record><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Khaw</author></authors></contributors><titles /><dates><year>2002</year></dates></record></Cite></EndNote>(Khaw, 2002)identifies two main factors that can make the transport system of the city more efficient. These two factors are enhancing access and connectivity by improving road and rail networks and greater integration at the operational and service levels when commuter switch from mode to the other. For the continuous improvement of the public transport system not only the modes of transport should be enhanced, but all the intermediate and end part facilities like link ways, customer service and service information should also be improved.

Bus Public Transport Stops:The development of an efficient public transportation system is necessary for achieving regional sustainability. A public transport system can perform better if stops of the system are kept closer to populated regions. In this paper the author has examined methods for increasing public transport access and their effects on locals. The relatively poor performance of the public transport system in South East Queensland is studied based on their strategies. The areas where public transport access is high, stops placement is improved and routes are modified. Public transport access in the city could be improved if more proximity measures, service considerations, demographic and socioeconomic factors are included. The public transport system can be made more feasible if advanced monitoring and evaluation processes are introduced to make sure that adequate and applicable regional public transportation service is provided to the citizens ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Murray</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>13</RecNum><DisplayText>Murray (2001)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>13</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533762702″>13</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Journal Article”>17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Murray, Alan T %J Socio-Economic Planning Sciences</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Strategic analysis of public transport coverage</title></titles><pages>175-188</pages><volume>35</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><isbn>0038-0121</isbn><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Murray (2001).

The increase in population of a region has long term affects o infrastructure as well as energy resources of the area. One of these impacts is upon environment and transportation system of a city. Increase in urban population represents challenges to achieve sustainability. Public transport plays a vital role in fulfilling the transportation demands of urban regions. Serving of the additional transport demands is a major challenge to achieve regional sustainability. The public transport of Brisbane, Australia was studied, and potentials were proposed to improve the city’s public transport system. System must be efficient, and people could have easy access to service for increased use of the system. The strategic modeling approach for assessing public transport system inefficiencies was location set covering problem. It was observed that though the public transport system of Brisbane has access for people, but still have low usage. Therefore, it was suggested that some improvements must be made in system’s performance and some changes must be brought in the system. The system was assessed to evaluate improvements needed in the current system. There existed several useless functions in the current service stops configuration. The stops were 400m distant standard, but still 84.5% of the bus stops lacked additional access coverage. The system could be made more efficient if some redundancies in the system were eliminated. To boost up usage of public transport system and decrease the usage of private vehicles, some modifications in the system are critical.

Adopting Public Transport:A research was conducted in cities of Singapore, Melbourne, Kuala Lumpur and Adelaide. During a 30-hour travel time four types of sub-systems were recorded for comparison purposes which were route networks, station designs, ticketing system and information systems. The primary data was collected in August 2010. One frequent traveler and three first time users set their journeys from the country of origin, Malaysia using air transportation and several other land public transportation modes. Data was captured using participatory observation method, whereby the travelers noted their experiences using the system within a 30-hour time window. It was concluded after the analysis of data that public transport usage differs between first time and frequent users. A comparative study was also held to analyze that different cities public transport systems have different effects on different types of users to a limited extent. It was observed that most cities adopted their transportation networks based on the urban forms as was more sustainable. The first-time users of the public transportation can easily adapt a new transport mode if they were familiar with the system, but frequent users of other systems it becomes hard to adapt a new one ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite AuthorYear=”1″><Author>Bachok</Author><Year>2011</Year><RecNum>28</RecNum><DisplayText>Bachok et al. (2011)</DisplayText><record><rec-number>28</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app=”EN” db-id=”0szadevd3srwx7e5r0c5292btwep5e9sx2pa” timestamp=”1533766106″>28</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name=”Conference Proceedings”>10</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bachok, Syahriah</author><author>Paiman, Tuminah</author><author>Maksid, Noor Hafiza Mohd</author><author>Yaacob, Noor Alyani</author><author>Razak, Sarah Abdul</author><author>Osman, Mariana Mohamed</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Comparative Evaluation of Public Transport Systems</title><secondary-title>Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies The 9th International Conference of Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 2011</secondary-title></titles><pages>206-206</pages><dates><year>2011</year></dates><publisher>Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>Bachok et al. (2011).

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Introduction:A detailed discussion of the data that has been collected from all the four cities for comparison is discussed in this chapter.

Data Collection: 
Routes  
No of Passengers
(In a round trip)  
Date
And Day   
Time of survey  
Travel Time
(One Side)
   
Distance Traveled
   
No of Stops in round trip
(Avg.)  
Stay Time of bus in each stop
   
No of Buses
   
Headway
 
The data used for comparison in this research were collected manually. All the data was collected according to the format below:
Route Selection:
For comparison, the routes were selected based on their length similarity. Also, the existences of important destinations on the routes were considered while selecting the routes of Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar.
Number of passengers in a round trip:
The number of passengers of a complete trip from origin to destination and destination to origin were calculated manually by counting the number of passengers in the buses.
Day:
The survey was conducted on busy days from Mondays to Thursdays.
Time of Survey:
The survey was conducted on peak hours that are 7-10 AM, 12-3 PM and 5-7 PM.

Travel Time:
The travel time taken in a complete round trip was recorded.

Distance Travelled:
The total distance travelled in a round trip was calculated.

Number of stops:
The numbers of stops in a round trip were counted manually.

Number of buses:
The numbers of buses in a route were calculated by following procedure:
Finding the time taken by bus in a round trip.

Finding the headway of the buses.

Calculating the number of buses leaving the origin as well as leaving the destination per unit time.
A single bus is always present at both origin as well as destination.

No. of Buses=2Travel time per trip in minutesHeadway+2Trips:
The total numbers of trips in each route were calculated as follows:
Finding travel time per trip.

Finding the number of buses operating in the route.

Finding the headway of the buses.

Finding the total working hours.

Trips by each bus=Working hoursTravel time per trip-Headway Maximum number of passengers per day:
The maximum number of passengers per day was calculated according to the following formula:
Max. No. of passengers per day=Total No. of passengers per trip×Total No. of trips per daySpeed:
The buses speed was calculated according to following formula:
Speed=Distance covered per tripTravel time per tripWorking hours:
The working hours were 6:30 AM to 8:30 PM in Quetta, while in Peshawar, Karachi and Lahore were 6:00 AM to 10:00 PM.

Bus types:
Following were the bus types operating in these cities:
51 seaters (41 Male and 10 Female seats)
47 seaters (31 Male and 16 Female seats)
42 seaters (32 Male and 10 Female seats)
40 seaters (28 Male and 12 Female seats)
31 seaters (23 Male and 8 Female seats)
Data Compilation:After collection of the above data all the data of four cities were compiled in excel sheet. The data contained speed, maximum number of passengers per day, route length, number of stops, travel time and number of buses.
Graphs development:After insertion of all the data in excels sheets different graphs were plotted. The graphs compared various parameters of public transport and their minimum and maximum values.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONQuetta Survey DataTable 1 Quetta City Survey DataRoutes No of Passengers
(In a round trip) Date
Day
Time of survey Travel Time
Distance Traveled
No of Stops in round trip
(Avg.) Stay Time of bus in each stop
No of Buses
Headway
Sariab Road
218
26/03/2018
Monday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 140 min
31.4 Km
114 3-5 sec 28
5 min
Baleli
118
27/03/2018
Tuesday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 90 min 36 Km
48 3-5 sec 12 10 min
Brewery Road
114
28/03/2018
Wednesday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 90 min 14 Km 50 3-5 sec 12
10-15 min
Double Road
50
29/03/2018
Thursday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 30 min 9 Km 18 3-5 sec 10
10 min
Samungli Road
124
02/04/2018 Monday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 95 min 20 Km
61 3-5 sec 12
5 min
Nawakili
106
03/04/2018 Tuesday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 70 min 14 Km 48 3-5 sec 10 10 min
Kuchlak 120
04/04/2018 Wednesday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 80 min 50 Km 53 3-5 sec 10
5-10 min
Sirki Road
134
05/04/2018 Thursday 7-10 AM
12-3PM
5-7 PM 90 min 18 Km 47 3-5 sec 12
10 min
Total number of passengers per route per day is shown as below:
Table 2 Quetta City Overall Calculated DataRoutes Total number of trips per day per route
Trips by each bus Total number of passengers per route per hour Total number of passengers per route per day
Sariab Road 168 6 2616 39240
Baleli 48 4 708 10620
Brewery Road 48 4 570 7980
Double Road 180 18 300 4200
Samungli Road 84 7 744 10416
Nawakili 180 18 636 8904
Kuchlak 180 18 720 8640
Sirki and Kachra Road 180 18 804 10452
Bus Type:
42 seaters (32 Male and 10 Female seats)
51 seaters (41 Male and 10 Female seats)
40 seaters (28 Male and 12 Female seats)
47 seaters (31 Male and 16 Female seats)
31 seaters (23 Male and 8 Female seats
Bus Timings:
Buses start operating from 6:30 AM and operate till 8:30 PM.

Total 14 hours of service is provided to the passengers.

Discussions
center117411500
center12700Figure 4.1 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Quetta CityFigure 4.1 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Quetta City
The REF _Ref521459023 h Figure 4.1 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Quetta City elaborates that maximum number of passengers in Quetta city travel from Saryab Road to bazar using the bus transit system. Maximum of 218 passengers travel in a single trip whereas 39240 passengers use this medium of transport daily in route of Saryab Road. Double Road has the least number of passengers as it is linked with Saryab Road.

5803903404235Figure 4.2 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Quetta CityFigure 4.2 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Quetta Citycenter130937000
As saryab road is the longest route of the city and connects the center of the city with Hazar Ganji, an inter-city bus terminal therefore, has the largest number of passenger’s flow per hour. In the same way Double Road has the least number of passengers travelling in the route due to its shortest route length.

5803903366135Figure 4.3 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Quetta CityFigure 4.3 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Quetta Citycenter143129000
The highest number of passenger’s travel in the route of Saryab Route due to existence of University of Baluchistan, Quetta Development Authority Office, Excise and Taxation Department, Public Health Engineering and Irrigation Departments. Samungali and Airport roads also have a higher number of passenger’s flow day that is 10416 and 10620 respectively.

center154749500
center194310Figure 4.4 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per RouteFigure 4.4 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route
Buses have more trips in routes of Double Road, Sirki Road and Nawakili as routes are shorter than others. The route of Quetta-Kuchlak is 25km long but the quality of service is much better as compared to other routes therefore, has a higher number of trips per day. The routes of Quetta-Kuchlak and Saryab Road are longer as compared to others, but still 168 and 180 trips are a made respectively.

Karachi Survey Data:Routes Average No of Passengers
(In Round trip) Date
Day
Time of survey Travel Time
Distance Travelled
No of Stops
Avg. Stay Time of bus in each stop
No of Buses
Headway
Limarket Chowk to Malir Kala Board 165
05-03-18
Monday 7-10 Am
12-3 PM
5-7 PM 150 min 44 Km
38 10-15 seconds
1 minute at major junctions 14 10 min
Johar Chorangi to Saddar 146
06-03-18
Tuesday 7-10 AM
12-3 PM
5-7 PM 84 min 28 Km 41 10-15 seconds
1 minute at major junctions 16 10 min
Saddar to Sachal Goth 180
07-03-18
Wednesday 7-10 AM
12-3 PM
5-7 PM
140 min 34 Km 56 10-15 seconds
1 minute at major junctions 16 10 min
Table 3 Karachi City Survey DataTotal number of passengers per route per day is shown as below:
Table 4 Karachi City Overall Calculated DataRoutes Total number of trips per day per route
Trips by each bus Total number of passengers per route per hour Total number of passengers per route per day
Limarket Chowk to Malir Kala Board 72
6
1320
21120
Johar Chorangi to Saddar 180 10
1752
28032
Saddar to Sachal Goth 132 6
2160
34560
Total number of passengers in surveyed routes of Karachi city: 83712
Bus Types:
28 seaters
42 seaters
55 seaters
Bus Timings:
Buses start operating from 6:30 AM and operate till 9:00 PM. (Summers up to 10 PM)
Total 14 hours and 30 minutes of service is provided to the passengers

Discussions
5803903481070Figure 4.5 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Karachi CityFigure 4.5 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Karachi Citycenter13201650
In Karachi three routes were surveyed based on their similarity with major routes of Quetta city. Currently, their condition of buses, speed and quality of service is like that of Quetta, but government is soon going to start Bus Rapid Transit as the construction of routes is completed. In the present scenario, Sachal Goth and Limarket-Mallir routes have higher number of passengers that is 180 and 165 respectively. Johar Chorangi-Saddar route is also slightly different.

5803903275330Figure 4.6 Total No. Of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Karachi CityFigure 4.6 Total No. Of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Karachi Citycenter14712950
The hourly flow of passengers is higher in route of Saddar-Sachal Goth due to large number of passengers in University Road as well as existence of above than 5 universities. Saddar-Sachal Goth is also a long route passing through NIPA Chorangi and Civic Center that are major hubs of the city.

5803903275330Figure 4.7 Total No. Of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Karachi CityFigure 4.7 Total No. Of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Karachi Citycenter15074900
Due to efficient and faster coaster buses, the public transport in the route of Saddar-Sachal Goth is higher. The least passengers in a day travel in the route of Limarket-Mallir, that is 21120, due to longer route length. This route also covers Agha Khan University Hospital and Liaqat National Hospital.

5803903370580Figure 4.8 Total No. Of Trips Per Day Per Route of Karachi CityFigure 4.8 Total No. Of Trips Per Day Per Route of Karachi Citycenter15665450
The higher numbers of trips are made in the route of Johar Chorangi-Saddar. The route length is 14km. This route also passes through University Road covering major portions of the city therefore, a higher number of trips is required.

Lahore Survey Data:
Table 5 Lahore City Survey DataRoutes No of Passengers
(In round trip) Date
Day
Time of survey Travel Time
(In round trip)
Distance Traveled in Round Trip
No of Stops in round trip
(Avg.) Stay Time of bus in each stop
No of Buses
Headway
Pakka Mill to Jallo Morr124
18/01/2018
Thursday 4-7 PM 270 min 77.3 Km 92 30 secs 48
10 min
Green Town to Niazi Chowk
102
22/01/2018 Monday 7-9 AM
220 min 60.1 Km
82 30 secs 20
15 min
Green Town to Railway Station 152
17/01/2018 Wednesday 4-7 PM 220 min 60.4 Km 95 30 secs 19
15 min
Bus Stand to Airport
108
24/01/2018
Wednesday 12-3 PM
150 min
38.45 Km
70 30 secs 19
10 min
Railway Station to Valencia Town
158
15/01/2018
Monday 7-9 AM 235 min 71.32 Km
114 30 secs 25 15 min
Green Town to Airport
106
16/01/2018
Tuesday 12-3 PM
179 min 66.3 Km 89 30 secs 17
20 min
Total number of passengers per route per day is as shown below:
Table 6 Lahore City Overall Calculated DataRoutes Total number of trips per day per route
Trips by each bus Total number of passengers per route per hour Total number of passengers per route per day
Bus stand to Airport 190 10 864 13824
Railway Station to Valencia town 175 7 1264 20224
Green Town to Airprort160 8 848 13568
Pakka Mill to Jallomor288 6 992 15872
Green Town to Niazi Chowk 170 10 816 13056
Green Town to Railway Station 152 8 1216 19456
Total number of passenger in surveyed routes of Lahore city: 96000
Bus Types:
36 seaters (Air Conditioned)
40 seaters (Non- Air Conditioned)
Bus Timings:
Buses start operating from 6:00 AM and operate till 10:00 PM.

Total 16 hours of service is provided to the passengers.

Discussions
The routes of Railway Station-Valencia Town and Railway Station-Green Town have the higher number of passengers per trip that is 158 and 152 respectively. These routes connect railway station with cities major residential hubs so have a higher number of passenger’s flow. On the contrary, the routes Green Town-Niazi Chowk and Green Town-Airport are having the number of passenger’s flow per trip.580390-716280Figure 4.9 No. of Passengers in A Round Trip of Lahore CityFigure 4.9 No. of Passengers in A Round Trip of Lahore Citycenter13887450
Railway station-Valencia Town and Green Town-Railway Station also have the higher number of per hour passenger flow, while, the least number of passengers are in the route of Green town-Niazi Chowk.580390-692785Figure 4.10 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Lahore CityFigure 4.10 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Lahore Citycenter15290800
5803903448685Figure 4.11 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Lahore CityFigure 4.11 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Lahore Citycenter12369800
More than 20224 passengers daily travel along the route of Railway Station-Valencia Town. It can be seen that the distribution of passengers among all the routes is almost similar. The quality of service is comfortable therefore; people prefer the public transport system of Lahore Transport Company.
Pakka Mill-Jallomor has the highest number of trips due to its shorter route length of 38.6Km. Green Town-Airport have the least number of trips. Number of trips in all the other routes except Pakka Mill-Jallomor is similar due to approximately equal route lengths and increased number of buses in longer routes. The number of passengers is dependent upon the number of trips in each route.580390-890270Figure 4.12 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route of Lahore CityFigure 4.12 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route of Lahore Citycenter11576050
Peshawar Survey Data:Table 7 Peshawar City Survey DataRoutes No of Passengers
(In Round Trip) Date
Day
Time of survey Travel Time
Distance Traveled
No of Stops
(Avg.) Stay Time of bus in each stop
No of Buses
Head-way
Bus Stand to Karkhana
138
12/01/2018
Friday 7-10 Am
12-3 PM
5-7 PM
160 min
32 Km
25 3-5 sec 36
5 min
Bus Stand to Haji Camp
87
15/01/2018
Monday 7-10 Am
12-3 PM
5-7 PM 60 min 12 Km
16 3-5 sec 16 5 min

Total number of passengers per route per day is as shown below:
Table 8 Peshawar City Overall Calculated DataRoutes Total number of trips per day per route
Trips by each bus Total number of passengers per route per hour Total number of passengers per route per day
Peshawar Bus Stand to Karkhana
144
6
3312
52992
Peshawar Bus Stand to Haji Camp
256
16
2088
33408
Total number of passengers in surveyed routes of Peshawar city: 86400
Bus Types:
40 seaters (28 Male and 12 Female seats)
47 seaters (31 Male and 16 Female seats)
Bus Timings:
Buses start operating from 6:00 AM and operate till 10:00 PM.

Total 16 hours of service is provided to the passengers.

Discussions
5803903507740Figure 4.13 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Peshawar CityFigure 4.13 No. of Passengers in a Round Trip of Peshawar Citycenter114363500
In Peshawar, two major routes were surveyed based on their similarity with major routes in Quetta. The similarity was based on speed, trip length and number of passengers per trip. Higher number of passenger’s travels per trip in the route of Peshawar Bus Stand-Karkhana.

In route of PBS-Karkhana 3312 passengers travel per hour while in route to Haji Camp 2068 passengers. It takes 160 minutes to complete a round trip and passes through major roads covering commercial hubs of the city.

580390-2456815Figure 4.14 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Peshawar CityFigure 4.14 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Hour of Peshawar Citycenter150939500
The number of passengers per day in route of PBS-Karkhana is higher than any other route in the country that is 52992. A main reason behind this is non-availability of any other alternate means of transport in other areas connected to this route.580390-871220Figure 4.15 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Peshawar CityFigure 4.15 Total No. of Passengers Per Route Per Day of Peshawar Citycenter11766550
5803903271520Figure 4.16 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route of Peshawar CityFigure 4.16 Total No. of Trips Per Day Per Route of Peshawar Citycenter146748500
The route length of Haji Camp is 12Km and therefore have a higher number of trips per day. In the same way, there is no other mean of an economical transport, so the buses have to make a higher number of trips to fulfill the need of the citizens.

Inter Cities Qualitative Comparison of Public Transport Systems:
Four routes of all four cities were selected and their average data was compared. The following parameters of all four routes were compared:
4851403302635Figure 4.17 Average No. of Passengers Per Day (Inter-Cities)Figure 4.17 Average No. of Passengers Per Day (Inter-Cities)center1494790
The REF _Ref521460181 h Figure 4.17 Average No. of Passengers Per Day (Inter-Cities) shows that in Peshawar city the route of PBS-Karkhana has the most number of passengers among other cities that is 52992 passengers per day. It is because the city lacks a proper a bus transit system currently and is mostly dependent on paratransit modes of transport. Therefore, people prefer bus transport as it is economical for them. On the contrary, Lahore’s Bus Stand-Airport route has the least number of passengers as compared to average number of passengers of other cities. In Quetta city, Kuchlak route buses are the average based on number of passengers due to their efficient service as compared to other routes in the city.
5803903409315Figure 4.18 Speed in km/h (Inter-Cities)Figure 4.18 Speed in km/h (Inter-Cities)center1314450
Among average speeds of different cities, the speed of Kuchlak route in Quetta is faster as compared to the other three routes of Lahore, Karachi and Peshawar. Kuchlak route bus has an average speed of 30Km/h while on the other end in Karachi Limarket-Malir route has the average speed among other routes of Karachi city. From all the collected data of all four cities the average speed of Karachi and Lahore are on the routes of Limarket-Malir and Bus Stand-Airport.
Table 9 Buses Condition Evaluation ParameterBus Condition Scale Value (out of 10) Description
Excellent 10 Latest model buses, Air Conditioned, Maximum standing area, Comfortable for ride
Good 8 Latest Model Buses, Non-air conditioned, Maximum standing area, Comfortable ride
Fair 6 Old model buses, Good seating area, Uncomfortable ride, Less standing area
Uncomfortable 4 Old model buses, Poor seating condition, Uncomfortable ride, Less standing area
Very Poor 2 Old modeled and small sized buses, Less standing area, Uncomfortable to ride
In comparison of different parameters of the public transport services the bus condition is crucial. It has a critical impact on all other parameters and passengers prefer bus transits with more comfortable service. In the REF _Ref521460360 h Figure 4.19 Buses Condition (Inter-Cities) bus condition is marked on the basis of the fulfillment of REF _Ref521460886 h Table 9 Buses Condition Evaluation Parameter conditions.

center128905000
5899154594860Figure 4.19 Buses Condition (Inter-Cities)Figure 4.19 Buses Condition (Inter-Cities)
In the measurement of the above-mentioned criteria the buses in the route of Bus Stand-Airport in Lahore city had the best quality of service with a score of 9 as shown in the REF _Ref521460360 h Figure 4.19 Buses Condition (Inter-Cities). The buses on this route fulfilled all the requirements of having maximum seating capacity, air-conditioned service and comfortable ride. The buses of PBS-Karkhana in Peshawar and Limarket-Mallir had an uncomfortable ride with old conditioned buses and poor ride. These buses also emit harmful gases that effect human health. In Quetta, the buses in Kuchlak route had fair quality service with non-air-conditioned buses but good seating capacity. The speed of these buses also satisfied the passengers as they could reach their destinations in lesser time as compared to other buses operating in the same route.

-295275-26670000
21094709262745Figure 4.20 Inner View of Current Operational LTC Bus of Lahore CityFigure 4.20 Inner View of Current Operational LTC Bus of Lahore City213804572497950-2476506496685Figure 4.21 Inner View of Current Operational Bus of Quetta CityFigure 4.21 Inner View of Current Operational Bus of Quetta City-2381254719320022174204144645Figure 4.22 Outer View of Current Operational LTC Bus of Lahore CityFigure 4.22 Outer View of Current Operational LTC Bus of Lahore City2217420223329500-3048001635760Figure 4.23 Outer View of Current Operational Bus of Quetta CityFigure 4.23 Outer View of Current Operational Bus of Quetta City
In route of Bus Stand-Airport in Lahore city the buses had maximum stops as the route length is longer than other cities as well as the stops are shorter distant. In Peshawar, the Bus Stand-Karkhana route had the minimum number of stops as the stops are longer distant and people use para-transit mode from their bus stops. In Karachi city, the buses prefer to stop at major junctions rather than at shorter distances as the routes are longer as compared to other cities.580390-983615Figure 4.24 No. of Stops in Round Trip (Inter-Cities)Figure 4.24 No. of Stops in Round Trip (Inter-Cities)center1652905
Fares in Sariab-Bazar route in Quetta depend upon the distance that a passenger covers. Secondly, it is not monitored by any government transport authority like in Lahore. In Lahore, the passengers travel more distance in same fare that covers less distance in Quetta. In Karachi, the fares are lesser due to economic condition of the passengers.

580390-2748915Figure 4.25 Fare in Rupees (Inter-Cities)Figure 4.25 Fare in Rupees (Inter-Cities)center1515110
5803903267075Figure 4.26 Travel Time in Round Trip (Inter-Cities)Figure 4.26 Travel Time in Round Trip (Inter-Cities)center1463040
In Lahore, the route of Bus Stand-Airport takes more travel time as compared to other cities. The main cause is longer route length and stops on the way to destination. A bus covers many areas and hence, takes more time to reach the end point. In contrary to this, buses in other cities follow a single route therefore, take lesser time. Pishin Stop-Kuchlak route in Quetta takes the least time among all other compared routes of other cities as the buses have a higher speed of up to 30Km/h.

Comparison of Minimum Data and Maximum Data:In this phase of analysis of data various aspects were analyzed. The minimum data and maximum data of all parameters were studied.

Among all compared routes of all cities the least passengers in Quetta were in route of Double Road-Bazar, that was 50 in a trip. In the same way, in Lahore the least passengers were in route of Airport-Green Town and in Karachi the least passengers in a trip were in route of Johar Chowrangi-Saddar. Peshawar had the least number of passengers in trip in route of Bus Stand-Haji Camp that was 44. Karachi had the most number of 146 passengers in a trip among all others compared.580390-880745Figure 4.27 No. of Passengers (Minimum)Figure 4.27 No. of Passengers (Minimum)center1178560
5803903400425Figure 4.28 No. of Passengers (Maximum)Figure 4.28 No. of Passengers (Maximum)center1305560
The route of Sariab-Bazar in Quetta city had the maximum number of passengers in round trip and was equal to 218. On the other end, the route of Jallo Mor to Pakka Mill in Lahore city had the maximum number of passengers as compare to other routes of the city. This is because this route a longer route length and covers more stops than other routes. Karachi is the city with largest population of the country but has many other private means of transport used by people and therefore has lesser passengers than that of Quetta. The Limarket-Malir route passes through Agha Khan route and covers major hospitals and shopping malls, thus, having passengers up to 185 in a round trip. In Peshawar, the highest number of passengers in a round trip was in the route of Bus Stand-Karkhana.
The route of Double Road-Bazar has the shortest route length that is 9Km. In Lahore routes are longer as they cover major junctions. The shortest route in Lahore city is of Bus Stand-Airport. The route of Bus Stand-Haji Camp in Peshawar has the shortest route length. Johar Chowrangi –Saddar in Karachi has a route length of 28Km and is shortest amongst all other routes surveyed in Karachi city. 580390-848360Figure 4.29 Route Length in Km (Minimum)Figure 4.29 Route Length in Km (Minimum)center1490345
The longest route length in a round trip of Quetta city was Pishin Stop-Kuchlak route. It is because it covers Airport Road, one of the longest routes within the city, and its destination is in outskirts of the city area i.e. Kuchlak. In the same, among the routes of Lahore city Valencia Town and Railway Town a far distant as compared to other routes. The round-trip route length is about 78.4Km and is also the longest among the other routes of compared cities. In Karachi city, the route of Malir-Limarket starts from Hub Chowki Stop in Limarket and ends at Malir-15, connecting to far away towns of the city and has a route length of 44Km. Peshawar’s Bus Stand-Karkhana route is also the second longest among the compared routes of these cities and longest of Peshawar city. It has a round trip route length of 64Km and route length is 32Km in one way. 580390-810260Figure 4.30 Route Length in Km (Maximum)Figure 4.30 Route Length in Km (Maximum)center1528445
5803903322955Figure 4.31 Speed in km/h (Minimum)Figure 4.31 Speed in km/h (Minimum)center1518920
The buses in Bus Stand-Haji Camp route of Peshawar had the least speed among other compared routes of the city. In Quetta, the route of Sariab-Bazar had the least speed of 13.5Km which is also least among all other cities being compared with. Niazi Chwok-Green Town in Lahore had the least speed among all other routes of the city. It had a minimum speed of 18Km/h. in the same way, in Karachi city Limarket-Malir route had a speed like that of Quetta and was 14Km/h.

5803903528060Figure 4.32Speed in km/h (Maximum)Figure 4.32Speed in km/h (Maximum)center-7683500
The buses in Kuchlak route of Quetta had the fastest speed among the other routes of the city as well as among the other cities being compared. These buses have a destination outside the city therefore; have a speed of 30Km/h. the buses of Lahore and Peshawar almost have similar speeds up to 25Km/h. The buses operating in Lahore are latest models with better speed. The buses in Karachi are 1974 models and thus, have a slow speed as compared to other cities.

5803903470910Figure 4.33 No. of Stops (Minimum)Figure 4.33 No. of Stops (Minimum)center1376045
The Double Road-Bazar route in Quetta is the shortest and has the least number of stops of equal 18. In the same way, in Peshawar the Bus Stand-Haji Camp route has the least number of stops equal to 18. Among the routes of Lahore city, the Bus Stand-Airport route has the least number of 70 stops. In Lahore, most the of the buses follow long routes and cover major junctions due to which they take more stops. Furthermore, in Karachi, the Johar Chorangi-Saddar route has the least stops of 38 and it depends upon the time of travel as well. In office hours, buses take more stops as compared to other timings.

5803903400425Figure 4.34 No. of Stops (Maximum)Figure 4.34 No. of Stops (Maximum)center1305560
The numbers of stops have a critical impact in decreasing the speed of a bus. The buses operating in Sariab-Bazar route of Quetta city have the most number of stops in a complete round trip in Quetta city. Though its route length is not equal to that of Lahore, but both have equal number of stops i.e. 114. In Karachi, the maximum numbers of stops are in the route of Sadar-Sachal Goth and in Peshawar in route of Bus Stand-Karkhana which are 56 and 23 respectively.

5803903390900Figure 4.35 Travel Time (Minimum)Figure 4.35 Travel Time (Minimum)center1586865
Buses of Airport-Bus Stand route in Lahore take the least time among other routes of the city to reach the destination due to a shorter route length and lesser stops as compared to other routes. In Quetta city, the Double Road-Bazar route takes the least time to reach end point and is equal to 30. The other routes are of Johar Chorangi-Saddar and Bus Stand-Haji Camp of Karachi and Peshawar which take 84 and 61 minutes, respectively.

5803903480435Figure 4.36 Travel Time (Maximum)Figure 4.36 Travel Time (Maximum)center1385570
Travel time is of a complete round trip. In Quetta, Sariab-Bazar route buses take 70 minutes in one side and 140 minutes to complete a round trip. The maximum travel time among all the routes of the four cities being compared is of Valencia Town-Railway Station in Lahore. Its route length is almost 39Km and buses have maximum number of stops. In the same, the travel time of a trip of the routes of Karachi and Peshawar’s Limarket-Malir and Bus Stand-Karakhana routes are almost equal and buses take 150 minutes to complete a round trip.

5803903300095Figure 4.37 No. of Buses (Minimum)Figure 4.37 No. of Buses (Minimum)center1205230
The least buses were running in route of Double Road-Bazar in Quetta city and were 10. In Lahore, the least buses were 17 in route of Bus Stand-Airport. Limarket-Malir and Bus Stand-Haji Camp routes of Karachi and Peshawar had 14 and 16 buses respectively and were the least among the other routes being compared of these cities.

5803903466465Figure 4.38 No. of Buses (Maximum)Figure 4.38 No. of Buses (Maximum)center1371600
The numbers of buses are greater in route of Valencia Town-Railway Station, which are 48. REF _Ref521462145 h Figure 4.38 No. of Buses (Maximum) the route of Valencia Town is larger among all routes of the country. In city of Quetta, Sariab-Bazar route is larger and thus has most number of buses equal to 28. This route also transports most number of passengers in the city. In the same way, in Karachi the route of Saddar-Sachal Goth has the most number of buses as compared to other routes surveyed in the city. Peshawar’s Bus Stand-Karkhana route has the most number of buses in the city and has the most passengers transporting capability.

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS In this research, the maximum number of passengers using the public transport system in Quetta was found to be 100452, which are 4.7% of the current 2.1 million population of the city. This shows that currently a small proportion of the population uses the public transport due to its in-efficient service.

The speed of buses in Quetta city was the least as compared to other in Pakistan i.e. 13.5-15Km/h. This shows a slower movement of passengers in Quetta as compared to other three cities.

The longest public transport route was of Railway Station-Valencia Town Lahore which was having a 78.4Km of trip length.
Maximum numbers of passengers per trip were found in route of Sariab Road Quetta that was 218. This shows that it has more passenger flow per direction due to existence of University and government offices in the route.
Buses operating in Sariab Road Quetta and Railway Station-Valencia Town Lahore had the maximum number of stops that were 114 in a trip. This shows that these routes cover major hubs of their respective cities.

In Quetta, the maximum travel time was taken in route of Sariab Road that was 140 minutes while the maximum travel time throughout the country was of Railway Station-Valencia Town Lahore i.e. 266 minutes. This shows that these routes are longer as well as have maximum number of stops that causes delay in time taken.

In Quetta, the maximum number of buses were operating in route of Sariab Road i.e. 28 and in whole Pakistan, the maximum number of buses were in Railway Station-Valencia Town Lahore that were 48. This shows that due to huge number of passengers these routes have increased number of buses.
The design speed of the current buses should be increased up to 25Km/H according to Union International Des Transport Public (UITP) standards.
An intra-city bus terminal, operated a local transport authority, would be helpful in controlling the operations of the buses throughout the city located at Colvin Road Quetta.

A Light Rail Transit System (LRT) could be designed along the existing railway tracks of the city as these pass through the center of the city covering all major hubs of the city as well as it has a Right of Way (ROW) of 90ft, that provides enough space for LRT.
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